Empirical Musicology Review: Volume 6, Number 4 (2011)

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Empirical Musicology Review Vol. 6, No. 4, 2011

Issue DOI: https://doi.org/10.18061/1811/81101

Editor's Note
Keller, Peter E. p. 186
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Interval Size and Phrase Position: A Comparison between German and Chinese Folksongs
Shanahan, Daniel; Huron, David pp. 187-197
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Artist autonomy in a digital era: The case of Nine Inch Nails
Brown, Steven C. pp. 198-213
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Negative Emotion in Music: What is the Attraction? A Qualitative Study
Garrido, Sandra; Schubert, Emery pp. 214-230
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    Negative Emotion in Music: What is the Attraction? A Qualitative Study
    (Empirical Musicology Review, 2011-10) Garrido, Sandra; Schubert, Emery
    Why do people listen to music that evokes negative emotions? This paper presents five comparative interviews conducted to examine this question. Individual differences psychology and mood management theory provided a theoretical framework for the investigation which was conducted under a realist paradigm. Data sources were face-to-face interviews of about one hour involving a live music listening experience. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted and both within-case and cross-case analyses were performed. Results confirmed the complexity of variables at play in individual cases while supporting the hypothesis that absorption and dissociation make it possible for the arousal experienced when listening to sad music to be enjoyed without displeasure. At the same time, participants appeared to be seeking a variety of psychological benefits such as reflecting on life-events, enjoying emotional communion, or engaging in a process of catharsis. A novel finding was that maladaptive mood regulation habits may cause some to listen to sad music even when such benefits are not being obtained, supporting some recent empirical evidence on why people are attracted to negative emotion in music.
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    Artist autonomy in a digital era: The case of Nine Inch Nails
    (Empirical Musicology Review, 2011-10) Brown, Steven C.
    A 2009 presentation by Michael Masnick (CEO and founder of insight company Floor64) entitled ‘How Trent Reznor and Nine Inch Nails represent the Future of the Music Business’ brought the success of the business models employed by Reznor in distributing Nine Inch Nails’ music into the spotlight. The present review provides a comprehensive timeline of the band circa 2005-2010, evaluating the success of the distribution methods employed in accordance with Masnick’s (2009) proposed business model of connecting with fans and providing them with a reason to buy. The model is conceptualised in the wider context in which Reznor’s distribution methods take place (including a brief consideration of Radiohead’s much cited pay-what-you- want model), addressing the perceived gaps in the model by exploring the involvement of musical preferences; age and consumer purchasing behavior and fan worship. Implications are discussed concerning the applicability of the model for new and emerging bands.
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    Interval Size and Phrase Position: A Comparison between German and Chinese Folksongs
    (Empirical Musicology Review, 2011-10) Shanahan, Daniel; Huron, David
    It is well known that the pitch of the voice tends to decline over the course of a spoken utterance. Ladd (2008) showed that there is also a tendency for the pitch range of spoken utterances to shrink as the pitch of the voice declines. Motivated by this work, two studies are reported that test for the existence of “late phrase compression” in music where the interval size tends to decline toward the end of a phrase. A study of 39,863 phrases from notated Germanic folksongs shows the predicted decline in interval size. However, a second study of 10,985 phrases from Chinese folksongs shows a reverse relationship. In fact, the interval behaviors in Chinese and Germanic folksongs provide marked contrasts: Chinese phrases are dominated by relatively large intervals, but begin with small intervals and end with medium-small intervals. Germanic phrases are dominated by relatively medium intervals, but begin with large intervals and end with small intervals. In short, late phrase interval compression is not evident cross-culturally.
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    Editor's Note
    (Empirical Musicology Review, 2011-10) Keller, Peter E.