During the 1997-1998 breeding seasons the author examined the nesting success of grassland birds on plots that were mowed prior to the onset of nesting and on unmowed plots on a 3,700 ha reclaimed stripmine in east-central Ohio. Grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum), eastern meadowlarks (Sturnella magnci), red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius pboeniceus^), Henslow's sparrows (A. henslowiO, and bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus^ were the most abundant nesting species on the reclaimed stripmine. No short-eared owl (Asio JTammeus}, Henslow's sparrow, bobolink, or mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) nests were located on the mowed plots. Significantly more nests of all species combined (P <0.05) were found on the unmowed plots, and pairs using mowed plots tended to initiate nesting later in the season. A Mayfield analysis suggests that grasshopper sparrows had the greatest overall nesting success on the reclaimed plots (46%), followed by red-winged blackbirds (30%) and eastern meadowlarks (30%). During both years combined, nests on mowed plots suffered slightly higher predation rates (47%) than did nests on unmowed (39%) and control (38%) plots (P >0.05). These data suggest that early season mowing is detrimental to some grassland bird species on this reclaimed stripmine since it precludes early nesting; however, it appears that Henslow's, savannah, and grasshopper sparrows, and other uncommon or sporadic grassland breeders in Ohio, are benefiting from this expansive, reclaimed surface mine.
(2002-06) Roseman, Edward F.; Taylor, William W.; Hayes, Daniel B.; Fofrich, Jim, Sr.; Knight, Roger L.
During the mid-1990s, anglers reported large numbers of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) in spawning condition concentrated on shallow points adjacent to the Maumee River channel during spring. These fish had flowing eggs and semen and were suspected to be actively spawning in Maumee Bay. To investigate the potential of walleye spawning, we used a benthic pump to sample for eggs at five sites adjacent to the Maumee River channel and one site near Turtle Island in Maumee Bay on 5 April 1998, a time when walleye were actively spawning in rivers and on mid-lake reefs. We found walleye eggs at each of the six sites sampled. Relative abundance of eggs ranged from 17 to 2,105 per 2-min sample, with a mean of 459 (±232). Egg viability ranged from 33 to 54% across the sites and 10% of the viable walleye eggs were observed to be in late stages of embryonic development indicating that egg survival to hatching is likely. These results are the first documentation of walleye spawning in Maumee Bay, indicating that Maumee Bay is a viable spawning location for walleye, possibly representing an important source of recruitment for the Lake Erie stock.
We ranked Ohio's breeding birds by decreasing management concern based on the mean score of 7 criteria. Three criteria were global in nature and included the species' global abundance, breeding distribution, and wintering distribution. The other 4 criteria (threats to breeding habitat, threats to non-breeding habitat, state population trend, and importance of the state) pertained specifically to Ohio. We ranked 187 avian species known to breed in Ohio. Mean scores ranged from 3.7 to 1.0 (scores of 5-0 to 1.0 were possible). Several of the highest ranked species were previously listed as endangered, threatened, or of special interest at the state level by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife. We assigned each species to a habitat type and a residency status. Mean values were then calculated for all the species within the same habitat or residency group. The closeness of the mean ranks of the habitat groups suggests that habitat destruction and degradation are limiting factors of all breeding birds in Ohio. In each habitat category, the highest ranked species used a variety of habitat types and vegetation structure. By residency status, permanent residents had the lowest mean score (1.8, n = 21) and longdistance neotropical migrants had the highest (2.6, n = 74). Because of the diverse habitat associations of the highest ranked species and common limiting factors, our results suggest that landscape-level habitat acquisition and management programs are needed to prevent additional listing of breeding birds as endangered, threatened, or of special interest in Ohio.
The authors report the discovery of the Brush-tipped Emerald, Somatochlora walshii (Odonata: Corduliidae)—a species previously unknown from Ohio. During the summer of 2000 this species was documented in apparent breeding populations at State Nature Preserves in Ashtabula and Portage counties. While no larvae were found, reproductive behavior was observed and the numerous adults suggest a stable breeding population. Habitat descriptions from other localities match that of these 2 sites, and a long-known population exists in Pennsylvania only about 21 km from the Ashtabula County site. This brings the total number of reported Odonata for Ohio to 162 species and subspecies.
(2002-06) Smith, Bruce W.; Spinelli, Joseph G.; Zhou, Yu
This is a study of geographic patterns of Ohio student enrollment at Ohio's state-assisted universities using cartographic analyses in conjunction with county-based enrollment data from the Ohio Board of Regents. Because the six largest urban counties—Cuyahoga (with Cleveland), Franklin (with Columbus), Hamilton (with Cincinnati), Lucas (with Toledo), Montgomery (with Dayton), and Summit (with Akron)—provide over 50% of the college students in Ohio, one factor that has an impact on the geographic patterns of enrollment is the colleges' locations relative to those counties. Maps depicting the percentage of students from each county attending the thirteen universities generally show that geographic distance between counties and colleges influences enrollment patterns. In addition, an examination of the distance bands from which colleges attract students shows evidence of a distance decay in enrollment for the commuter universities, including Akron, Cincinnati, Shawnee State, Toledo, Wright State, and Youngstown State. In contrast, the regional universities, including Bowling Green State, Miami, Kent State, and Ohio University, are located in more rural counties and, of necessity, must attract students from beyond their local hinterlands. The status of colleges also affects their geographic patterns of enrollment. Ohio State illustrates this. Due to its large student enrollment and status as the state's flag ship university, it draws college-bound students from throughout Ohio.