Education and Human Ecology Undergraduate Research Theses and Honors Research Theses

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Undergraduate Research Theses and Honors Research Theses from the College of Education and Human Ecology. More about the Education and Human Ecology Honors Program can be found at: http://ehe.osu.edu/ugss/advising-basics/honors/

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    Formative Social Experiences and Sports Achievement
    (The Ohio State University, 2021-12) Hopkins, Rhatia; Knoester, Christopher
    Using data from the National Sports and Society Survey (N=3,993), this study analyses how different aspects of formative social experiences shape what level of play individuals are able to reach in sports based on reports from among a large sample of adults in the U.S. It was predicted that those of higher socioeconomic status will have reached higher levels of play more often than those who were of lower socioeconomic status. Other expectations included men reaching high levels of play more often than women. Also, social (i.e. family and friends) background, encouragement, community influences, and other (e.g. race/ethnicity) inequalities were expected to impact athletic success. Overall, there was support for these expectations and these findings seem to provide new insight into what factors can influence abilities to compete at the highest levels of sport.
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    Exploring the Relationship between Household Food Insecurity and Mood Dysregulation Symptoms in a Pediatric ADHD Population
    (The Ohio State University, 2019-05) Lu, Stacy; Hatsu, Irene; Perez, Leanna
    Background: There are currently 12.5 million children in the United States living in food insecure households, yet the psychiatric consequences of this public health crisis are not well documented. Early childhood exposure to environmental stressors related to food insecurity could be associated with predisposing or exacerbating mood dysregulation symptoms in children. Purpose: The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to explore the relationship of food insecurity with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and co-occurring mood dysregulation symptoms in a pediatric population. Study Design and Methodology: Data was collected as part of baseline assessments for the “Multi-nutrients for ADHD Youth” (MADDY) Study, a multi-site randomized placebo-controlled trial investigating the efficacy of a multi-nutrient supplement in reducing ADHD symptom severity among children ages 6-12 years (N=135). Household food insecurity was ascertained using the 18-Item US Household Food Security Survey Module (USHFSSM). Children’s ADHD and mood dysregulation symptoms were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-5 (CASI-5) questionnaire. Results: Preliminary trends from baseline data (n= 45) show that the prevalence of household food insecurity is 11.1%, which is close to the national prevalence of 11.8%. Children in food insecure households scored significantly higher on measures for Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) (p-value = 0.002) and Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) symptoms (p-value = 0.013) versus children in food secure households. Conclusions: Childhood experience of food insecurity is associated with increased severity of mood dysregulation symptoms in a pediatric ADHD population. The direction and magnitude of this relationship will be explored in additional analysis upon study completion. If these trends are maintained in the total sample, future public health interventions addressing food insecurity may be needed to help alleviate the severity of mood dysregulation symptoms in this population. Additionally, pediatric health care providers could routinely assess hunger and food insecurity status in combination with ADHD assessments.
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    Early Predictors of Distress in Mothers of Pediatric Cancer Survivors at Five-Years Post-Diagnosis
    (The Ohio State University, 2022-05) Quach, Jessica; Gerhardt, Cynthia
    Objective: Biomedical advances have significantly increased pediatric cancer survivorship over the past half-century. As time passes, most survivors and families return to normative levels of psychosocial functioning. However, a subset of parents may experience elevated levels of depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). At diagnosis, mothers of children with cancer are known to have greater distress in comparison to fathers, yet limited research has examined predictors of their functioning in survivorship. Thus, we investigated depressive symptoms and PTSS in mothers of pediatric cancer survivors at five-year follow-up, as well as associations with sociodemographic factors, and general stress and cancer-related stress near enrollment. Methods: Data were from a longitudinal study at two pediatric hospitals on coping and communication in families of children (aged 5-17) newly diagnosed with cancer. For this paper, mothers (n = 81) completed a demographic questionnaire, Responses to Stress Questionnaire (RSQ), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Impact of Events Scale (IES-R) at enrollment (T1) and five years post-diagnosis (T2). Cross-sectional associations between T1 variables of interest and T2 distress were assessed. Two separate hierarchical regressions were used to examine T1 predictors of T2 maternal distress (BDI & IES), including sociodemographic factors (Step 1), as well as general and cancer-related stress (Step 2). In addition, we examined significant predictors of change in maternal destress (BDI & IES) from T1 to T2 by controlling for T1 BDI and IES in separate models. Results: On average at T2, mothers (n = 81) reported a BDI score of 8.56 (SD = 10.05), which fell under the minimal depressive symptoms range (14 – 19), and an IES score of 13.03 (SD = 14.09), indicating PTSS below clinical concern. The overall model examining T1 predictors of 3 T2 BDI was significant, F(6,74) = 5.44, p < .001, and explained 30.6% of variance. Significant predictors included T1 mother age (β = -0.21, p = .05), education (β = -0.21, p = .04) and general perceived stress (β = 0.38, p = .002). The overall model examining T1 predictors of T2 IES scores was significant, F(6,74) = 3.65, p = .003, and explained 22.8% of variance. Significant T1 predictors in the final model included T1 maternal education (β = -0.29, p = .01). The model predicting change in BDI was significant F(7,73) = 6.56, p < .001, and explained 38.6% of variance. The only significant variable was T1 BDI (β = 0.46, p = .003). The model predicting change in IES scores was significant, F(7,73) = 3.40, p = .003, and explained 25.1% of the variance. The only significant variable was T1 maternal education (β = -0.28, p = .01). Conclusions: Mothers of childhood cancer survivors reported normative levels of depressive symptoms and PTSS at 5-year follow-up. Several sociodemographic factors, such as younger maternal age and lower education at diagnosis, may be related to long-term distress in mothers. Interestingly, while cancer-related stress is highly correlated with depressive symptoms and PTSS at diagnosis, it did not predict long-term distress among mothers in this study. In addition to further longitudinal research, clinicians should screen mothers of children with cancer for distress over time and provide targeted services, especially for those who are younger, less educated, and experiencing higher levels of stress near diagnosis.
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    COVID-19's Impact on Big Ten College Football Fan Experience
    (The Ohio State University, 2021-05) Needle, Brian; Lower-Hoppe, Leeann; Ryder, Ashley
    The purpose of this study is to explore the impact COVID-19 is having on the fan experience during the 2020 Big Ten College Football Season. Specifically, this study analyzed how Big Ten College Football fan experiences differ during this season and how the changes to the season affected their viewing habits and consumption of Big Ten College Football. The following research questions will serve as a guide for the current study: RQ1: How do fans participate in the college football season if attendance is not allowed or limited? RQ2: What safety measures would fans want in order to feel comfortable participating in the college football season? RQ3: What are fans' perceptions of Big Ten's decision to postpone the college football season, and how the Big Ten has handled the 2020 college football season? RQ4: How does playoff implications impact fans' interest in the college football season? As the focus of the study aligns with the postponement of Big Ten College Football, the researcher purposively recruited four participants who were currently enrolled in college and self-identify as a fan of a Big Ten college football team. Upon receiving informed consent, the researcher conducted four semi-structured interviews that lasted approximately 30-45 minutes. These interviews took place over the phone with college students between the ages of 18-25 that consider themselves a fan of a Big Ten college football team. The researcher used a semi-structured interview guide designed to explore fans' participation in this season, level of comfortability, perception of the postponement, and thoughts on playoff implications. All interviews were audio recorded, as long as permission was granted. Upon completion of data collection, the data were transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data was conducted to identify themes in the responses. The researchers developed codes to deduce meaning from the data and categorize the codes into broader themes to answer the research questions, with peer review and debriefing facilitated throughout the analytic process. In response to RQ1, participants spoke of the location where they viewed games (e.g., home, friend's house) and their feelings towards the college football season (e.g., discouraged, decreased participation). In response to RQ2, participants discussed safety protocols (e.g., social distancing, COVID screening and testing) and allowing fans into stadiums. In response to RQ3, participants talked about the Big Ten Conference's decision making, with mixed views about postponing the season, but overall support for prioritizing health and safety and allowing Ohio State to play in the Championship game. In response to RQ4, participants were all supportive of Ohio State playing in the College Football Playoffs and Championship game and indicated increased fan attachment due to post-season eligibility. These findings have implications for the Big Ten Conference, college athletic departments, and Fox Sports.
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    Visceral Adipose Tissue and Cortisol in Female Endurance Runners
    (The Ohio State University, 2021-05) Dunn, Sarah; Buell, Jackie
    OBJECTIVE: The relationship between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and cortisol is a controversial area of research interest. The purpose of this study is to explore this relationship over a training year in an athletic cohort of female endurance runners. METHODS: Female distance runners (juniors, seniors, or red-shirt seniors) from colleges and universities within a 90-minute drive from The Ohio State University and post-collegiate runners aged 20-26 years living in Columbus, OH who were actively training for a race (>35 miles per week) were eligible for study participation. Laboratory visits occurred three times throughout this longitudinal study. Dietary intake and physical activity questionnaires, an iDXA scan, and an optional blood draw were completed at each visit. Data was analyzed using SAS software (version 9.0) Proc Glimmix and SPSS 27 software. Significance was set at an apriori level of p < 0.05. RESULTS: Eight participants were included in statistical analysis. The average participant was 22.5 years old, 162.56 cm tall, weighed 54.58 kg, and had a BMI of 20.70. No statistically significant relationship was observed between VAT and cortisol (p = 0.4779), nor did training mileage, dietary fueling, or energy availability reach statistical significance as potential covariates. CONCLUSION: No statistically significant relationship exists between VAT and serum cortisol over a one-year training period in this cohort of female endurance runners.
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    The Effects of Self-Prompting and Recruiting Adult Attention on Daily Living Skills: An Analysis of Hypothetical Data
    (The Ohio State University, 2021-05) Smith, Hannah; Morgan, Sheila
    The purpose of this study was to provide an analysis of hypothetical data assessing the effectiveness of a self-prompting and recruiting adult attention training package on the accurate completion of daily living tasks and recruiting steps by students with moderate to severe disabilities. Three students who had goals addressing daily living skills included on their individual education programs (IEPs) were introduced to the training packages in their respective classrooms. The dependent variable was the percent of steps completed accurately for each learning trial, measured using a 10-item task analysis specific to each task. Six steps included information on proper completion of the task, whereas the last four steps described how to properly recruit teacher attention. A multiple probe across participants design demonstrated a functional relation of the intervention package on the number of task steps and recruiting steps completed accurately.
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    Assessing differences in self-reported dietary intake variables by weighed food records compared to weighed food records plus photos in post-menopausal women with healthy weight and with obesity
    (The Ohio State University, 2019-05) Pokala, Avinash; Orchard, Tonya; Weinhold, Kellie
    Background: Accurately assessing dietary intake is challenging. Photographic records may improve accuracy of dietary assessment, but evidence in older populations is limited. This research examined differences between dietary intake assessed using a weighed food record (WFR) versus a WFR plus photo record. Objective/Hypothesis: Determine if there is an added benefit to having participants provide photographic evidence of food intake along with a self-reported written weighed food record. Methods: Two days of WFRs with photos were collected from 15 postmenopausal women with BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 and 15 with BMI ≥30 kg/m2. Two different researchers entered data into nutritional analysis software; one used WFRs with photos and one used the same WFRs without photos. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to evaluate differences between dietary assessment methods for nutrients of interest on day 1 and day 2 in all participants and by weight category. Results: Mean (SD) energy and added sugar intake on day 1 was 1822(607) kcal and 53.6(57.9)g respectively when estimated using WFRs without photos, and 1615(489) kcal and 40.5(28.9)g respectively when using WFRs with photos. Dietary assessment using WFRs alone tended to show greater intake for nutrients of interest; however, there were no statistically significant differences between dietary assessment methods for any variables tested (all p>0.05). Similarly, dietary assessment method did not result in significant differences (all p>0.05) in estimated intake of nutrients within weight categories (i.e. in women with healthy weight and women with obesity). Conclusions: Photographic records did not significantly change estimation of nutrient consumption in this sample of postmenopausal women. Therefore, eliminating photo records when assessing dietary intake of older women using WFRs may reduce subject burden without sacrificing accuracy. Additional research is needed to determine the utility of photos when less rigorous methods of dietary assessment, such as self-reported food diaries, are used.
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    Associations Among Physical Activity, Medication, and Supplement Use and Urinary Sucrose Biomarkers
    (The Ohio State University, 2019-05) Edwards, Leslie; Orchard, Tonya
    In order to identify relationships between added sugar intake and health outcomes, accurate methods for assessing dietary intake of added sugars are needed as relying on memory introduces error. Urinary sucrose excretion has been proposed as a possible objective biomarker of added sugar intake. Regular physical activity (PA) can modify excretion of certain nutrients, but association with urinary sucrose excretion is unclear. The primary aim was to examine associations between PA and urinary sucrose excretions while secondarily exploring the associations among medication and supplement use and urinary sucrose excretions. 30 healthy postmenopausal women were enrolled:15 with healthy weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) and 15 with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). Weighted food records plus photos of usual dietary intake and urine samples were collected and analyzed on two days one week apart; sweet tea was added to usual intake on day two. Urinary sugar excretion was quantified by an enzymatic assay. The Godin questionnaire was used to assess PA, and self-reported medication and supplement use was collected.Pearson correlations were used to evaluate associations. There was a trend for a direct association between fasting first morning urinary sucrose with total supplements reported (p=0.0667) which prompted further exploration into supplement usage by category. Participants taking B-Vitamin supplements had significantly higher first morning urinary sucrose on Day 1 (p=0.0081) and Day 2 (p=0.0010) compared to participants not taking B-Vitamins. Participants taking a multivitamin supplement had significantly higher first morning urinary sucrose compared to participants taking no multivitamin on Day 1 (p=0.0285) but not on Day 2. To conclude, B-Vitamin and multivitamin supplementation is associated with higher urinary sucrose excretion among postmenopausal women. Dietary supplement usage may alter excretion of urinary sugars and further analysis is required to elucidate these relationships.
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    Assessing Food Availability and Variety at a Homeless Youth Drop-In Center
    (The Ohio State University, 2017-05) Yarcusko, Emily; Hatsu, Irene
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the food supply of a drop-in center, located in central Ohio that specifically serves homeless youth and how this relates to the diet quality of homeless youth. Another purpose was to assess the youth's knowledge as related to dietary intake and behavior. Study Design and Methodology: This was an observational study that used surveys to collect socio-demographic and homeless experience data. Validated surveys were used to measure food inventory of the drop-in center, as well as the nutrition knowledge and diet quality of the homeless youth. Data was analyzed using SPSS Software. The analysis described homeless youth nutrition knowledge, the food inventory of the drop-in center, and explore (using univariate and multivariate method) the associations between the foods available at the drop-in center and diet quality. Results: A majority of the youth were male (60%), and nearly 73% had a high school diploma or less. The mean age for youth was 21.19 (1.76), while the average age of homelessness onset was 17.98 (3.31). HFI scores: Dairy: M = 5.33, SD = 1.37, (range 3-7); vegetables: M=12.17, SD = 2.86, (range 7-14); fruit: M = 10.83, SD = 2.23, (range 8-14); meat and other non-dairy protein: M= 9, SD =2.61, (range 5-10). The mean obesogenic food availability score was 31 ± 4.18, (range 23-34). Of the participants, 47% reported daily visit to the drop-in center, and 63% reported eating at the drop-in center one or two times each visit. The average nutrition knowledge score of the youth was 11.4 (2.94), and the average healthy eating index (HEI) score was 54.92 (10.8). There was no significant correlation between the HEI score and the frequency of drop-in center visits, or frequency or eating at the drop-in center. Conclusion: The drop-in center is providing a variety of healthy food options such as fruits and vegetables. In addition, there are limited unhealthy food options provided by the facility. However, the youth are not consuming the healthy food options provided by the drop-in center. This suggest there is another source, or way in which youth are acquiring the fruits and vegetables they are consuming.
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    Experiences of Adolescents Participating in Operation: Military Kids (OMK)
    (The Ohio State University, 2015-05) Bailey, Quinn; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah; Lang, Sarah; Ferrari, Theresa
    This paper examines the experiences of adolescents who were participants with the support organization Operation: Military Kids (OMK). Individual interviews with adolescents were conducted and analyzed in order to identify major themes described by military adolescents in relation to their personal and family dynamics and experience with OMK. Through inductive analysis (Thomas, 2006), four key themes of military adolescent experiences emerged. The current study examined the major themes of deployment, family relationships, personal growth, and support and survival to better understand issues facing youth in military families. Findings show, overall, that these adolescents face unique stressors, including the expectation to adapt to mature roles within the family, while facing the normal developmental challenges of adolescence. It was found that participants were very satisfied with programming offered by OMK, and found the most value in having access to a supportive and understanding community of people with similar experiences.
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    The Comparability and Validity of Teacher and Caregiver Ratings Regarding Young Children's Development
    (The Ohio State University, 2015-05) McGinnis, Colin M.; Piasta, Shayne B.
    The Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) is a widely-used screener of young children's cognitive, physical, and social development delays. According to the developers, the ASQ is typically completed by children's caregivers. However, ASQs are occasionally completed by teachers or other professionals in early childhood settings across the country. Studies have found that childcare provides, including preschool teachers, parents of preschoolers and kindergarten teachers all hold different concerns and expectations (i.e., academic and behavioral skills) when considering a young child's academic performance and school readiness. This study examines the agreement between caregivers and professionals with respect to completing ASQ-3, and the validity of respondents when compared to the Preschool-Language Scale (PLS-5) an objective and unbiased third party measure. Utilizing reports from 52 children's caregiver and teacher ASQ-3 reports and PLS-5 screeners, three findings emerged: (a) a majority of ratings by caregivers and teachers agreed when assessing the developmental risk level of a young child, however evidence concerning disagreement was compelling; (b) although few predictors of caregiver-teacher disagreement were identified, agreement of risk level was higher for children whose mothers had completed or gone beyond a high school diploma than for children whose mothers did not in the communication domain; (c) caregivers, but not teachers, exhibited significant, yet moderate in magnitude, correlations in ratings with scores on a direct assessment suggesting caregivers ratings are more valid than those of teachers.
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    Project SWEAT: A Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment of USDA Summer Food Service Program Sites in Urban, Low-Income Zip Codes
    (The Ohio State University, 2018-05) May, Leah; Gunther, Carolyn
    Background: Childhood overweight and obesity persists, and the summer months are a window of risk for unhealthy child weight gain. Unfortunately, little is known about the food and physical activity [PA] environments to which kids are exposed during the summer. Objective: To examine the food and PA environments away from the home – specifically, USDA Summer Food Service Program [SFSP] sites – to which children are exposed during the summer months. Methods: Two Columbus City Schools in low-income, urban zip codes were recruited - 43205, 43206, 43207. The SFSP sites in the surrounding neighborhoods of the schools were identified. Sites were assessed using the Project SWEAT Site Environmental Assessment form. Results: 20 SFSP sites were identified. 70% (n=14) of sites were open SFSP sites. 90% (n=18) of sites had accessible water fountains. 25% (n=5) and 40% (n=8) of sites had snack and beverage vending machines with 100% (n=5) of snack vending machines having mixed healthy and unhealthy options. 88% (n=7) of sites had beverage vending machines having mixed healthy and unhealthy options and 12% (n=1) having only unhealthy options. Indoor and outdoor PA environments were present at 75% (n=15) and 85% (n=17) of sites; 35% (n=7), 5% (n=1), 60% (n=12), and 85% (n=17) had swimming pool, trampoline, playground equipment, and a basketball hoop. Outdoor fields were present at 80% (16) of sites, and indoor basketball hoops and outdoor playgrounds were each available at 60% (12) of sites. Indoor gyms were available at 75% (15) of sites. Seventy percent (n=14) of sites had screen time devices present, specifically children had access to televisions, computers, and video game consoles at 55% (n=11), 50% (n=10), and 15% (n=3) of sites respectively. Conclusions: Overall, the food and PA environments of the sites were favorable due to the availability of PA environments at most sites and the health of available snack and beverage sources. Information from this study can be used to reform policy to ensure child accessibility to positive environments during the summer months.
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    Children's Preferences for Different Types of Picture Books
    (The Ohio State University, 2014-05) Xia, Qingqing; Wagner, Laura
    Picture books are a recourse for children to gain basic world knowledge, practice cognitive thinking, and build language skills (Strasser & Seplocah, 2007). This study examined elements from children, parents or picture books that might have a potential influence over children's preferences towards picture books. There are four research predictions for the study: 1) Children would prefer the picture books with the major character of matching gender to themselves; 2) Children would prefer the picture books' minimal suggested reading age matches their own; 3) Parental influence, which is frequency of joint reading and their knowledge of picture book, would positively correlate with children's average preference scores; 4) Younger children would prefer picture books with higher visual stimulation level than older readers. A set of 100 books were analyzed with characteristics that might influence children's reading preferences. These factors included gender of the major character, visual stimulation level, and minimal suggested reading age. From an online survey,142 valid responses from parents were collected. These information included the basic demographics about their children, as well as their children's preference scores of this set of books. This study did not support any of the predictions. However, the data suggested that parents in general rated that girls preferred picture books more so than boys.
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    The Link Between Mindset, Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning, and Metacognitive Learning Strategies
    (The Ohio State University, 2019-05) Kachnowski, Katherine; Wolters, Christopher
    It has been suggested that students hold beliefs, both conscious and subconscious, about their ability to learn. One set of beliefs, implicit theories of intelligence, indicates student beliefs about their ability to learn. Students are said to hold an incremental mindset, more commonly known as a growth mindset, when they believe intelligence is malleable. When they believe intelligence is a stable trait, they hold an entity theory, or a fixed mindset (Dweck & Leggett, 1988; Castella, 2015). Another set of beliefs, self-efficacy, indicates student beliefs regarding their ability to complete a task successfully (Zimmerman, 2000). Students with higher self-efficacy are more likely to have greater cognitive engagement when learning (Walker, 2016). Both growth mindset and self-efficacy have been linked to self-regulated learning (Antony, 2016; Yan, 2014). Self-regulated learning is defined as a series of self-determined thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are set in order to reach educational goals (Zimmerman, 2000). Positive links have been found in students who hold growth mindset and use self-regulated learning processes in a meta-analysis that assessed the links between implicit theories and self-regulation (Burnette, 2013). The sample consisted of students (N = 132) who were enrolled in a three-credit-hour course that focused on motivation and learning strategies. Students were administered a self-reported questionnaire that asked them to rate themselves accordingly regarding beliefs about learning on a Likert scale. These beliefs included self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, growth mindset, and metacognitive learning strategies. Preliminary analyses indicated positive correlations between all three variables, with the strongest link between self-efficacy for self-regulated learning and metacognitive learning strategies. In addition, regression analyses suggested a significant relationship between self-efficacy for self-regulated learning and metacognitive learning strategies (b = .48, p < .001), but no significant relationship between growth mindset and metacognitive strategies. These findings offers support for the connection between students’ self-efficacy for self-regulated learning and their reported use of metacognitive strategies.
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    Evaluating Education: Analyzing Pre-Service Teachers’ Assessments in Light of Equity Pedagogy and Mathematical Practices
    (The Ohio State University, 2019-05) Britt, Olivia; Erchick, Diana
    The purpose of this study was to assess pre-service teachers’ application of equity pedagogy and mathematical practices in their evaluation of children’s mathematical content knowledge and reasoning skills. This agenda is in response to a call from the national mathematics education research community to pursue such connections. In this study, the researchers utilized two tools: the Learning about Mathematics and Pedagogy (LAMP) survey and a series of reflective prompts. These tools were used to survey pre-service teachers (PSTs) from an Early Childhood Education program at a regional campus of a large Research I institution. The survey and reflective prompt results suggest that these PSTs struggled to incorporate certain aspects of equity pedagogy and mathematical practices in their assessments of children’s mathematical content knowledge and reasoning skills. The data collected suggests these PSTs are not instinctively choosing to seek out and give weight to the arguments of their own students. Instead, it appears that they are using a narrow perspective in approaching mathematical content as well as in interpreting their students’ logical reasoning without input from the students themselves. However, these results improved significantly upon a second administration of the survey and reflective prompts tool following a Math Methods course taken by the PSTs as part of their undergraduate program. We conclude that the PSTs’ initial perspective came as the result of an incomplete content knowledge, given they were more inclined to make equitable choices in their responses to students’ work when they themselves demonstrated a deeper understanding of the content that was being taught.
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    "Shall I project a world?" Projections, Power, and Blindness in Thomas Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49
    (The Ohio State University, 2019-05) Emmerson, Rachel; Schotter, Jesse
    In his novel, The Crying of Lot 49, Thomas Pynchon creates a world for female protagonist Oedipa Maas to journey through in order to execute the will of her ex-lover, Pierce Inverarity. Many aspects of this world are fictional – for example, characters with comical, punny names like Emory Bortz; a conspiracy surrounding the mail system thanks to a group called the Tristero, whose existence is still questionable by the novel’s end; and the city of San Narciso, whose name draws inspiration from Greek mythology’s Narcissus. Yet, the use of maps to find not only one’s physical location, but also to find one’s identity is grounded in the reality of daily life. However, just like her namesake – Sophocles’ Oedipus from Oedipus Rex – Oedipa is figuratively blind to the maps that are projected around her, which leaves her at a loss of location and self-identification. This begs the question: if Pynchon creates this world, including these projections, for Oedipa, why would he then make her blind to them? This thesis concludes that Oedipa only serves as a passive spectator (of what she can see) to Pynchon’s active projections. Despite certain points in the novel where she rises to a more active role and grasps at empowerment – for example, posing the question, “Shall I project a world?” in order to assume the role of projector instead of Pynchon – Oedipa still ends up in the same place she started; even though she tries to escape Pynchon’s control, she cannot. Therefore, in keeping Oedipa blind, passive, and powerless, Pynchon not only exerts his power over her, but abuses it, demonstrating the impossibility of a blind victim’s escape from the harsh cycle of an abusive relationship.
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    A correlation analysis of game statistics and season results in Major League Soccer
    (The Ohio State University, 2017-05) Sinicariello, Ana; Turner, Brian; Pastore, Donna
    The aim of this study was to analyze statistical data collected from all games (n = 340) in the 2016 Major League Soccer regular season and discover which statistics are correlated to total season points. Statistical data for 37 variables was collected from the regular season and organized as averages by team. Statistical data for 35 variables was collected from the regular season for the 10 field players with the highest season minutes and organized by player and as averages by team. These variables were then analyzed to determine which were correlated to total season points. The statistics analyzed included crosses, shots on target, yellow cards, aerial duels won, shots against, key passes, offside, player height, etc. The variable of season points refers to the total points a team earns throughout the season by collecting 3 points for each win, 1 point for each tie, and 0 points for each loss. Having the highest amount of total season points is desirable. Multiple team statistics were found to be correlated to total season points such as yellow cards per game (p = 0.0095) and aerial duels won per game (p = 0.0213). Multiple player statistics were found to be correlated, such as average total season minutes (p = 0.00351) and average total assists (p = 0.0610). Besides this, shots on target was found to be significant, but total shots was not. This study aimed to determine the game statistics both by team and by player that are most strongly correlated to total season points.
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    Predictions of Total Work Based on Measures of Muscle Strength and Hop Performance in Individuals after ACL Reconstruction
    (The Ohio State University, 2015-05) Montalto, Mary; Schmitt, Laura
    A tear to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a devastating injury that commonly results in ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and can have detrimental effects on an individual’s activity level, extracurricular participation and future joint health. Muscle strength and hop performance are common clinical tools to evaluate readiness for return to sports participation, but limited information is known regarding how these measures relate to specific measures of athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between measures of hop performance and muscle strength with total work during a single leg vertical jump task in young athletes after ACLR. Total work was used to quantify cumulative power during a single leg vertical jump. Fifty-one individuals (36 females, age 14-23) with unilateral ACLR, who were cleared by a physician to return to their sport following ACLR and rehabilitation, participated in the study. Participants performed a repeated single leg vertical jump for 10 seconds on a force plate, which measured power generation and absorption during each single-limb takeoff and landing. Total work (J) was calculated by summing the area under the positive and negative power curve. Clinical data gathered included performance on a 6-meter timed hop (seconds), single hop, triple hop and crossover hop for distance (cm). Quadriceps femoris and hamstring strength (Nm) were calculated with an isokinetic dynamometer using isokinetic (180°/s, 300°/s) and isometric testing. Through regression analysis, nearly all clinical measures significantly predicted variance in power output during the vertical jump task. Quadriceps femoris strength at 180°/s was the strongest predictor (highest R2 adjusted value) of total work for both the involved and uninvolved limb after accounting for height and weight. Future research is needed to understand the association between performance on the repeated vertical single leg jump test and sport performance after ACLR to better predict a successful return to sport.
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    Examination of differences in added sugar consumption and urinary sugar excretion between post-menopausal women with healthy weight and post-menopausal women with obesity
    (The Ohio State University, 2018-12) Joviak, Madelyn; Orchard, Tonya; Bomser, Joshua
    Accurate records of added sugar (AS) intake are difficult to keep. Valid and reliable biomarkers of added sugar consumption are needed to study its relationship to disease. This project is an examination of differences in AS consumption and urinary excretion in post-menopausal women with healthy weight and post-menopausal women with obesity. Healthy, postmenopausal women were recruited from the Franklin County area; 15 lean (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) and 15 obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) women were enrolled. This study used a pre-post test, single group design. An initial visit was conducted to determine eligibility, obtain informed consent and collect anthropometric, demographic, and lifestyle data. Participants completed two separate 24-hour food records of usual dietary intake followed by fasting morning urine collections. Record collection days were one week apart, and a sugar-sweetened beverage was added to usual intake on the second day. The Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) was used to analyze food records. Urinary sucrose excretion was analyzed using a modified enzymatic assay.The mean body mass index (BMI) of the study participants was 30.7±8.0 and an average age of 60 years old ±5 years. Women with normal weight consumed more AS, (88±48gm, p=<0.01), on day 2. Women with obesity also consumed more AS (83±40g, p=<0.01) on day 2 Urine analyses indicate that on study day 2, there was three times the amount of sucrose detected in the urine of the women with normal weight than in the women with obesity (p=0.043). When consuming a sugar-sweetened beverage, urinary sucrose excretion is detectable among women with normal weight.
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    Adolescent Girls' Reactions to a Body-Image-Centered Young Adult Novel
    (The Ohio State University, 2018-12) Fuller, Hannah; Parsons, Linda
    How our young readers react to the books they read can say a lot about the way that young adult literature is written for and about them. Amid societal expectations to be the ideal body type, young female readers find this message reflected in the books written for their age group. These texts either perpetuate this message or humanize the experience of being perceived as overweight as an adolescent. Qualitative research taking place in book clubs has been conducted to explore perceptions of body image; however, my research addresses specifically middle school female readers and their engagement within book discussions in response to a body-image-centered young adult novel. I conducted qualitative research in a book club with 8th grade girls to discuss and record their reactions to the text Dumplin’ by Julie Murphy. These reader reactions served as crucial data as I observed a pattern in their responses during my analysis. I found that during adolescent book discussions, participants position themselves in relation to the texts they read and may purposefully distance themselves by remaining either disconnectedly objective or passive and engaging sparsely, if at all, with the text, during group discussion. This contrasts with participants that engage with the text and its message, contributing and driving discussion. With my analysis, educators may foster their understanding of students with limited engagement and implement practices that are more effective for these students and the structure of book discussions in the classroom.