Regional differences exist in ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality rates in the United States. These variations may in part be related to environmental factors. An examination was conducted in the U.S. on a sample of 101 county age-adjusted ischemic heart disease death rates and several possible environmental factors. A multiple regression model suggests that a combination of altitude, snowfall frequency, median family income, air pollution, and location in the Eastern Highlands may explain about 46% of the variance in ischemic heart disease mortality rates. Some facet of the environment in the Eastern Highlands may contribute to the higher rates found in that region. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis was suspected and tested with no concrete conclusion. The results suggest the importance of environment in the suspected multifactorial etiology of ischemic heart disease, but replication and further research is required.
Intensive interviews of 35 Ohio State University women graduate students revealed cultural differences influencing the selection of academic majors and careers by American and international women in the sciences and the humanities. Poor or inadequate mathematics and science teaching, pressures to conform to gender-role expectations, and students' social concerns were some of the reasons humanities students selected their courses and majors. Asian and African women usually reported strong familial and societal pressures for selecting scientific careers, while Europeans and some Americans were motivated by personal interest in the subject matter of their disciplines. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of women's level of participation in science courses, majors, and careers, and may enhance educators' efforts to improve science education for women.
Analysis of samples of the 0 to 10-cm soil depth collected at 65 locations under six vegetation communities snowed that prairie and cedar-hardwood communities occurred on calcareous (range, pH 6.9-7.9) soils with low silt concentrations (20-54%), and that pine and oak communities occurred on acid (pH 4.3-6.3) soils with high silt (54-80%); this represented a distinction between communities on soils derived from dolomite and those on soils derived primarily from shale. Greater masses of plant opal were extracted from soils on dolomite (median, 2.4 kg/m2) compared to shale (0.9 kg/m2), suggesting that opal-depositing plant species had played a more important role in the vegetative history of the dolomite soils. Opal mass in dolomite soils did not, however, differ between soils presently under forests and those under prairies; all dolomite areas seemed to have had the same general vegetative history, one involving successive intervals of occupancy by both prairie and forest vegetation. Although opal was abundant on dolomite, shapes diagnostic of grasses were infrequently encountered in the soil, indicating that phytolith-rich forbs as well as grasses may have been important constituents of these forest openings in the past. The distinction between primary prairies (natural prairies) and secondary prairies (prairies formed by human disturbance of forests) was judged to be of limited applicability to the study area since prairies seemed to occur only on areas of soil derived from dolomite, and since prairie and forest vegetation were interpreted as having naturally alternated over time on these areas.
A total of 25 algal taxa were found in subaerial samples from Seneca Cavern, an earth crack cave in Seneca County, OH. Most algae were typical aerophilic species, with Chlorella miniata, Pleurochloris commutata, Navicula tantula, andNavtcula contenta f. biceps being the most abundant species. The flora was species poor in comparison to other caves, likely because of dimness of lighting and absence of standing and running water. This paper represents the first report of cave algae in Ohio.
The toxicity of sediments collected from depositional and erosional substrates at two locations on the Cuyahoga River in northeastern Ohio was compared. Upstream and downstream locations from the Akron Water Pollution Control Station (Akron WPCS) were selected to evaluate effects of the Akron WPCS effluent on sediment toxicity. Seven-day Ceriodaphnia dubia bioassays were conducted on sediment elutriates. The no-observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were determined for survival and reproduction for each sample collected. The results indicated that sediments collected upstream from the Akron WPCS were more toxic than those collected downstream. Chlorine released with the WPCS effluent may oxidize possible contaminants resulting in lower sediment toxicity downstream. Sediments from erosional substrates were more toxic than those from depositional substrates at both locations. Erosional substrates, in contrast to depositional substrates, had small inorganic particles and contained epilithic algal/microbial mats. These factors probably influenced the concentration of contaminants.
Between 1972 and 1977, five species of crayfishes inhabited the Licking River watershed. Those found throughout the system, in order of their abundance, were Orconectes (Crockerinus) sanbornii sanbornii, Cambarus (Puncticambarus) robustus, and O. (Procericambarus) rusticus. The first two species were captured at 88% and 49% of the sites, respectively. Cambarus (Cambarus) bartonii cavatus and C. (Lacunicambarus) diogenes were found in first order headwater streams, springs, and roadside ditches containing water. Orconectes (P.) rusticus has been introduced into the watershed and appears to be increasing its range within the basin. Since the primary survey, two additional introduced crayfish species were found at the Hebron State Fish Hatchery: O. (Gremicambarus) virilis, and O. (G.) immunis.