23rd Denman Undergraduate Research Forum (2018)

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    Post-Migration Challenges, Family Resources, & Social Support Among Bhutanese-Nepali Refugees: Results From A Community Needs Assessment
    (2018-04-03) Kayuha, Hannah; Kue, Jennifer
    Background: Over 15,000 Bhutanese-Nepali refugees have resettled in Columbus, Ohio since 2008. The majority of research on this new community has focused on mental health and the rate of suicide among the Bhutanese. However, there is little known about post-migration challenges that Bhutanese-Nepali refugees face after resettlement. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the data collected from the parent study’s community health needs assessment in order to determine the effects of post-migration living difficulties (PMLD), social support, and family resources on Bhutanese-Nepali refugees in Columbus, OH. Methods: Bilingual Nepali-speaking interviewers conducted a community needs assessment with Bhutanese-Nepali women and men, aged 18 years and older living in Columbus, OH. The questionnaire was conducted face-to-face in 2015. The questionnaire included topics of healthcare practices, cancer knowledge and screening behavior, mental health issues and preferences for mental health services, social support, family resources, and barriers to health and social services and resources. For the purpose of this study, secondary data analysis examined post-migration living difficulties, social support, and family resources. Descriptive statistics (frequencies, t-test) were conducted using SPSS ver. 24. Results: A total of 201 participants were surveyed. More than half were men (51.7%) and 53.7% were between the ages of 25-44 years. More than 75% were on Medicare/Medicaid, 43.1% have a total family income of less than $15,000, and while over 50% are employed full-time, almost 35% are not working. The most commonly reported PMLD was communication and language difficulties with 54.2% of participants reporting it being somewhat of a problem to a serious problem. The second most reported PMLD was difficulty adjusting to the weather/climate with 40.3% reporting somewhat of a problem to a serious problem. Finally 39% of participants reported being unable to find work and not having enough government help with welfare somewhat of a problem to a serious problem. Looking at family resources, there is a significant difference between men and women in terms of monetary resources, t(197)= 1.12, p= 0.019. There is also a significant difference in perceived social support between men and women, t(197)= 1.30, p= 0.003. Conclusions: Results from this study provides greater insight into the cultural and linguistic needs of Bhutanese-Nepali refugees who have recently resettled in Columbus. Language and communication is a major barrier to finding employment and resources. Despite these challenges, participants reported that they have strong social support, which may ease some of the burden of resettlement. Future studies may want to examine ways to help keep strong social networks together in refugee communities to eliminate post-migration challenges.
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    In vitro analysis of mushroom proteases that may tenderize beef
    (2018-04-03) Lee, Jing-Wei; LeMaster, Michelle; England, Eric
    Meat tenderness is an important characteristic that influences consumer purchasing decisions. Protease extracts from pineapple, ginger, papaya and kiwi have exhibited proteolytic activity to tenderize meat products. Unfortunately, many of these proteases have broad activity that can overtenderize the meat and negatively affect texture and quality. Therefore, identification and evaluation of other proteases capable of tenderizing beef is necessary. Previously, mushrooms have been shown to enhance flavor and nutritional composition of meat dishes, as well as having beneficial antioxidant and health effects. Mushrooms also contain a variety of proteases that were analyzed in this study for their ability to denature beef proteins using an in vitro model system. Eight mushroom varieties were tested including white button (white immature Agaricus bisporus), crimini (brown immature Agaricus bisporus), portobello (mature Agaricus bisporus), shitakke (Lentinula edodes), enoki (Flammulina velutipes), oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus), king trumpet (Pleurotus eryngii), and brown beech (Hypsizygus tessellatus). Mushrooms were homogenized in a 20 mM Tris buffer (pH 8.0), filtered, then centrifuged. Afterward, purified bovine myofibrils were combined with the crude mushroom protease extracts and incubated at 25°C. Samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 240, and 1440 min. After, myofibrillar proteins were solubilized and separated using SDS-PAGE. Density of protein bands were quantified and compared between the time-points. The data indicated that all eight mushroom varieties proteolyzed myofibrillar proteins including actin and myosin. Therefore, these results support the possibility that mushroom proteases may be able to tenderize beef, forming the basis for future research trials.
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    Effects of Pesticides Applied During Almond Bloom on Post Emergence Mortality Rate of Honey Bees
    (2018-04-03) Chessler, Ann; Kurkul, Colin; Lin, Chia-Hua; Johnson, Reed; Lin, Chia-Hua
    Effects of Pesticides Applied During Almond Bloom on Post Emergence Mortality Rate of Honey Bees: Almond crops rely on honey bees for pollination of their flowers. The primary objective of this study is to characterize the effect of insecticides and fungicides applied during almond bloom on developing honey bee larvae. Honey bee populations are decreasing at an alarming rate worldwide, with no obvious cause. Without honey bees, we would not only see a decrease in almond production but a hit to a major agricultural market. What is the cause of this increased mortality in honey bees? The experimental design consisted of 8 separate trials of bee larvae artificially reared on diets treated with three insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, diflubenzuron, and methoxyfenozide) in combination with fungicides commonly applied with these insecticides in a tank-mix (propiconazole, iprodione, boscalid, and pyraclostrobin). Bees were allowed to emerge naturally. After emergence, their mortality was tracked for several days and recorded. It was determined that four chemicals, either alone or in combination, had the greatest effect on mortality (less than or equal to 50% survival on day one). These chemicals are chlorantraniliprole, iprodione, propiconazole, and diflubenzuron. With this information, chemists can generate new formulas for pesticides and fungicides that are still effective but safe in combination.