(2002-09) Bauer, Andrew; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hanson, Claudia Britt; Elmore, Jesse V.
We examined every gravestone in three 19th-2 0th century Cleveland area cemeteries for date of death, rock type, style, and degree of weathering. We also examined grain size, mineral composition, and other features for every stone. The data allowed us to develop stone-use seriation patterns, determine stone provenance, and assess regional weathering patterns. Newspaper advertisements and other historical records were used to help interpret data. Local sandstones (Euclid bluestone and Berea Sandstone) were the first stones used for gravestones in the cemeteries. The use of sandstone for gravestones diminished during the 1830s. Sandstone continued to be used for monument bases, however, until the end of the 19th century. Imported marble was used for gravestones at least by the 1830s. Marble gravestones remained in use into the early 20th century. Use of granite appears to begin as early as marble in two of the cemeteries, but this probably represents the use of replacement or antedated gravestones. Granite gradually became the stone of choice, and became dominant in the late 1800s. Gravestone style is broadly correlated with stone type: early sandstone and marble gravestones are tablets, whereas marble and granite gravestones are present in a variety of forms. The Greek Revival movement, the development of transportation corridors, and technological advances in carving, grinding, and polishing during the 19th century influenced the choice of stone. Differential weathering of marble gravestones in the cemeteries studied is related to the cemeteries' locations in relation to pollution sources: effects of weathering are most severe in the central city cemetery, and least in the most rural cemetery.
In northeastern Ohio, excellent exposures of the Sharon Formation allow study of the architecture (3-D geometry) of these gravel- and sand-bedload stream deposits. Specific architectural elements include gravel bar-platform deposits (including bar head, bar core, and bar tail sub-elements), suprabarplatform deposits (laminated sand sheets and chute channel-fills), bar-margin foreset deposits, and sandy 2-D and 3-D dune deposits. Paleochannels had a depth-to-width ratio of 1:10 (r2 = 0.69) for gravelbedload streams and 1:40 (r2 = 0.89) for sand-bedload streams. Channel paleoslopes were between 0.3 to 1.1 m/km and transported clasts with D95 = 5.6 cm. These data are consistent with modern, braided streams. In this region, Late Mississippian to Early Pennsylvanian glacio-eustatic baselevel fall resulted in subaerial erosion of the underlying marine shales and formation of paleovalleys. Subsequent baselevel rise created accommodation space that was filled by deposition of the Sharon Formation in two separate phases: (1) backfilling of paleovalleys and (2) unconfined fluvial depositional systems after the paleovalleys were filled and overtopped. The transition of fluvial systems from confined to unconfined probably resulted in braidplain widening and changes in bank materials, explaining observed changes in paleohydraulics and fluvial sedimentology of the unit.
Biotechnology, education reform, environmental protection, technology development, and cancer prevention were the leading science and technology policy issues most on the minds of Ohio's leaders at the end of 2000 according to a mail-response survey by The Ohio Academy of Science. Biotechnology received the greatest number of mentions (9) out of 108 specific issues identified by 38 respondents who identified up to five science and technology policy issues. The survey audience included legislators, professional organizations, registered lobbyists, university presidents, corporate vice presidents for R&D, regulatory agency directors, state and local elected officials, and environmental groups. The results of this survey will serve the Academy's continuing effort to provide informed scientific advice to Ohio.