The Journal of Higher Education Supplementary Materials

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Founded in 1930, The Journal of Higher Education is the leading scholarly journal on the institution of higher education. Articles combine disciplinary methods with critical insight to investigate issues important to faculty, administrators, and program managers.

The supplemental data in this collection corresponds with cited articles in JHE and provides readers with a deeper look into the information presented by the authors.


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    Supplementary Appendices for "The Outcomes of the American Renaissance Student"
    (Taylor & Francis, 2024) Lingo, Mitchell D.; An, Brian P.
    As standardized tests continue to wane in the influence of college admissions, higher education institutions use other sociocultural and academic signals to determine the “right” fit for their institution. Extracurricular activities (EAs) that students and parents cultivate throughout high school help provide these signals. Though researchers typically consider the intensity (total hours) and breadth (number of EAs) in their analyzes, few consider EAs as a portfolio. Qualitative studies highlight how parents develop a cultural omnivore steeped in the traditions of the Athenian ideal of arts, athletics, and academics, known as the Renaissance student. Using data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this quantitative study examines how students are concurrently involved in art, athletic, and academic EAs during the 12th grade in high school. Compared to other college-going students, Renaissance students are more likely to attend highly selective institutions, participate in institutionally sponsored college athletics, and graduate with a bachelor’s degree.
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    Supplementary Appendices for "Electoral Accountability for Rising Tuition in the US: Evidence from a Survey Experiment and Observational Data"
    (Taylor & Francis, 2023) Mukasheva, Zhamilya; Collignon, Sofia; Hackett, Ursula
    Tuition levels in the US have been rising at an above-the-inflation pace, leading to spiraling student debt levels and negative effects on students’ well-being. While student outcomes of rising tuition are well known, the political reasons behind the decisions of policy makers to contain tuition increases or not remain poorly understood. In this article, we focus on electoral accountability that policy makers face for rising tuition by examining voters' reactions. Using a survey experiment with a sample of US adults (N = 1040), we show that clarity of responsibility is an important factor affecting reactions to rising tuition levels. When voters are informed about the role of the government in tuition setting, they are more likely to vote out policy makers responsible for cuts in funding. We show a similar relationship in observational data using a nationally representative survey from Cooperative Congressional Election Study. State governors' approval is lower in states where tuition levels increased recently, and the relationship is moderated by the visibility of government in tuition-setting. By demonstrating that policy makers face repercussions for rising tuition but are able to avoid blame in certain conditions, we contribute to scholarly understanding of preferences of policy makers in higher education.
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    Supplemental Appendix for "Delivering on the Promise: The Role of Supplemental Promise Programs in Reducing Barriers to College Success"
    (Taylor & Francis, 2023) Dickason, Christine N.; Heinrich, Carolyn; Smith, Mary
    As college promise programs proliferate across the country, supplemental promise programs are emerging to fill gaps in services and resources critical for student success, particularly for students with greater economic needs. This mixed-methods study examines the implementation and efficacy of two such programs in Tennessee, Nashville GRAD and Knox Promise, which are distinct in their approaches to providing financial and advising supports to community college students. Findings from interviews with students and program staff suggest that students saw the additional financial supports and interactions with advisers as critical to their continued success. Using administrative data, we further explored the pathways to improved outcomes — college progression (credits earned) and persistence to the next term or academic year — and found that the intensity of student engagement with their advisors and use of program benefits (e.g. textbook and transportation supports) were positively associated with these college outcomes.
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    Supplemental Appendix for "Developmental Trajectories and Predictors of Psychological Well-Being and Distress Across the College Years"
    (Taylor & Francis, 2023) Conley, Colleen S.; Huguenel, Brynn M.; Shapiro, Jenna B.; Kirsch, Alexandra C.
    Psychological well-being and distress are critical components of college adjustment that are intricately entwined with student retention and success during and after college. This 5-wave longitudinal study used growth mixture modeling to explore heterogeneous trajectories of psychological well-being (self-esteem) and distress (depression, anxiety, stress) spanning just before college to the end of the fourth year. Students (N = 5,537) most commonly were best characterized by trajectories of stable positive or moderate adjustment, though some were better characterized by trajectories of low or variable adjustment. These latter subgroups may represent the highest-need students, for whom identifying pre-college risk and protective factors is crucial. Some notable differences emerged in trajectories for women versus men. Further, several individual characteristics at the cusp of college predicted these four-year trajectories. The strongest psychological functioning predictors were self-esteem, distress, and stress (less consistently, resilience and self-efficacy). The most predictive cognitive-affective strategy was avoidant emotional coping, followed by cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression (less consistently, problem-focused and active emotional coping). Social well-being factors that best differentiated adjustment trajectories were general social support, followed by support from family and then from friends. These findings have implications for targeting at-risk students upon university arrival to promote optimal long-term adjustment.
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    Supplemental Appendices for "Horizontal and Vertical Racial Segregation in Higher Education: Examining Trends in California Public Colleges"
    (Taylor & Francis, 2022) Baker, Rachel B.; Solanki, Sabrina M.; Kang, Connie
    Conceptualizing and measuring trends in segregation in higher education is difficult as both vertical and horizontal sorting is prevalent and patterns vary across racial groups. In this paper, we measure various trends in racial segregation in California for 20 years. We find significant sorting by race both between and within sectors of higher education, though the overall levels of segregation are lower in California's colleges than they are in California's high schools. These trends have and remained relatively stable over time. We also find important differences between groups. We see that most Latinx-White and Black-White segregation is due to students attending different schools within the same sector, while Asian-White segregation is increasingly due to students attending schools in different sectors. We also find evidence that policy and structural changes, such as opening a new campus, can affect patterns of segregation across and within sectors.
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    Supplemental Appendix for "The Enrollment of Racially Minoritized Students in Law School: Factors Predicting Within-School Changes Over Time"
    (Taylor & Francis, 2022) Bowman, Nicholas A.; Stroup, Nicholas R.; Fenton-Miller, Solomon
    Given the substantial lack of racial diversity within the U.S. legal profession, it is important to understand how to improve the representation of racially minoritized students at law schools. This study uses panel data from the 2010s to consider several types of factors that may shape the number and percentage of incoming law school students from several racially minoritized groups: finances (regarding financial aid and cost of attendance), demographic representation (of current students, faculty, and community members), and rankings (from U.S. News). The results of fixed effects analyses revealed that increases in the representation of Latinx and Asian students as well as Faculty of Color predict subsequent decreases in the percentage of incoming racially minoritized students, which suggests that law schools' efforts to recruit racially minoritized students may depend on recent changes in student and faculty representation. Moreover, increases in the ingroup racial representation within the state (in which the law school is primarily housed) and U.S. News rankings are both associated with greater subsequent numbers of incoming Black and Latinx law students; the provision of conditional scholarships and the combined total of tuition and fees are also significant predictors. These findings have salient implications for policy and practice.
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    Supplemental Appendix for "Gender Equity and Due Process in Campus Sexual Assault Adjudication Procedures"
    (Taylor & Francis, 2022) Porter, Kamaria B.; Levitsky, Sandra R.; Armstrong, Elizabeth A.
    Title IX prohibits sex discrimination in federally funded education programs. In 2011, the Department of Education under President Obama issued a Dear Colleague Letter (DCL) advising schools of their obligation to protect Title IX rights by more effectively responding to campus sexual assault. Many observers hoped that this would promote gender equity. Yet it also generated a backlash, as critics charged schools with stripping accused students of due process rights in campus adjudication procedures. We conducted content analysis of the 2016–17 sexual misconduct policies of 381 American colleges and universities to analyze how well adjudication procedures created in response to the DCL attended to both gender equity and due process requirements. The state of adjudication at this pivotal moment provides an empirical baseline from which to assess equity in university sexual misconduct procedures. We found that most school procedures for investigating and adjudicating complaints of sexual misconduct included hybrid models that incorporated due process protections while acknowledging (but often not fully meeting) Title IX obligations. To our knowledge, this is the only large-scale national study of how schools have reconciled Title IX and due process rights in adjudication procedures.
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    Supplemental Appendix for Policy in Theory and Policy in Practice: Community College Students’ Perceptions of Cross-Enrollment
    (Taylor & Francis, 2022) Taylor, Emily; Bañuelos, Maricela; Park, Elizabeth S.; Cabrera, Jennifer; Fagioli, Loris; Baker, Rachel B.
    Most community college (CC) students nationwide aspire to transfer from CC to a 4-year baccalaureate granting institution, yet most students who aspire to transfer never achieve this goal. Cross-enrollment, facilitated enrollment in a course at a four-year college while simultaneously enrolled in classes at a CC, is one policy that may increase transfer rates. Our study is motivated by low uptake of this opportunity. We conducted 12 semistructured focus groups with a diverse sample of California CC students to understand their perceptions related to cross-enrollment opportunities. Three themes emerged from our study: (1) cross-enrollment information is inaccessible, (2) sense of belonging and self-efficacy influence student perceptions of cross-enrollment, and (3) cross-enrollment is met with both enthusiasm and apprehension. We discuss the challenges and benefits to cross-enrollment that students consider and several recommendations, suggested by students themselves, to reduce barriers to cross-enrollment and transfer pathways.
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    Supplemental Appendix for The Privilege of Choice: How Prospective College Students’ Financial Concerns Influence Their Choice of Higher Education Institution and Subject of Study in England
    (Taylor & Francis, 2021) Callender, Claire; Melis, Gabriella
    A hallmark of English higher education (HE) over the last twenty years has been policies seeking to increase provider competition and student choice. Central to this has been student funding policy changes, leading to rising college costs. This article asks if prospective HE students’ concerns about college costs and the financial strategies they anticipate using because of them, widen or limit their choice of HE institution and subject of study. It calls on the findings from a nationally representative survey of 1,374 English college applicants and uses latent class analysis to develop a typology of students’ planned financial coping mechanisms: Minimizing costs; Managing costs and maximizing returns; and No financial concerns; which prove to be socially stratified. Minimizing costs students are the most disadvantaged and adopt mechanisms which constrain their choices of where and what to study, unlike students in the other groups. Thus, government policies aimed at improving student choice potentially have the opposite effect for the most disadvantaged, perpetuating existing inequalities in access to, and the experience of, HE.
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    Supplemental Appendices for "Trailblazers, Reciprocity, and Doctoral Education: The Pursuit of Critical Race Praxis and Survivance among Doctoral Students of Color"
    (Taylor & Francis, 2020) Roberts, Tuesda; Gutiérrez, Lorena; Gibbs Grey, ThedaMarie; Jones Stanbrough, Raven
    This study utilized a mixed-methods, survey research design to explore the experiences and motivations of Students of Color who pursue doctoral studies in colleges or departments of education and the agential decisions they make to carry out their motivations. Data collection included dissemination of a 61-item survey via Qualtrics inclusive of Likert-based and narrative items. Participants included 40 respondents who were either doctoral students, candidates, postdoctoral scholars or early career scholars within two years of obtaining their doctoral degrees. Critical Race Theory and Vizenor’s concept of survivance frame an understanding of how race and racism impacted the lives of doctoral Students of Color and how they enacted an active presence in their doctoral studies in spite of obstacles. Findings based on participants’ narratives revealed (a) high levels of interest in addressing educational inequities and the collective advancement of Communities of Color, and (b) recurring efforts to leverage their experiences to advance praxes based on equity and social justice within their teaching and research activities. Such findings reiterate the value of recruiting and retaining doctoral Students of Color who seek to engage in Critical Race Praxis due to their unwillingness to compromise commitments to their cultural communities or anti-oppressive education.
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    Supplemental Appendices for "The Effects of Alignment of Educational Expectations and Occupational Aspirations on Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from NLSY79"
    (Taylor & Francis, 2019) Kim, Soobin; Klager, Christopher; Schneider, Barbara
    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1979, this paper examines the relationship between adolescents' educational and occupational expectations, and how they correspond to their subsequent labor market outcomes in adulthood. We show that over-aligned adolescents, those who expect to obtain more education than is necessary for their desired occupation, are predicted to have hourly wages 30% higher than under-aligned adolescents, whose educational expectations are lower than their occupational expectations. The misalignment of educational and occupational expectations is not related to the probability of being employed through individuals' early twenties to late forties. However, over-aligned individuals are predicted to have more prestigious occupations than under-aligned individuals, suggesting that those in the over-aligned group sorted into better jobs over their careers. We also show that the effects of misaligned expectations on labor market outcomes change over years, indicating that having high and aligned expectations are even more important for labor market outcomes than previously estimated.
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    Supplemental Appendices for "Experimental Estimates of Impacts of Cost-Earnings Information on Adult Aspirations for Children's Postsecondary Education"
    (Taylor & Francis, 2018) Cheng, Albert; Peterson, Paul E.
    Economic information may close aspiration disparities for postsecondary education across socioeconomic, ethnic, and partisan divides. In 2017, we estimated impacts of information on such disparities by means of a survey experiment administered to a nationally representative sample of 4,214 adults. A baseline group was asked whether they preferred a 4-year degree, a 2-year degree, or no further education for their oldest child younger than the age of 18 years (or the option they would prefer if they had a child younger than 18 years). Before 3 other randomly selected segments of our sample were asked the same question, they were given either information about (a) both net costs and returns, (b) net costs, or (c) returns to a 2-year and 4-year degree. Information about both costs and returns did not reduce socioeconomic-status disparities but did affect ethnic and partisan divides. The findings suggest that reductions in socioeconomic inequalities in educational opportunity require more than simple changes in the dissemination of information aimed at altering economic cost–benefit calculations. Sustained effort that mitigates deeper-seated cultural and social barriers seems necessary.
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    Supplemental Appendix for "Remedial Enrollment During the 1st Year of College, Institutional Transfer, and Degree Attainment"
    (Taylor & Francis, 2018) Saw, Guan Kung
    This study examined whether remediation enrollment during the 1st year of college influenced individuals’ college transfer and attainment and if effects varied by racial and socioeconomic subgroups. Results based on analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1997 data indicated that for 2-year college students, remediation enrollment in both mathematics and English improved the likelihood of transferring to a 4-year college and earning a bachelor’s degree. For 4-year college students, however, enrolling in any postsecondary remediation—only math, only English, or both subjects—during their 1st year in college increased their chances of transferring to a 2-year college in the following years. Enrolling in at least 1 math remedial class (i.e., only math and both subjects) appeared to hinder 4-year college students from graduating on time. Subgroup analyses showed no strong evidence that remediation enrollment played a significant role in increasing or reducing the racial and socioeconomic gaps in college attainment.
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    Supplemental Material for "Institutional and Ethnic Variations in Postgraduate Enrollment and Completion"
    (Taylor & Francis, 2017) Tienda, Marta; Zhao, Linda
    Using the B&B:93/03 longitudinal cohort survey, we investigate (1) whether and how much variations in the timing of enrollment, the type of undergraduate institution attended, and type of graduate program pursued contribute to observed racial and ethnic differentials in post-baccalaureate enrollment, and (2) whether the observed enrollment differentials carry over to degree attainment. Dynamic event history methods that account both for the timing of matriculation and the hazard of enrolling reveal that compared to whites underrepresented minorities enroll earlier and also are more likely to enroll in doctoral and advanced professional degree programs relative to nonenrollment. Our results reveal sizable differences in the cumulative probability of advanced degree attainment according to undergraduate institutional mission, with graduates from research institutions enjoying a decided advantage over liberal arts college graduates. The conclusion discusses limitations of the analysis, directions for further research, and implications for strengthening the minority pipeline to graduate school.
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    Supplemental Material for "Assessing the College Financial Aid Work Penalty"
    (Taylor & Francis, 2017-05-20) Darolia, Rajeev
    Working has become commonplace among college students in the United States; however, this activity can have unexpected financial consequences. Federal formulas implicitly tax the amount of financial aid some students are eligible to receive by as much as 50 cents for each marginal dollar of income. In this paper I document this college financial aid “work penalty” and discuss the related incentives for some college students to reduce their income. Using data from a national sample of financially independent college students in the United States, I do not find evidence to suggest that students meaningfully reduce earnings because of implicit taxes. Lack of knowledge, abstruse formulas, and the timing of aid receipt likely limit responses. The reduction in aid has the potential to burden low-income students that need to both work and receive financial aid in order to afford college expenses.
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    Supplemental Material for "Surviving and Thriving: The Adaptive Responses of U.S. Four-Year Colleges and Universities during the Great Recession"
    (The Ohio State University Press, 2016-11-01) Brint, Steven; Yoshikawa, Sarah R. K.; Rotondi, Matthew B.; Viggiano, Tiffany; Maldonado, John
    Press reports and industry statistics both give incomplete pictures of the outcomes of the Great Recession for U.S. four-year colleges and universities. To address these gaps, we conducted a statistical analysis of all articles that appeared in Lexis-Nexis on a sample of more than 300 U.S. colleges and universities during the Recession years. We identify four clusters of institutional responses, which we label "consumer service," "market search," "growing and greening" and "the complete arsenal." Overviews of actions taken in each of these clusters provide qualitative texture and evidence of senior managers’ intentions. Our findings are broadly consistent with organizational theories emphasizing divergent institutional logics, but we question the extent to which the fourth of our clusters can be characterized as a coherent adaptive "logic," and we add an emphasis on interorganizational stratification as an influence on adaptive responses.
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    Supplemental Table for "Alternative Student-Based Revenue Streams for Higher Education Institutions: A Difference-in-Difference Analysis Using Guaranteed Tuition Policies"
    (The Ohio State University Press, 2016-09-01) Delaney, Jennifer A.; Kearney, Tyler D.
    This study considered the impact of state-level guaranteed tuition programs on alternative student-based revenue streams. It used a quasi-experimental, difference-in-difference methodology with a panel dataset of public four-year institutions from 2000–2012. Illinois’ 2004 “Truth-in-Tuition” law was used as the policy of interest and the treatment condition. Following the introduction of Illinois’ guaranteed tuition law, required fees and out-of-state tuition increased significantly at institutions subject to the law, but not the number or percent of out-of-state students. These results were robust to specifications with alternative comparison groups and the inclusion of state-specific linear time trends.
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    Supplemental Material for "Persistence Patterns in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)"
    (The Ohio State University Press, 2016-03) Evans, Brent J.; Baker, Rachel B.; Dee, Thomas S.
    Using a unique dataset of 44 Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), this article examines critical patterns of enrollment, engagement, persistence, and completion among students in online higher education. By leveraging fixed-effects specifications based on over 2.1 million student observations across more than 2,900 lectures, we analyzed engagement, persistence, and completion rates at the student, lecture, and course levels. We found compelling and consistent temporal patterns: across all courses, participation declines rapidly in the first week but subsequently flattens out in later weeks of the course. However, this decay is not entirely uniform. We also found that several student and lecture-specific traits were associated with student persistence and engagement. For example, the sequencing of a lecture within a batch of released videos as well as its title wording were related to student watching. We also saw consistent patterns in how student characteristics are associated with persistence and completion. Students were more likely to complete the course if they completed a pre-course survey or followed a quantitative track (as opposed to qualitative or auditing track) when available. These findings suggest potential course design changes that are likely to increase engagement, persistence, and completion in this important, new educational setting.