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dc.creatorXu, X.
dc.creatorPeng, X.
dc.creatorSumption, M.
dc.creatorCollings, E.
dc.identifier.citationPublished version: IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity (Volume: 27, Issue: 4, June 2017) Article Sequence Number: 6000105.
dc.description.abstractThe internal oxidation technique can generate ZrO2 nano particles in Nb3Sn strands, which markedly refine the Nb3Sn grain size and boost the high-field critical current density (Jc). This article summarizes recent efforts on implementing this technique in practical Nb3Sn wires and adding Ti as a dopant. It is demonstrated that this technique can be readily incorporated into the present Nb3Sn conductor manufacturing technology. Powder-in-tube (PIT) strands with fine subelements (~25 μm) based on this technique were successfully fabricated, and proper heat treatments for oxygen transfer were explored. Future work for producing strands ready for applications is proposed.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported in part by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of High Energy Physics, SBIR phase I grant DE-SC0013849.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontentsExperiments for adding Ti show that either oxygen or Ti source must be away from the Sn core to avoid formation of TiO2. It is revealed that oxygen transfer can occur via atmosphere between oxide powder and Nb-1%Zr, while contact between them is not required. Fabrication of PIT strands with fine filaments was successful, and proper heat treatments were proposed for oxygen transfer. However, there are still some problems to be solved in order for present PIT strands to be practically applicable.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted. For any other purposes, permission must be obtained from the IEEE by emailing
dc.subjectinternal oxidationen_US
dc.titleRecent Progress in Application of Internal Oxidation Technique in Nb3Sn Strandsen_US

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