Frequency and Distribution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Serotypes 03, 06, 011 in Three Northwestern Ohio Hospitals as
Determined by ELISA Using Specific Monoclonal Antibodies Jamasbi, Roudabeh J. pp. 10-15
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Amphibians and reptiles were surveyed along Little South Fork (tributary of the Cumberland River) and other sites within the drainage basin from May-October 1996 and April-May 1997 to determine the distribution and composition of the herpetofauna. Twenty-three species of amphibians and reptiles were captured or observed. Based on published and unpublished accounts and museum records, 41 species of amphibians and reptiles are known from the basin in Wayne and McCreary counties. Chelydra serpentina and Sternotherus odoratus are known from Little South Fork, and the latter from Wayne County, for the first time. Graptemys geographica was distributed throughout the surveyed portion of Little South Fork. Leeches (Placob delta parasitical were found on two Graptemys geographica and one Chelydra serpentina.
(1999-04) Bailey, Sarah; Rebbeck, Joanne; Loats, Ken V.
The response of Lemna minor L. andSpirodelapolyrhiza (L.) Schleiden to projected future ambient levels of O3 and CO2 was studied under field conditions. The two duckweed species were treated with either charcoal-filtered air (CF), ambient O3 (1XO3), twice ambient O (2XO ), twice ambient CO2 plus twice ambient O3 (2XCO2+2XO3), or chamberless open-air (OA). Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment I, L. minor was treated for 15 d with a cumulative O exposure of 14.4 ppm* h. No O effects were observed during Experiment I. Dry weight of individual fronds and photosynthesis per frond increased inZ. minor exposed to 2XCO2+2XO^- air. In Experiment II after 25 d of treatment (cumulative O3 exposure of 16.2 ppmh), negative effects of 2XO on the photosynthetic and growth rates of L. minor were observed. Dark respiration of Z. minor significantly increased in 2XO3-air compared with controls, but declined significantly in 2XCO2+2XO3-air compared to those grown in 2XO3-air. Photosynthesis and dry weight per frond increased in 2XCO2+2XO3-air when compared with all other treatments. Measurement of A/C. (assimilation versus intercellular CO2 concentration) curves in Z. minor showed a significant reduction in carboxylation efficiency and maximum rates of photosynthesis in 2XCO2+2XO3-air compared with other treatments when expressed per weight. No differences in carboxylation efficiency were detected between treatments when expressed per frond.
(1999-04) Leff, Adam A.; Leff, Laura G.; Lemke, Michael J.; Heath, Robert T.; Gao, Xueqing
Abundance of virus-like particles (VLP) was determined in Lake Erie subsurface water. The relationship between VLP and the bacterial and phytoplankton communities were investigated. Viral and bacterial numbers were determined using nucleic acid stains and epifluorescent microscopy. Phytoplankton abundance was estimated by chlorophylls extraction. Viral abundance averaged 1.05 x 106 VLP/ml and the ratio of viral to bacterial number was less than 1.0 across most sampling sites and dates. Viral abundance was not correlated with either bacterial abundance or chlorophyll a concentration. Viral abundance was found to be most similar to other Great Lakes and marine systems and dissimilar to other freshwater systems.
Hybridoma producing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), specific for three clinically significant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (serotypes 03, 06, and Oil), were generated to investigate the prevalence of these serotypes in three Northwestern Ohio hospitals. Fusion products reacting with bacterial cells or membrane extracts were detected by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Three mAbs designated: 72C, 11 H (IgM) and HE (IgG2b), were selected. These mAbs reacted with approximately 40% of the clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa in each hospital. The incidence of serotype Oil varied in these hospitals, ranging from 13.2%-23.8%. Serotype Oil predominated in two of the three hospitals. The prevalence of serotype 06 was similar in all three hospitals (13.6-15%). In one of the hospitals (Hospital 2), the occurrence of serotype 06 was slightly higher (15%) than serotype Oil (13-2%). Serotype 03 occurred less frequently (1.5%) in one of the hospitals than in the other two (10-11%). None of the serotypes showed clear predilection toward any body site. The mAbs did not react with other strains of P. aeruginosa, nor with other gram-negative or gram-positive organisms. The results of Immunofluorescence and Western blot correlated well with ELISA. However, ELISA showed a higher sensitivity, indicating the usefulness of this technique for serotyping P. aeruginosa.
Few data are available on net productivity rates in Laurentian Great Lakes wetland communities. We used several methods (Licor photosynthesis system and various radiotracer methods) to estimate midsummer carbon photoassimilation rates among important phytoplanktonic and aquatic macrophyte assemblages in Old Woman Creek National Estuarine Research Reserve (OWC) on Lake Erie near Huron, OH, during 1993-1995- Our data suggested that the majority of carbon flow into the OWC estuary (approximately 66-99% of the total) occurred through aquatic macrophytes, especially the dominant floatingleaved species Nelumbo lutea and the emergent species Phragmites australis.
(1999-04) Tyson, Laura A.; Dolbeer, Richard A.; Belant, Jerrold L.
Many gulls (Larus spp.) that nest on and north of the Great Lakes concentrate along the south shore of western Lake Erie in early winter. Monitoring population trends of these gulls is important because of increasing conflicts between gulls and humans. We used data from four Christmas Bird Count locations to examine population trends of four gull species on western Lake Erie during nine 5-year periods, 1951-1995. Overall, ring-billed gulls (Z. delawarensis} were the dominant species (59% of gulls counted) followed by herring (Z. argentatus, 20%), Bonaparte's (Z. Philadelphia, 18%) and great blackbacked (Z. marinus, 0.2%) gulls. Ring-billed gulls displayed the most dramatic population changes over the 45-year period, increasing 23-fold (P <0.05) from 1951-1955 to 1981-1985- The population then declined (P <0.05) by 57% from 1981-1985 to 1991-1995. Population trends for Bonaparte's gulls followed the same general pattern as ring-billed gulls. Herring gulls showed an 11-fold increase (P <0.05) from 1951-1955 to 1971-1975 (10 years before the ring-billed and Bonaparte's peak) followed by a decline. Great black-backed gulls showed slight (P >0.05) increases among 5-year periods from 1951-1990 with a 3.3-fold increase (P <0.05) from 1986-1990 to 1991-1995. Early winter numbers of herring, ring-billed, and Bonaparte's gulls have stabilized or declined from peak numbers recorded on western Lake Erie in the 1970s and 1980s whereas great black-backed gull population numbers have increased. Continued monitoring of both early winter and nesting populations, combined with studies of feeding habits and migratory patterns, are needed to evaluate long-term trends of Great Lakes gull populations and to provide a foundation for management programs to resolve gull-human conflicts.