Sibara virginica (L.) Rollins (Brassicaceae) is a winter annual herb of disturbed habitats which reaches its northern limit in Ohio. The history, distribution, and habitats of Sibara virginica in Ohio were studied in order to determine whether this species is indigenous to the state. Sibara virginica first was collected in Ohio in 1838 and has been reported from 10 central and southern counties. The species does not persist at sites unless there is continuing soil disturbance. It disappears once habitats have stabilized. Sibara virginica is an indigenous species of localized occurrence in transitional habitats in southern Ohio.
Eleocharis parvula (R. & S.) Link. (Cyperaceae) is reported from a saline site in Wayne County, OH. It was growing on the border of a saline pond on the property of the Morton Salt Company, Rittman, OH.
(1994-06) Keiffer, Carolyn Howes; McCarthy, Brian C.; Ungar, Irwin A.
Salicornia europaea seedlings were exposed to various salinity and water depths for 11 weeks under controlled, growth chamber conditions. Weekly measurements were made of height, number of nodes, and number of branches per plant. Growth and survival of plants grown with the addition of NaCl were significantly greater (P <0.0001) than for plants which were not given a salt treatment. Although there were no significant (P >0.05) growth differences among plants under different water level conditions within the salt treatment group, plants which were grown without NaCl demonstrated significant decreases in growth in higher water levels, with the greatest growth occurring in the low water treatment group. All plants given a salt treatment survived until the end of the experiment. However, high mortality occurred among the plants that were not salt-treated, with all plants grown under waterlogged conditions dying by week six. The high mortality exhibited by this treatment group indicates that Salicornia, which is typically found in low marsh or inland salt marsh situations, was unable to overcome the combined stress of being continuously waterlogged in a freshwater environment.
(1994-06) Janson, Richard W.; Batur, Celal; Krishna, Lala B.
Neural net methodology has been used to model alternative scenarios of fuel utilization. Regulation and legislation to address the problems of energy related pollution such as acid rain, nuclear waste, greenhouse gases, and tailpipe pollution, will alter fuel input ratios with consequential effects in the energy using sectors. Also, alternative input scenarios using clean coal technology, natural gas, and nuclear power have been modeled. Results indicate that large relative increases of coal or nuclear fuel inputs will cause similar substantial increases in electricity generation, and substitution effects will cause a shift of petroleum uses in final consumption from the commercial and residential sectors to the transport sector. Increasing the gas fuel input relative to other fuels causes little disturbance in using sectors. Incremental increases in fuel consumption maintaining constant relative fuel input shares causes little disturbance. On the other hand, massive increases in fuel consumption inputs maintaining constant input shares is likely to be disastrous public policy.
Forty-eight Ohio River fishery managers from six states were surveyed to assess the relative importance of sport and commercial fisheries data gaps on the Ohio River. Twenty-two experts responded to the complex survey, which asked respondents to judge the need for 40 data types for each of seven taxa. Among taxa, information needs were highest for white bass and hybrids (Morone spp.) and buffalofishes (Ictiobus spp.), and lowest for bass/sunfish (Micropterus/Lepomis spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Among data types, information needs were highest for natural and fishing mortality rates, and lowest for fecundity. Among life stages, information needs were highest for larval fishes, and lowest for adults during spawning season and summer. Expert opinions on information needs can be used to direct research and monitoring studies to highest priority needs and to avoid duplicative studies.
The Extreme Minimum Winter Temperature (EMWT) is the coldest temperature recorded each winter at a given weather station. This variable is a measure of winter temperature severity. EMWT influences the geographic distribution of plants, and is a prime control for the production of some fruit crops grown in Ohio. EMWT values are often used to map plant hardiness zones, but climatic variables rarely remain constant over time, and plant hardiness zones could shift significantly if the climate of Ohio changes and there is a change in EMWTs. EMWTs from 89 weather stations in Ohio were analyzed to determine spatial patterns and time trends. Summary statistics of EMWTs were tabulated and mean EMWT was mapped at a large scale. Linear and polynomial regression were utilized to examine the time series. EMWTs have not warmed during the climatic record of this variable. There does not appear to be a link between EMWTs in Ohio and the increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. The present study demonstrates the need for more research in applied climatology based on observed climate records, not obscured by the assumptions of the global warming paradigm.