Parental Knowledge and Behavior about Poison Prevention: A Study of Group versus Individual Education
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Publisher:The Ohio State University
Series/Report no.:The Ohio State University. College of Nursing Honors Theses; 2005
BACKGROUND: Children under the age of 6 annually account for 1 million childhood poisonings in the United States. The purpose of this study is to determine differences in poison prevention knowledge and behaviors between caregivers receiving “Be Poison Smart!®” education via individual education and those caregivers receiving group education. NURSING IMPLICATIONS: This study will help determine which education style (group or individual) will more positively impact caregivers and provide guidance to public health nurses concerning the delivery of poison prevention educational interventions. METHODS: Using the “Do You Know How to Be Poison Smart?®” Evaluation Tool, 40 caregivers, recruited from Women, Infant and Children clinics, were assessed on their knowledge of poison prevention education based on a pre and post-test score. The pre-test tool, “Do You Know How to Be Poison Smart?®”, is a 32 question survey designed to elicit baseline knowledge and behaviors related to poison safety. Twelve questions elicit knowledge information and 10 questions are directed at caregiver poison prevention behaviors, the remaining 10 questions involve demographic information. The post-test is the same questionnaire, without the demographic information. Participants must have been caregivers to children under 6 years old, at least 21 years old, spoke and read English, and have a mailing address. Participants may not have previously participated in the program. Twenty caregivers received the “Be Poison Smart!®” education in an individual setting and 20 in the group setting, six groups of three participants each and one group of two. The pre-test was given before the program and the post-test was mailed 4 weeks later. Nine participants of the individual education responded and 10 of the group education participants responded. The numbers of poison prevention knowledge questions answered correctly on the Evaluation Tool were summed for a total knowledge score, and the number of correct poison prevention behavior questions were summed for a total behavior score. T-tests and Chi Square statistics were used to determine differences between groups on pre and post-test scores on poison prevention knowledge and behavior. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between receiving the “Be Poison Smart!®” education individually or as a group. A significant improvement was found in both the knowledge and behavior scores when results from all pre-post participants were combined. Poison prevention knowledge scores increased from 6.89 to 8.79, t (18, N = 19) = 0.301, p = 0.001. Poison prevention behaviour scores increased from 6.68 to 7.47, t (18, N = 19) = 0.686, p = 0.01. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that poison prevention education can be taught either individually or in a small group and such education will positively impact the poison prevention knowledge and behavior of caregivers.
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