Dietary micronutrient levels in HIV+ smokers and local alveolar immune function

Thumbnail Image



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


The Ohio State University

Research Projects

Organizational Units

Journal Issue


Rationale: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence has been correlated with increased immune suppression in the alveolar cells of HIV+ smokers. While smokers are urged to increase dietary intake of vitamin C, the effect of other nutrients, specifically antioxidants, on the immune function of alveolar cells in HIV+ smokers with compromised lung health has not been addressed. Some evidence suggests that greater consumption of antioxidant nutrients is linked to improved lung function. Our initial work demonstrated significant correlations between dietary antioxidants and lung function in a population of HIV+ smokers prior to smoking cessation. Objective: To determine the association between alveolar immune suppression and dietary antioxidant intake in an HIV seropositive population (n=43) before smoking cessation. Methods: Immune suppression was assessed using regulation of TLR-2, TLR-4 and NOD-1, NOD-2, and LL-37 (cathelicidin). Dietary records, from 24-hour recalls, analyzed with nutrient analysis software (NDS-R V.2011) were employed to establish antioxidant nutrient consumption and were obtained at baseline. Linear regression models were fit for each diet/host defense molecule comparison. The models were controlled for age, gender, and cotinine level. Results: The population was 81.81% male and 61.4% white with a mean age of 43.1 (s=9.68). No significant correlation between dietary antioxidant intake and innate immune function was found. Antioxidant vitamin consumption within this population on average was consistently lower than national RDA guidelines. Mean intakes of vitamin D, vitamin C, and vitamin E were 33%, 84%, and 70% of RDA levels respectively. Only vitamin A needs were met by the study population. All copper, iron, magnesium, and zinc RDA requirements were exceeded. Conclusions: Although no relationship was established between dietary antioxidant intake and key host defense molecule regulation in alveolar macrophages, further studies are needed to determine whether changes in diet over time are related to macrophage expression.



Micronutrients, HIV, Smoker, Alveolar, PRR