Buckeye East Asian Linguistics 5 (BEAL 5)

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We are pleased to deliver the fifth volume of Buckeye East Asian Linguistics. This volume includes two papers (Ito et al. and Tobaru) from the Third Buckeye East Asian Linguistics Forum in 2018, which were not included in Buckeye East Asian Linguistics Volume 4, three keynote speakers' abstracts and eight proceeding articles from the Fourth Buckeye East Asian Linguistics Forum in 2021. The biennium BEAL Forum was previously held in October 2014, 2016, and 2018. However, due to the COVID 19 pandemic, the fourth Forum was postponed and held on Friday, March 5, 2021, via Zoom, The Ohio State University (OSU) Columbus campus (http://u.osu.edu/beal/).

ISSN 2378-9387

Contents

Front Matter
pp. i-iv
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Referential and Non-referential (Im)politeness: The Use of Honorifics in Face-attacking Acts in a Japanese Company's Orientation Meeting
Cook, Haruko Minegishi p. 1
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Languages and Cultures in Action: Snippets of Interactions from Singapore
Luke, Kang-kwong p. 2
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Wh-words in East Asian Languages: Intonation and Meaning
Yun, Jiwon p. 3
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How Native Japanese Speakers Solve Ambiguous Relative Clauses in Their L1 and L2: Evidence from the Self-paced Reading of Japanese and English
Ito, Kanae; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Kiyama, Sachiko pp. 4-12
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Style Shifting as a Measurement of Linguistic and Cultural Improvement during Education Abroad in Japan
Tobaru, Hiromi pp. 13-21
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The Narrative Functions of Perfective Auxiliaries in Early Heian Kundokubun Texts
Bundschuh, John pp. 22-32
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Gender in Japanese Youth Language
Cao, Yuning pp. 33-42
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Loanword Adaptation in Japanese Kansai Dialect
Hattori, Yuki pp. 43-51
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A Preliminary Survey of Linguistic Areas in East Asia Based on Phonological Features
Joo, Ian; Hsu, Yu-Yin pp. 52-59
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Bilingual Intonation in Cantonese-English Bilingual Children's Sentence-Final Particles
Lee, Jonathan Him Nok; Lai, Regine Yee King; Matthews, Stephen; Yip, Virginia pp. 60-70
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Tone Sandhi in Mono/Polysyllabic Single Words in Shanghai Chinese
Lyu, Jun pp. 71-82
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Dialect and Watershed Distributions in Shaanxi Province and the Jiang-Huai Area in China
Wang, Ke pp. 83-93
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Deriving Separable Verbs in Cantonese
Yip, Ka-Fai; Lee, Tommy Tsz-Ming; Chan, Sheila Shu-Laam pp. 94-104
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Now showing 1 - 14 of 14
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    Front Matter (Volume 5, 2021)
    (Ohio State University. Libraries, 2021-09)
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    Referential and Non-referential (Im)politeness: The Use of Honorifics in Face-attacking Acts in a Japanese Company's Orientation Meeting
    (Ohio State University. Libraries, 2021-09) Cook, Haruko Minegishi
    Speakers of honorific languages can linguistically express politeness/impoliteness referentially through the propositional content and/or nonreferentially through the presence or absence of honorifics. What is problematic is when co-occurring referential and nonreferential expressions are in conflict as in the co-occurrence of honorifics and referentially face-attacking expressions. Why do speakers use honorifics when they express a face-attacking referential message? Brown and Levinson's politeness theory (1987) explains that the use of honorifics is a negative politeness strategy that mitigates an FTA (face-threatening act). Except for Brown and Levinson (1987), this problem has not been discussed much in the literature of linguistic (im)politeness in the West due to the lack of honorifics in English. However, it is an important issue when studying linguistic (im)politeness in languages with elaborate systems of honorifics such as Japanese and Korean, because speakers of these languages constantly need to make choices between honorific and non-honorific forms. By examining a Japanese company's new employee orientation discourse, this talk explores why honorifics are used when the propositional content of an utterance is face-attacking. A new employee orientation in a Japanese company is a context in which impoliteness is ideologically legitimized and often deployed. At the same time, the goal of the orientation is to train new employees to behave in an extremely polite manner. By qualitatively analyzing the speech of the trainer of an orientation, this paper concludes that the trainer's use of honorifics while attacking the positive face of the new employees is a way of resolving the conflicting demands of a Japanese company. This paper contributes to (im)politeness research in that it points to the importance of distinguishing referential and nonreferential (im)politeness, and it shows why the co-occurrence of honorifics with face-attacks involves more than mitigating an FTA, as claimed by Brown and Levinson (1987).
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    Languages and Cultures in Action: Snippets of Interactions from Singapore
    (Ohio State University. Libraries, 2021-09) Luke, Kang-kwong
    The city-state of Singapore is known for its linguistic and cultural diversity, with a community made up of people from a variety of cultural traditions and an education system that promotes plurilingualism in English, Chinese, Malay, and Tamil. Within each of these languages, there are further variations and complications. Speakers of 'Chinese', for example, find themselves using, in addition to Mandarin, a mix of 'Chinese dialects', with Hokkien (Min) being the most popular, but there are equally large numbers speaking Toechew (or Chaozhou), Hakka (or Kejia) and Cantonese (Yue). In this paper we move from a bird's eye view of the community to an engagement with languages and cultures at the ground level by zooming in on talk-in-interaction in Singapore as people go about their everyday businesses. Using snippets of social interactions in the form of video recordings and an Ethnomethodological and Conversation Analytic approach, I will show how a host of interactional goals are achieved via the skilled use of a pool of interlingual and intercultural resources that have a distinctly 'Singaporean flavour'. By approaching these interactions as 'culture in action' (Hester and Eglin 1997), I will unpack the localisms and distinctive forms of expression in an attempt to document and celebrate a rich and colorful kaleidoscope of creative practices that we can identify as 'speaking, the Singapore way'.
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    Wh-words in East Asian Languages: Intonation and Meaning
    (Ohio State University. Libraries, 2021-09) Yun, Jiwon
    Wh-words in East Asian languages are ambiguous between interrogative and indefinite readings (e.g., shei in Chinese, dare in Japanese, nwukwu in Korean can all appear in phrases that indicate either 'who' or 'someone'). This talk concerns how the two meanings of wh-words can be distinguished by intonation. While several intonational factors such as phonetic prominence, phonological phrasing, and sentence-final intonation have been mentioned in the literature to affect the interpretation, I argue that the most decisive factor is phonological phrasing that affect the global intonation pattern, presenting evidence from production/perception experiments (Jun and Oh 1996, Maekawa 1991, Yang et al. 2020, Yun 2019). In particular, the experimental results disconfirm the previous impressionistic observations that wh-interrogatives are intonationally distinguished from their indefinite counterparts by their prominence; the prosodic prominence of the wh-word per se does not induce an interrogative reading unless the change of the global intonation pattern is accompanied.
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    How Native Japanese Speakers Solve Ambiguous Relative Clauses in Their L1 and L2: Evidence from the Self-paced Reading of Japanese and English
    (Ohio State University. Libraries, 2021-09) Ito, Kanae; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Kiyama, Sachiko
    The present study combined off- and on-line tasks to demonstrate how L1 Japanese late intermediate learners of L2 English specify an antecedent of a relative clause (RC) in L1 Japanese and L2 English. When an RC has two candidate antecedents, it is reported that native English speakers prefer attaching an RC to a closer noun phrase (CNP) to itself (recency preference, RP), whereas native Japanese speakers prefer attaching an RC to the most distant noun phrase (DNP) from itself (predicate proximity, PP). Responses to a questionnaire that was administered as part of this study showed a similar preference with regard to RC attachment in L1 Japanese and L2 English. However, in the self-paced reading task, the reading time of RCs semantically biased to DNPs was longer than that of neutral RCs in L2 English, indicating a conflict between RP and PP during the processing of L2 English. The results suggest that native Japanese speakers learning English may unconsciously transfer their attachment principle in L1 Japanese to L2 English.
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    Style Shifting as a Measurement of Linguistic and Cultural Improvement during Education Abroad in Japan
    (Ohio State University. Libraries, 2021-09) Tobaru, Hiromi
    The current study investigates Japanese style shifting as an additional measurement of linguistic and cultural competence during education abroad (EdA) in Japan. Seven undergraduate students in a Midwest university in the U.S. participated in the current study. OPI interviews were conducted before and after EdA in Japan, which were used as data in the current research. For quantitative analysis, all sentence matrix predicates were divided into plain forms, masu forms, and fragments (i.e. incomplete sentence) by following Iwasaki's (2008) data analysis. For qualitative analysis, all plain forms were categorized into informal speech style plain form (IfSSPF), detached speech style plain form (DtSS-PF), and others by examining the functions of each plain form. The findings revealed that all the participants used masu forms predominantly. This suggests that all of the participants were able to use appropriate speech style in a formal interview setting. In addition, participants whose OPI ratings were Intermediate-Low or lower tended to use IfSS-PF more than DtSS-PF in their style shifting, and some of the IfSS-PF used were culturally inappropriate. Qualitative analysis revealed that there were differences in frequency and type of style shifting even among the participants whose OPI ratings were the same. This study suggests that examining style shifting in Japanese conversation is a useful measurement for linguistic and cultural competence that may not be clear in an OPI rating. The findings further suggest that an EdA context in Japan is ideal learning environment for style shifting, examination of style shifting development can provide a better understanding of linguistic and cultural gain during EdA in Japan.
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    The Narrative Functions of Perfective Auxiliaries in Early Heian Kundokubun Texts
    (Ohio State University. Libraries, 2021-09) Bundschuh, John
    Kundokubun is a linguistic style of early spoken Japanese adapted for translating texts written in Sinitic script. The earliest examples of kundokubun are Buddhist texts rendered visually via a system of morphosyntactic and phonetic glosses at the onset of the Heian period (794–1185 CE). This study analyzes the use of the early Japanese perfective auxiliaries tu and nu both quantitatively and qualitatively in narrative passages in these texts. It finds that, as perfectives that index changes of state, tu and nu mark events that are both dynamic and central to the narrative progression. This study finds the narrative function of these perfectives in early Heian kundokubun narration to be that of foregrounding events that advance the stories within these texts.
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    Gender in Japanese Youth Language
    (Ohio State University. Libraries, 2021-09) Cao, Yuning
    The current study discusses the gender aspect of Japanese Youth Language (abbreviated as "YL" thereafter) and focuses on real-life data. Specifically, it explores how YL is perceived differently between genders from the listener's side. Deriving from a larger project, this paper reports quantitative data collected from an online survey that asks listeners to rate speakers' personalities based on a short conversation. Mixed-effects regression models with gender and YL usage as fixed effects and YL words as a random effect were constructed for ratings of each personality. The results show that 1) regardless of YL usages, the male speaker is perceived to be less interesting, less intelligent, and less lovely than the female speaker; 2) regardless of genders, YL users are perceived to be more competitive; 3) the male users of YL are perceived to be significantly less interesting, less intelligent, with less leadership, and less competitive.
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    Loanword Adaptation in Japanese Kansai Dialect
    (Ohio State University. Libraries, 2021-09) Hattori, Yuki
    This study examines the variations of loanword abbreviations (clippings) in one of the most historical dialects in Japan: Kansai dialect. Much like native Japanese words, regional variations can be observed in loanword abbreviations. The current experimental study reports Kansai speakers' awareness of dialectal characteristics including clipping styles and prosodic features. An experiment was conducted with 64 university students from Osaka. A production test was utilized; participants shortened 20 English words that had not yet been adopted in Japanese. The Kansai speakers tended to clip English loanwords that were shorter than seven morae into three morae. Four-mora clippings were also observed, although the patterns were inconsistent. Despite the participants' Kansai accentuation patterns, no consistent accentual patterns were detected in both clipping types. This study's results show how Kansai dialect might currently undergo standardization in a rapidly changing vocabulary of modern loanwords.
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    A Preliminary Survey of Linguistic Areas in East Asia Based on Phonological Features
    (Ohio State University. Libraries, 2021-09) Joo, Ian; Hsu, Yu-Yin
    Previous studies of linguistic areas have often adopted a mainly top-down approach, by first hypothesizing the existence of a linguistic area and then seeking the common linguistic features of that hypothetical area in order to justify its existence. In order to identify linguistic areas in East Asia in a different way, we adopt a mainly bottom-up approach by first investigating the values of the linguistic feature parameters of languages spoken in East Asia and then calculating those values to locate geographical clusters of languages sharing a certain degree of cross-family similarity. Based on 19 phonological features as binary parameters of 52 sample languages of East Asia, we visualize their within-family and cross-family similarities. Many of these similarities confirm the previous theories concerning linguistic areas, such as the Mainland Southeast Asia or the Qinghai-Gansu linguistic area. However, we also demonstrate some similarities that have received less attention thus far, namely between Ryukyuan and southern Sinitic languages.
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    Bilingual Intonation in Cantonese-English Bilingual Children's Sentence-Final Particles
    (Ohio State University. Libraries, 2021-09) Lee, Jonathan Him Nok; Lai, Regine Yee King; Matthews, Stephen; Yip, Virginia
    This corpus-based study investigates the intonation of Cantonese-English bilingual children. Few studies have explored the prosodic aspect of simultaneous acquisition of a tonal and a non-tonal language. We examine the intonation patterns in eight simultaneous bilingual children acquiring a tonal (Cantonese) and an intonational language (English) from 2;0 to 3;0. We have observed two bilingual intonation patterns in the children studied: "high pitch followed by a fall" and "low pitch followed by a rise". They illustrate cross-linguistic influence in prosody from English at early stages of the bilingual children's phonological development. Both language dominance and the use of sentence-final particles (SFPs) are found to have significant effects on the production of bilingual intonation. The more dominant the bilingual child is in Cantonese, the less bilingual intonation is produced in Cantonese and code-mixed utterances. Also, bilingual intonation was attested significantly more frequently in utterances with SFPs than without SFPs.
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    Tone Sandhi in Mono/Polysyllabic Single Words in Shanghai Chinese
    (Ohio State University. Libraries, 2021-09) Lyu, Jun
    This study examines tone sandhi in mono/polysyllabic words in Shanghai Chinese, with a specific focus on tonal redistribution domains. The goal of this study is to examine the tonal redistribution patterns in quadrisyllabic and quintesyllabic words, the results of which will bear on the metrical structure analysis for this language. There are three major findings from this study based on the analysis of tonal contours from one native speaker. First, T4 is a H level tone in monosyllabic words but surfaces as a LH contour tone in polysyllabic words. Second, only one redistribution domain has been identified for quadrisyllabic words. Third, quintesyllabic words are most reliably characterized by two tonal redistribution domains, although the mono-domain pattern has also been attested. The results of this study are discussed under the Optimality Theory framework.
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    Dialect and Watershed Distributions in Shaanxi Province and the Jiang-Huai Area in China
    (Ohio State University. Libraries, 2021-09) Wang, Ke
    Inspired by several dialect geography studies, the present study aimed to determine whether there is a connection between geographical features and dialect distributions, with a specific focus on whether the distribution of watersheds in certain Chinese localities corresponds with the regional distribution of dialects. Three criteria were used to search for the desired targets within China: (1)dialectal diversity, (2) geographical diversity, and (3) the availability of geographic and linguistic data. Shaanxi province and the Jiang-Huai region of China were selected for this purpose. Using a map-to-map comparison and a literature review, similar overlapping patterns were found between the watershed and dialect boundaries in the two areas. These preliminary findings indicate a correlation between watershed distribution and dialectal boundary formation in these localities.
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    Deriving Separable Verbs in Cantonese
    (Ohio State University. Libraries, 2021-09) Yip, Ka-Fai; Lee, Tommy Tsz-Ming; Chan, Sheila Shu-Laam
    A number of Cantonese disyllabic verbs allow verbal suffixes to occupy an "infixal" position and they are known as separable verbs. Notably, separable verbs are not only observed with verb-object (VO) type verbs but also non-VO type and monomorphemic verbs in Cantonese. In this paper, we argue against a prevailing reanalysis account on separable verbs. Empirically, we observe that the second syllable of separable verbs in Cantonese systematically lacks nominal properties. Also, the reanalysis approach faces conceptual difficulties when applying to non-VO and monomorphemic verbs. We propose a novel PF deletion account. Substantially, the apparent separation is a combined result of a Syllable Deletion rule triggered by affixes, and (partial) Copy Deletion. This account naturally extends to capture other discontinuous constructions such as V-one-V construction and A-not-A formation.