28th Denman Undergraduate Research Forum (2023)

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    Associations Between Social Network Support and Frequent Mental Distress among Sexual and Gender Diverse Cancer Survivors
    (2023-03) Fuller, John; Mallory, Allen
    Introduction/Background: Due to discrimination and marginalization, sexual and gender diverse (SGD) people are an underserved and understudied population across the cancer care continuum. Compared to their cisgender-heterosexual counterparts, SGD populations experience higher levels of social isolation and weaker social networks, which have been linked to poor mental health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the association between social network support (SNS) and frequent mental distress (FMD) after a cancer diagnosis among SGD cancer survivors and to determine if this association varied by race/ethnicity. Methods: Data from OUT: The National Cancer Survey was used in this secondary analysis. Adult SGD cancer survivors who resided in the U.S. were recruited and administered an online survey in September 2020. Data from participants (N = 2,065) who responded to both survey questions regarding SNS and FMD were included in the current study. We used a CDC-validated measure of FMD. Descriptive statistics were generated, and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results: In the unadjusted model, biracial/multiracial SGD cancer survivors were more likely to experience FMD than their White counterparts (OR = 1.701; 95% CI = 1.156, 2.50; P = 0.007); no racial differences were found in the final model. In our adjusted model, SGD cancer survivors with much or somewhat weaker SNS after cancer diagnosis were nearly twice as likely as those with much or somewhat stronger SNS to experience FMD (OR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.23, 2.33; P = 0.001). Age, sexual orientation, current health status, and cancer survivor social support were associated with FMD. Conclusions: Further research is needed to examine how SNS manifests among SGD cancer survivors and influences their mental health outcomes.
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    The Marketability of High-Priced Stocks After Fractional Trading
    (2023-03) Gunawan, Jennifer; Birru, Justin
    Fintech brokers engaging in a high-frequency trading payment for order flow (HFT-PFOF) model are compensated proportional to the amount of trading activity happening in their accounts. Intense competition for order flow incentivizes them to increase the marketability of stocks by introducing fractional trading (FT) which allows investors to trade stocks without the constraint of prices. This paper studies whether virtually reducing stocks' nominal prices via FT will cause an increase in its demand due to its newfound affordability-- given the ability to trade high-priced stocks, are investors willing to? If we observe an increase in its demand, this study will provide additional evidence that wealth levels pose a significant determinant for trading decisions. We find that retail trading activity in high-priced stocks significantly increased over the 10 days after FT was introduced. In aggregate, we find significant increases in trading volume (by over 1 million trades), volatility, and ownership breadth. We show that Robinhood investors are largely contrarian buyers in the advent of FT. However, their trades may be too small to move the volume weighted average price (VWAP) to showcase their increasing demand as we saw significant increases in volatility and ownership breadth-- this could explain why 10-day CAR was -0.3%. We further provide anecdotal evidence of significant overpricing in retail-favored high-priced stocks where 10-day CAR was +3.4%. This paper shows that the affordability of stocks play a significant role in trading decisions, thus providing evidence towards the marketability hypothesis.
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    Resolving Issues In Business Income Insurance Resulting From Government Mandated Shutdowns During Declared Public States of Emergency
    (2023-03) Thompson, Noah; Blackburn, John
    Introduction As the COVID-19 pandemic spread in the United States in 2020, state and local governments required many businesses to shut down. Many affected businesses consequently filed claims with their commercial insurance policies to recover lost revenue. However, insurance companies had planned well for such situations and denied coverage on most claims. When pursued in court these claims continued to be denied. This research proposes an alternative legislative solution to manage future catastrophic business losses incurred during government mandated shutdowns during public states of emergency. Methods Court decisions upholding insurance company denial of coverage for business lost income due to COVID-19 were examined, using traditional legal analysis, to discern the judicial rationale for denying coverage. In addition, public policy initiatives in the form of recently enacted state and federal laws, proposed legislation, and academic proposals issued during the pandemic period were examined, using post hoc public policy analysis methods. Results The legislation review showed that government, in general, did not have policies in place to protect businesses from government mandated shutdowns. The few reviewed legislative proposals enacted into law showed an intention to protect businesses. State legislative proposals generally favored mandating revisions to commercial insurance coverages, while proposals for federal law reform favored financial assistance to insurers. Conclusion This research proposes new legislation in Ohio that applies to all licensed commercial insurers conducting business in the state. Under the proposed statute, once a public state of emergency is declared, the state insurance commissioner reviews claims from businesses forced to shut down that would otherwise be denied under the terms of the claimant's commercial insurance policy; and, if a claim meets criteria set forth in the proposed statute, the state pays the claim. Utilizing financing methods from both private insurers and the state government, once a level of specified aggregate losses due to the state of emergency is met, both the government and commercial insurers share jointly in the payment of claims on a pro-rata basis.
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    Pain intensity, unpleasantness, and anxiety in older adults with and without cancer
    (2023-03) Siva, Asvena; Failla, Michelle
    Background: Higher pain levels are associated with higher anxiety levels in people living with cancer. While older adults with cancer may potentially be more prone to higher anxiety levels and cancer-related pain, less is known about this relationship between pain and anxiety in older adults. Methods: We examined the relationship between pain and anxiety in adults aged 60 or older with and without cancer. Pain (intensity/unpleasantness) and anxiety (state/trait) were assessed using questionnaires. We recruited 30 participants with cancer, the majority of whom have breast or prostate cancer (mean age=70.5土8.2 years, 53% female), and 69 controls (mean age=71.8土7.2 years, 61% female). Participants reported current pain and an average value of pain over the last two weeks (numeric rating scale 0-20). Anxiety experienced at the moment (state) and the overall tendency for anxiety (trait) was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results: Participants with cancer reported their current pain as more intense (2.7土3.8) and unpleasant (2.6土4.0) than participants without cancer (intensity: 1.0土2.5, p=0.027; and unpleasantness: 0.9土2.5, p=0.036). Participants with cancer also reported their average pain over the last two weeks as more intense (7.6土6.0) and unpleasant (7.1土5.8) than participants without cancer (intensity: 4.2土4.1, p=0.012; and unpleasantness: 4.0土3.8, p=0.022). There were no group differences in state anxiety (Cancer: 12.2土3.7, Controls: 12.7土3.3, p=0.24) or trait anxiety levels (Cancer: 14.6土4.5, Controls: 14.7土3.4, p=0.39). For each group, we found no significant correlations between state or trait anxiety and either intensity or unpleasantness of current pain or pain from the last two weeks. Conclusions: While previous studies found higher pain and anxiety levels in people with cancer, older adults may be affected by other important factors that may change this relationship. Future work should consider factors such as medication and other comorbidities in this population.
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    How does the reliability of a distracting cue affect visual feature errors?
    (2023-03) McNally, John; Golomb, Julie
    We are constantly perceiving our dynamic world and encoding its features. Prior research showed that attention plays a crucial role in feature perception and encoding, with attentional capture eliciting a distinct pattern of feature errors. However, the magnitude of these feature errors has differed across studies, despite largely similar designs. One possibility for this variation could be the presence/absence of overlapping target and distractor cues, i.e., "valid" trials. Could the learned relevance of a distracting cue affect our ability to suppress it and reduce feature errors? To learn more about the importance of learned distractor relevance, a largely similar delayed estimation task was again used, but the experiment was split into two contexts. The contexts differed by the prevalence of target and distracting cue overlap. One context (0% match) had no overlap of the target and distracting cue while the other context (50% match) had a target-distracting cue overlap on half of the distractor-present trials. The two contexts were presented in separate halves of the experiment, with order counterbalanced across participants. We used a probabilistic mixture model to estimate parameters of interest including the swap rate, mean shift, standard deviation, and guess rate for each condition. Our results replicated previous findings of significant swap errors on "invalid" trials, where subjects reported the color at the distracting cue location instead of the target location. Interestingly, we found a difference in the magnitude of the swap effects over time, depending on which context was experienced first. These results suggest that the learned relevance of a distractor cue can affect how likely participants were to be captured by a salient distractor and its resulting impact on target feature perception, and that statistical regularities relating to salient items affect the perception and encoding of stimulus features.
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    Optimization and Purification of Full-Length and Truncated Botulinum Neurotoxin A Light Chain for Assay Development
    (2023-03) Wilmer, Melissa; McElroy, Craig
    The 7 serotypes of Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) are some of the most lethal substances known. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) regards them as Category A Tier 1 agents due to their lethal dose for a 70 kg human of approximately 0.09-0.15 ug when given intravenously or intramuscularly and 0.7-0.9 ug when inhaled, and their tendency to stay in the body for long periods of time (3-6 months).1 making the potential for their use as a weapon of mass destruction extremely unnerving.1 The high level of toxicity and ease of production associated with BoNTs makes their potential for use as a biological warfare agent unnerving. Standard prophylactic approaches for protection, such as vaccination, are not ideal as BoNTs also have applications as a therapeutic. The current treatments that exist for BoNT poisoning involves supportive care, mechanical ventilation, and the administration of antitoxins that are only effective when the toxin is still in the circulatory system and has not entered the nerve cell.2 The current treatments are impractical in the case of a widespread attack, and they are limited to the time between exposure and entry into the nerve cells, therefore new therapeutics that are capable of inhibiting BoNTs after nerve cell entry are needed. The research conducted focused on the protein expression and purification of BoNT serotype A Light Chain (BoNT/A-LC), the portion of the BoNT protein specifically involved in SNAP-25 cleavage, in both a truncated and full-length form.2 A variety of conditions were manipulated to determine optimal protein expression: including time after IPTG induction, growth temperature, E. coli strain, and media type. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) eluted using Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) and TEV protease were used to purify the protein based on the IMAC's affinity to the 6xHis-tag engineered on the protein and the protein's TEV cleavage site. Additional methods of purification such as Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) and anionic exchange were used to further purify the protein. The optimization and purification experiments were analyzed using SDS-PAGE, and fractions corresponding to peaks on the FPLC chromatogram. The most optimal conditions were in BL21(DE3) cells grown in terrific broth (TB) for 22 hours following 1 mM IPTG induction at OD600 of 0.6 with shaking at 20 °C. The pure protein will be used to develop a Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Assay that measures BoNT/A-LC cleavage of the SNAP-25 complex using a fluorescence plate reader to obtain the relative fluorescence unit (RFU) values at 470 nm and 527 nm.9 The detection of BoNT/A-LC activity will be calculated by the decrease in the emission ratio (RFU 527/RFU 470) compared to the control wells. This assay will allow for the quantification of the potency of novel BoNT/A-LC inhibitors compared to a known inhibitor.
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    Using Supervised Learning to Optimize Multi-objective Infectious Disease Control
    (2023-03) Xu, Jiaqi; Perrault, Andrew
    Since Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) are the key tools that we have for combatting outbreaks and they often have substantial costs, it is important to investigate a better policy that can balance the cost and the effectiveness. We believe supervised learning can help us to find a better disease control policy that will directly reduce the infected rate of SARS-CoV-2 with an affordable cost. Additionally, optimizing contact tracing policy can be viewed as a multi-objective reinforcement learning problem and we show the potential of using reinforcement learning for this optimization problem.
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    Eating Competency and Body Dysmorphia in Individuals Who Identify as Gender Queer
    (2023-03) Bleoo, Heather; Kennel, Julie
    Introductions/Background. Health disparities based on gender identity exist, in part, because of limited genderqueer inclusive environments and evidence-based health assessment methods. Specifically, people who identify as genderqueer have higher risk for eating disorders, possible attributable to body dysmorphia and barriers to positive mental health. Research with primarily cisgender people show that Eating Competency, as defined as being positive, comfortable, and flexible with eating, is associated with lower body dissatisfaction, higher diet quality, and less restrained eating. However, little is known about the Eating Competency of genderqueer individuals. This study aims to assess eating competency and body dysmorphia in individuals who identify as genderqueer. Methods. In this descriptive study, participants who identify as genderqueer, are of ages 18-35 years old, and have not been previously diagnosed with an eating disorder will complete a survey to collect an eating competency score, body dysmorphia score, and demographics (e.g., age, race/ethnicity). Participants will be recruited using flyers with a QR code with a link to the anonymous survey. The virtual flyers will be distributed using social media and classroom bulletin boards. Eating competency will be assessed using the validated Satter Eating Competency tool (ecSI 2.0). Possible scores range from 0 to 48 with a score of 32 and above considered to be "competent". Body dysmorphia will be evaluated using the Body Dysmorphia Diagnostic Questionnaire (BDDQ). People who complete the survey are invited to participate in an audio interview to gather additional information about determinants of eating patterns. Descriptive statistics will be used to illustrate eating competency and body dysmorphia. Interview data will be analyzed through thematic analysis by capturing themes and patterns. Results. Based on preliminary data (n=6), 100% of participants' scores for eating competency are below the threshold of "competent". The mean +/- standard deviation is 17.5 +/- 9.9. For the BDDQ, 83.3% of scores suggest the likelihood that body dysmorphia is present. Additional participation is expected and will be necessary before conclusions can be made.
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    Use of biobehavioral responses during a novel object test to assess suitability of horses for equine assisted services
    (2023-03) McNally, Julie; Cole, Kim
    Recent studies have demonstrated positive outcomes for human participants in a variety of equine assisted services (EAS). Horses are highly sensitive animals and quick to react to their environment. Individual variation in the personality characteristics of horses, including their reactivity, may not only create safety concerns but may also influence therapeutic outcomes. To date, there are no available standardized guidelines for the selection of equine for use in EAS. Behavioral observations have historically been used to assess the potential suitability of equine participants. However, overall behavior of individual horses can be challenging to objectively measure. Novel object (NO) tests are often used to assess reactivity in many species, including equine. To our knowledge, no study has yet used NO testing to evaluate reactivity as a measure of suitability for groundwork-based EAS. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess biobehavioral responses of 11 Quarter Horse mares (11.6 ± 4.9 yr) during a NO test as a potential measure of their suitability for participation in EAS. The experiment consisted of three 5 min periods: Pre-NO test (P1), NO test (P2), and Post-NO test (P3). HR was recorded using a Polar H10 Equine HR monitor. Scan sampling every 10 sec was used to record behavior. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS v 9.4. Horse HR differed by horse and decreased with time across all three periods (p < 0.01). During the NO test, locomotion increased with increasing proximity to the NO (p < 0.05). Standing alert and exploratory behaviors decreased during the NO test but were not influenced by the horse's location (p < 0.03). Interestingly, eating behaviors increased during the NO test (P2) compared to the pre- and post-NO tests (p < 0.05). Although behavioral and physiological responses of horses in this study were influenced by individuality and environment, the reduction over time within each period suggests their ability to quickly acclimate to changes in their environment. However, future studies with additional novel objects and horses are needed to determine if the use of this methodology can serve to evaluate suitability of horses for EAS.
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    Effect of Aging on the Plasma Membrane Repair Process in Multiple Cell Types
    (2023-03) Richardson, Eleanor; Weisleder, Noah
    Plasma membrane repair mechanisms play a vital role in supporting the structure and function of most mammalian cells by repairing changes in the permeability of the cell membrane and maintaining its barrier function. Breakdown of the barrier function of the membrane can lead to death of the cell and accumulation (or prevention) of such cell death events can contribute to the progression of various diseases, including cancer, bacterial infection, Alzheimer's disease, heart failure, and muscular dystrophies. Many of these disease states are also exacerbated by the aging process which can alter intracellular vesicle trafficking, an essential cellular process that mediates plasma membrane repair. Here we tested if membrane repair efficiency changed in Mus musculus muscle tissue cells (myocytes) from young and aged mice. Skeletal muscles in the hindlimb of aged mice were injured by treadmill running and the amount of Evan's Blue dye influx into six different anatomical muscles was measured. This experiment showed increased dye influx into the myocytes within gluteus muscles of aged (24 months old) mice compared to younger mice (12 months old) used as controls. Additional studies using laser microscopy injury on Mus musculus muscle tissue cells show an increased FM4-64 dye influx (∆F/F0) following the injury of myocytes from 24-month-old mice compared to 12-month-old mice. Further experimentation was conducted on the effects of senescence, or premature aging, on primary human fibroblasts from young volunteers. Fibroblast cells were treated with hydroxyurea, which causes growth arrest in the S phase of the cell cycle, every 72 hours for 12 days. Membrane repair capacity was tested using laser microscopy injury on senescent cells compared to young untreated control cells. Preliminary findings show decreased plasma membrane repair in cells treated with hydroxyurea. The results of this experiment will guide future research to determine the mechanism of reduced membrane repair during aging and provide a new therapeutic target for aging-related diseases.
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    Get Back to Green: Understanding and improving education on the process of emotion regulation for students ages 5 to 7
    (2023-03) Damron, Ashland; Shen, Yvette; Addy, Shadrick
    The current common core in Ohio includes Social Emotional Learning which sets out to teach students how to build successful relationships, feel empathy for others, and understand and manage their emotions. With the goal being to benefit children's mental health and good decision-making. In my research, I wanted to understand how difficult of a lesson this can be to teach young children, ages 5-7 years old. After interviewing several first and second-grade teachers, I learned that teaching such a heavy topic to young students can be a difficult task, especially with a lack of resources available to make the material engaging. Specifically, with students ages 5-7 years of age, teachers are trying to teach emotion regulation and coping mechanisms. I performed a co-design research session with a classroom of first-grade students to understand what was lacking in their education on this topic. While students were able to recognize the emotions they were feeling and knew what they should do to process them, they struggled with properly practicing the coping mechanisms they had learned. I decided to create a children's book, to be used primarily in a classroom setting, that not only showed the journey of a character facing and overcoming difficult emotions, but also showed the students how to properly exercise healthy coping mechanisms. These coping mechanisms in the storybook were brought to life as animations in augmented reality, for readers to follow along. This supplies students with a toolkit to be able to properly practice the coping mechanisms they are learning, in order for their education on this topic to be most effective. A digital version of this book was also developed as a resource for teachers, to display over projectors or smartboards, and practice with an entire classroom of students. I will be returning to the same classroom of first-grade students to conduct usability testing of the book and augmented reality features.
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    Are illusory objects used strategically to optimize visual working memory?
    (2023-03) Rodriguez, Phelix; Leber, Andrew
    Working memory (WM) is an important cognitive function that maintains only a finite amount of information that is no longer externally available. Because of WM's capacity limitations, information storage optimization is essential. One optimization method occurs through grouping, where items appearing to be parts of a whole are "chunked" for more efficient storage. An example is the illusory object effect of visual WM, where the orientation and alignment of separate items' contours create the appearance of a composite object, shown to allow more efficient storage. However, it is unclear whether the benefits of storing illusory objects as composites are automatically derived or dependent on individual strategic use. In our study, we manipulate the degree to which participants can expect the illusory object effect to be useful and measure the degree to which objects are stored compositely. Participants completed a task where objects were briefly shown on screen prior to a test of one object's color or orientation, with the frequency of each test type manipulated between trial blocks. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups where one group received stimuli only in illusory object-forming configurations and the other received stimuli only in grouped but randomly oriented configurations. Within the illusory object group, performance was significantly higher on orientation tests regardless of within-block frequency. Color and orientation recall were similarly high when each test was likely, but color test accuracy dropped when tests were unlikely. Within the random orientation group, subjects performed significantly better on tests of color than of orientation. Test accuracy for orientation dropped with test likelihood, but only a slight drop was observed for color. Between groups, performance was significantly different on orientation but not color tests, regardless of test likelihood. Our results are consistent with past studies, exhibiting an illusory object memory benefit limited to related object features. However, our findings suggest a lack of modulation by expectation or strategic use, and that the illusory object effect may occur automatically. Our observations provide insight into the storage and optimization processes of WM, though further testing is needed to elucidate precisely when and how grouping processing takes place.
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    Flow Control Optimization using Genetic Algorithms and DMD Reduced Order Model
    (2023-03) Murawski, Steven; Gaitonde, Datta
    The theory of feedback control has been extensively studied and applied to mitigate undesirable flow features of aerodynamic systems. However, feedback control is often difficult to implement for applications described by complex, nonlinear physics. Genetic algorithms (GA) offer an attractive alternative by mimicking natural selection to converge on an optimal control input. The principal benefit of the GA for our purposes is that it is effectively data driven, ie., agnostic to the governing equations of the flow and thus not incurring simplifications typically adopted with other traditional feedback control approaches. In this work, the GA is first validated using a two-dimensional, algebraic test function as a surrogate fitness function; this exercise guides the choice of mutation, selection, and crossover parameters to quickly converge on the optimal solution. The GA is then considered for the problem of a supersonic planar impinging jet to mitigate noise from aeroacoustic resonance modes. The formulation uses a dynamic mode decomposition based reduced order model (DMD-ROM) from a large eddy simulation (LES) database. This allows various combinations of control input forcing variables of notional actuators near the nozzle (amplitude, frequency and phase) to be tested, that would be cost-prohibitive without the ROM. Results on the efficiency of the GA in finding the optimal energy forcing gain relative to a brute force parametric sweep will be discussed. Ongoing work will exhibit how the GA can converge on a control scheme that reduces jet noise with more complex fitness functions.
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    Oxidation and Reduction of Heme-Binding Cysteines During Cytochrome c Assembly in the Chloroplast
    (2023-03) Kravets, Ekaterina; Jung, Abby; Hamel, Patrice
    The c-type cytochromes (cyt c) are metalloproteins with a covalently-bound heme which act as one-electron carriers in energy-converting processes like photosynthesis and respiration. Here, we explored the requirement of disulfide reduction for chloroplast cyt c assembly in the green alga model system, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Assembly of holocytochrome c depends on the covalent attachment of a heme group to a heme-binding motif (CXXCH) present in apocytochrome c. This attachment requires the heme-linking cysteines to be maintained in a reduced state by the operation of a disulfide-reducing pathway. In chloroplasts, apocyt c reduction depends on several factors, such as CCS5 and CCS4, that transfer electrons from stroma to the lumen to reduce disulfide-bonded heme-binding cysteines before heme ligation. Both ccs4 and ccs5 mutants are partially deficient for photosynthetic growth due to partial loss of chloroplast cyt c assembly. While CCS4 and CCS5 use electrons conveyed across the thylakoid membrane, the source of electrons in the stroma is still unknown. We hypothesize that stroma-localized thioredoxin-m (TRX-m) is the primary electron donor for apocyt c reduction and tested if overexpression of TRX-m in a ccs4 or a ccs5 mutant rescues their photosynthetic deficiency. Preliminary results show that there is no significant rescue when TRX-m is overproduced in a ccs4 or a ccs5 mutant, but this needs further testing to confirm elevated levels of TRX-m protein in the mutants. We also show that the reducing pathway is necessary to counter oxidation of the CXXCH motif by LTO1, a thylakoid membrane-bound protein. We demonstrate by heme staining that cyt c assembly is restored in a lto1ccs4ccs5 triple mutant, which lacks both oxidizing and reducing pathways. However, there is no rescue of photosynthetic growth, which suggests that loss of both pathways might have additional effects on the photosynthetic machinery besides cyt c assembly. We suggest that heme-binding cysteines are first disulfide bonded by LTO1 in the lumen and subsequently reduced by CCS4 and CCS5 prior to the heme attachment reaction. We continue our analysis in several independent triple mutants to confirm such results and are currently testing protein interactions between LTO1 and cyt c via yeast-two-hybrid assay.
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    Exploring an embodiment model of intuitive eating and attunement with exercise: The mediating role of intrinsic motivation
    (2023-03) Quinn, Molly; Tylka, Tracy
    Psychological well-being is fostered when individuals are in touch with their body's internal needs and accept those needs without judgment. In contrast, psychological distress occurs when individuals ignore or denounce their body's needs when they do not align with external pressures and are geared toward fulfilling societal expectations (Rogers, 1961). Examples of this process are when individuals choose to modify their eating and exercise based on sociocultural appearance ideals (e.g., dieting, rigid exercise) rather than pay attention to what foods and movement their body needs. Paying attention and listening to the body's needs for nourishment and movement are fundamental components of intuitive eating and attunement with exercise. The concept of listening to the body coincides with the theoretical approach, embodiment, which encompasses how one engages their body with the world (Piran, 2019). Embodiment provides insight into the level of connection and understanding that one has with their body. Embodiment may encourage intrinsic (internal) motivation, which could mediate, or connect the extent one is positively embodied with their engagement in intuitive eating and attuned exercise behaviors. Conversely, embodiment may be inversely related to extrinsic (external) motivation, which could mediate the extent one is negatively embodied with their disordered eating and dysfunctional exercise behaviors. The purpose of this study was to explore these models and to determine whether the strength of their pathways differ for women and men. It was hypothesized that (a) embodiment would be positively associated with intrinsic motivation, intuitive eating, and attuned exercise and (b) intrinsic motivation would mediate the relationship from embodiment to intuitive eating and attuned exercise. It was also hypothesized that (c) embodiment would be negatively associated with extrinsic motivation, disordered eating, and dysfunctional exercise and (d) extrinsic motivation would mediate the relationship from embodiment to disordered eating and dysfunctional exercise. Given that women experience increased external pressures to align with sociocultural appearance ideals more so than men (Linardon, Tylka, & Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, 2021), it was hypothesized that (e) gender would moderate these associations. To test these hypotheses, 571 participants (U.S. adult community members on Prolific Academic) completed a survey through Qualtrics, which included the Intuitive Eating Scale-3 (IES-3), Experience of Embodiment Scale (EES), Attunement with Exercise Scale-Clinical (AWE-C), Dutch Eating Behaviors Questionnaire-Restraint Scale (DEBQRestraint), and Global Motivation Scale (GMS). The sample consisted of 274 female, 280 male, and 17 nonbinary participants (76.2% white, 23.8% minority) who had an average age of 36 (SD = 12). Most hypotheses were supported. There were significant correlations between embodiment, intuitive eating, and attunement with exercise; however, intrinsic motivation did not mediate these associations. Embodiment has such a strong correlation with intuitive eating and attunement with exercise, that it does not leave much margin for intrinsic motivation to mediate these associations. Further, there were significant correlations between embodiment, disordered eating, and dysfunctional exercise. For women, extrinsic motivation had a significant correlation between extrinsic motivation mediating women's disorder eating and dysfunctional exercise. This aligns with previous studies that women receive more scrutiny and societal pressures regarding their appearance.