Comparison in physicochemical attributes changes between soy pretzels made with various saturated lipids at 10% or 40% oil concentration
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Series/Report no.:2016 Richard J. and Martha D. Denman Undergraduate Research Forum. 21st
Pretzels, traditionally made with 3-6% shortening, is popular snack in America resulting in over 500 million in sales in 2010. Thus incorporating ingredients shown to decrease biomarkers of obesity in this popular snack food may provide an excellent means of enhancing nutrition. In previous studies, high safflower-oil diets induced fat-mass reduction by influencing lipogenesis and lipid metabolism gene expression; while thermogenesis, rate body generates heat, was affected differently due to different saturated level fatty-acids consumed. Soy protein was observed to inhibit insulin resistance regardless of high fat diet, commonly associated with potential diabetic concerns. The objective was to select a type and amount of lipid that will least affect the texture and water distribution of a optimized soy pretzel. Changes in amount, composition (chain-length, degree of saturation) and crystalline polymorph of added lipid affect the pretzels physicochemically and may lead to undesirable food products. Therefore, we hypothesized that higher concentration and degree of saturation of lipids will significantly decrease the physical structure of soy pretzels, and change their water distribution. Soy pretzels were formulated with 4 types of lipids: Ghee(G), shortening(S), coconut-oil(CO), and high oleic safflower-oil(SO) at concentrations of 10% and 40%. Instrumental analysis was conducted in triplicate for “freezable” water and textural attributes (hardness, springiness and chewiness). Significant decrease in all 3 textural attributes were observed between10% and 40% with CO, G and S least to most respectively, but not SO. Lipid composition had no significant functional difference at 10%, but at 40% functional difference divided them to 3 groups (CO; G and S; SO). As hypothesized, safflower oil, rich in mono-unsaturated triglycerides, changed the least in texture properties compared to saturated fats, and showed a reduction of percent “freezable” water in soy pretzel. Thus a safflower oil/soy pretzel will be utilized in future human clinical trials.
Agriculture/Ecological/Environmental Science (The Ohio State University Denman Undergraduate Research Forum)
Academic Major: Food Science and Technology
Dr. Vodovotz Lab