Optimizing a Functional Snack for Clinical Trials: Soy and Safflower Soft Pretzels
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Publisher:The Ohio State University
Series/Report no.:The Ohio State University. Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering Honors Theses; 2015
The Ohio State University. Department of Food Science and Technology Honors Theses; 2015
Consider the calorie dense, nutrient poor, soft pretzel commonly enjoyed at sports events and shopping malls. By the inclusion of safflower oil and soy ingredients, pretzels can be a nutrient and phytochemical rich snack food. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the inclusion of safflower and soy into a pretzel formulation acceptable for clinical trials. Formulations were assessed based on clinical dosage of soy and safflower ingredients in addition to pretzel quality. Instrumental surrogates of pretzel quality (texture profile analysis, crumb moisture, and un-freezable water) were evaluated by comparing soy and safflower pretzels to control, wheat pretzels. Soy ingredients (3:1, soy flour:soymilk) were analyzed at 30, 40, and 50% (dry basis) while safflower oil was tested at 10, 20, and 30% of the pretzel formulation. Pretzel replicates (n=9) from three separate batches per formulation were frozen and thawed before testing. The physicochemical properties of pretzel samples were characterized using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer to measure moisture content, differential scanning calorimeter to measure freezable (FW) and un-freezable (UFW) water, and Instron (texture profile analysis) to measure crumb texture. Results showed that as soy concentration increased, measures of UFW and hardness increased. The increase in UFW retards pretzel staling while crumb hardness diminishes the sensory quality of the pretzels. As safflower oil concentration increased, pretzel hardness decreased. Safflower oil did not impact FW or UFW. Therefore, the 40% soy and 30% safflower pretzel formulation was chosen as the best compromise of UFW and hardness as well as a sufficient dosage vehicle in dietary intervention trials. Future sensory trials will be used to confirm the acceptability of this formulation and to finalize the formulation for use in clinical trials investigating the impact of soy ingredients and safflower oil pretzel snacks in obese women with metabolic syndrome.
2015 Denman 4th Place Honorable Mention
Academic Major: Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering
College of Engineering Undergraduate Research Scholarship Fund
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