Turkey’s National Struggle: Contrasting Contemporary Views and Understandings

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Title: Turkey’s National Struggle: Contrasting Contemporary Views and Understandings
Creators: Howard, David R.
Advisor: Findley, Carter V.
Issue Date: 2011-06
Abstract: After the First World War, one of the more controversial, mind-changing events of the early twentieth-century occurred. The majority of the world considered the Turkish people to be finished and defeated, but the Turkish National Struggle (1919-1922) proved this opinion quite wrong. The Turks were the only defeated people of the World War to force a rewriting of the peace terms imposed on them at Versailles. This paper examines the factors behind this successful national movement and the birth of the Republic of Turkey by offering comparative insights into contemporary accounts of the National Struggle. This understanding of the subject will involve analysis and comparison of primary sources (in English) representing several different viewpoints of the period. Among the primary sources that will be examined are those of Rafael de Nogales Méndez, a Venezuelan mercenary; Grace Ellison, an English journalist; Ahmed Emin Yalman, a Turkish journalist and nationalist; Arnold Toynbee, an English scholar and historian; Halide Edib (Adıvar), a Turkish nationalist and writer; and A. A. Pallis, a Greek administrative officer. These observers imply a variety of reasons to explain the success of the Turkish Nationalists, including, among other factors, Turkish / Nationalist will and spirit, dynamic leadership, rivalries between and poor intelligence and lack of support for Turkey’s opponents, and the Greek landing at Smyrna.
Embargo: No embargo
Series/Report no.: The Ohio State University. Department of History Honors Theses; 2011
Keywords: Turkish Nationalist Struggle
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1811/48943
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