A new and elementary synthesis for all simple dissociative equilibria of the form AB<=^A+B, where A and B are present in equal and very dilute concentrations can be developed by use of the Law of Mass Action. Solution of the non-dimensional quadratic equation, R = K/C = X2/C(C-X), for X, over a wide range of K-to-C ratios (preferably by computer), provides values of the degrees of ionization or hydrolysis applicable to all general processes of the schematic type presented above. For visual interpolative reference, a plot of log R versus log [P2/(100-P)]-2 yields a straight line with a slope of unity. Agreement of readily obtainable laboratory data with these theoretical values serves as a ready check on the system under study for approach to "ideal" behaviour.
omplete quantitative analyses were made of samples of metal taken from fifteen Peruvian copper objects that came from various sites and ranged in date from the fourth to the fifteenth century A.D. Twelve of the samples were found to be composed of arsenical copper containing a wide variety of impurities. One was native copper and one other was apparently native copper modified by heat treatment. Only one sample contained enough tin to warrant classification as bronze. Some tentative general conclusions are advanced
Survey was made of a beech-maple forest by the quarter point method during August, 1968. The forest is located on a mesic, level upland of the glaciated Allegheny Plateau in eastern Cuyahoga County, Ohio, in the Chagrin River drainage basin. Geologically the upland is underlain by Mississippian formations capped by a thin cover of till, in which soils of the Ellsworth soil catena—the Rittman and Wadsworth silt loams—are developed.
The dominant plant species in this forest are American beech and sugar maple, which together comprise 68% of the trees recorded and have a total combined importance value of 62%. Red oak, red maple, and cucumbertree are important secondary dominants, but white ash and tuliptree are of little significance in the woodland composition. A greater overall abundance of secondary-associate mixed-mesophytic species than is normally found in such forests occurs. This composition supports the concept of a poly climax beechmaple association and is suggested to be a result of past selective lumbering and a variation in topography and soils.
Although there is some evidence of past selective lumbering, the forest appears to be in an essentially undisturbed, virgin state. It has been partially destroyed as the forest is now part of a tract of land developed as a new secondary school campus.
A generalization of the standard semi-direct product of groups is given. The following special case is exploited in the construction of partial 4-gons. Let G be the set of 4-tuples of elements of the finite field F. For all i, j with l < i , j<2, let Ljj and Rij be linear transformations of F over its prime subfield. Then define a product on G as follows:
(a1, b1, c1, d1)- (a2, b2, c2, d2) = (ai+a2, b1+b2,
L11 R11 L12 R12 L21 R2i L22 R22
a1 b2 +a2 b1 +c1+c2, a1 b2 +a2 b1 +d1+d2).
With this product G is a group. Let A and B be the subgroups of G consisting of elements of the form (a, 0, 0, 0), a e F, and (0, b, 0,0), b e F, respectively. Then necessary and sufficient conditions on Lij and Rij are found for the coset geometry ir(G, A, B) to be a partial generalized 4-gon.
Seventeen species of marine invertebrates collected from the Upper Ordovician Waynesville Formation of southwestern Ohio were found encrusted by Cornulites, a presumed tubicolous annelid worm. Encrustation was interpreted as symbiotic in cases where the cornulitid tubes exhibited preferred orientation upon the exoskeleton of the host. This situation may reflect cornulitid utilization of feeding currents generated or employed by the host species. Symbiotic attachments of Cornulites were encountered most commonly on several species of brachiopods, but were also observed on a pelecypod, a monoplacophoran, two species of bryozoa, and questionably on a gastropod and nautiloid.
Post-mortem encrustation of a host by Cornulites was inferred either from random orientation of the cornulitid tubes or from attachment in a manner or position incompatible with the functional morphology of the host species. Cornulites was found in post-mortem association with brachiopods, bryozoans, and a trilobite. In this situation the host species presumably provided, after death, a suitably hard substrate for cornulitid larval attachment.
Symmetrically positioned cornulitid clusters on a specimen of Cyrtolites sp. cf. C. ornatus Conrad supports the accepted, but unproven, interpretation of bilaterally developed mantle-cavity organs in cyclomyan monoplacophorans.
Larval and adult Tribolium confusum were tested in flour and sand substrates at various relative humidities, ranging from 10% to 90%. Both life stages preferred a flour environment of from 10% to 50% relative humidity. In sand, however, the insects selected more humid environments.
Investigations of survival in sand, flour, and air environments indicated that two factors may be operating in the preference for a wet-sand environment: (1) desiccation, and (2) loss of nutrition and source of metabolic water. Insects presented with two air streams, each of 35% relative humidity or greater, selected the drier air stream. In a humidity gradient in air, both life stages indicated a preference for relative humidities of 10% to 25%. Data from an exploratory experiment indicated that adult beetles were not responding to humidity through a kinetic mechanism, though larvae may have been responding kinetically.
The three major conclusions were that: (1) both larval and adult Tribolium confusum preferred a dry-flour environment, (2) this preference was reversed if the nature and nutritional content of the medium were altered, and (3) the insects selected an air environment with relative humidities between 10% to 25%.
The directional data of cross-laminae and ripple marks in the Kope and Fairview Formations in Brown and Adams Counties, Ohio, show no statistically significant difference in mean orientation. The prevailing paleocurrent direction was towards the northnorthwest. A significant difference, however, exists between the wave lengths of the ripples in the Kope and Fairview. Ripple marks are larger in the Kope Formation and gradually decrease in size upward into the overlying Fairview Formation. This may well have resulted from gradual local shallowing of the Cincinnatian sea as carbonate detritus accumulated. The ripple marks are interpreted to have been formed by currents and modified by waves.