Water samples from the western basin of Lake Erie were filtered to restrain suspended particles larger than 4 /xm and were analyzed for copper, iron, zinc, manganese, magnesium, and calcium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Samples were collected at weekly intervals during July-August and with less frequency in September, October and November (1970). Mean seasonal and range of concentrations for elements considered did not vary with depth. Mean seasonal and range of concentrations for soluble elements from 4.5 m depth were (/xg/ml): copper, 0.091 (0.04-0.20); iron, 0.284 (0.06-0.050); zinc, 0.087 (0.00-0.11); manganese, 0.039 (0.025-0.003); magnesium, 10.38 (6.54-13.54); and calcium, 35.78 (30.30-43.60). Solvent extracted elements from suspended particulates were present in mean seasonal and range of concentrations (/ug/ml) for copper, 0.014 (0.003-0.038); iron, 0.550 (0.30-1.00); and zinc, 0.050 (0.020-0.150). Manganese content was below detectable limits, while magnesium and calcium were non-extractable. Except for calcium, the mean seasonal concentration varied for elements considered from those reported previously for either Lake Erie or for the western basin. A close association existed between the levels of soluble and particulate copper, iron and zinc.
The phytoplankton communities of a southeastern Ohio pond were monitored weekly from October 1964 to October 1965. Ninety taxa were identified: 56 Chlorophyta, 6 Chrysophyta, 14 Cyanophyta, 10 Euglenophyta, and 4 Pyrrhophyta. The pond was partially drained and the fish were removed during winter 1964; this had no marked effect on the phytoplankton community present at that time. Prominant pulses occurred during fall 1964, April 1965, and summer 1965; the fall and summer peaks were associated with pH values greater than 9.0. The fall pulse was comprised of Anabaena planctonica, A . spiroides var. crassa, Botryococcus braunii, and Ceratium hirundinella. Major components of the April pulse were Dinobryon cylindricum, Oscillatoria limosa, 0. amphibia, C. hirundinella, and Uroglena americana. During the summer pulse a distinct succession of dominants was evident, with the community in July composed of Staurastrum uniseriatum, Scenedesmus spp., Pediastrum duplex, and Euglena spp., giving way to a community in August that included Staurastrum tetracerum, Closterium spp., and Euastrum denticulatum; the last community being displaced in September by a Glenodinium quadridens, Scenedesmus spp., Anabaena sp., P. duplex community.
A model was developed to compare alternative management schemes that can be employed to regulate the population level of birds having a territorial or resource limited breeding organization. The alternatives of habitat modification, removal of birds, and sterilization were compared. The model is based on the dynamics of the female segment of the population, but provision is made in the case of sterilization for predicting the effects of treatment cither of females only or of both sexes.
Body temperature during torpidity and arousal were recorded on single and grouped Myotis lucifugus and M. sodalis maintained at 6° in the laboratory. The two species possess physiological differences in their temperature regulatory capacities in response to clustering behavior.
Seed germination in lettuce var. Grand Rapids, and floral induction in Xanthium are phytochrome-mediated processes. The pigment conversion which triggers these two rather diverse developmental events appears to be essentially the same. The present work was conducted to test the possibility that secondary metabolic steps following the initial triggering phase might also be shared by these two morphological processes. Aqueous extracts were made from leaves of vegetative Xanthium, plants, as well as from those having received one or five floral inductive photoperiods. These extracts were applied to lettuce seeds to test for their possible promotive or inhibitory effects on germination. No promotive effect on germination could be demonstrated. Extracts from vegetative Xanthium plants had a marked inhibiting effect on germination of lettuce seeds. This inhibitory effect could be substantially reduced if the Xanthium plants were given floralinductive treatments prior to extraction. Thus, as Xanthium leaves progress from noninductive to inductive photoperiods, there appears to be a decrease in content of a gerination- inhibiting substance, which parallels the generally accepted time period of flowering stimulus build-up.
Structurally preserved vascular plants have recently been discovered in calcite petrifactions near the town of Shade, Ohio The florule includes representatives of all of the major groups of Carboniferous-age vascular plants, with members of the Calamitales and Marattiales appearing in the highest percentages. The relationships between the Shade coal-ball plants and other coal-ball floras in North America are discussed.
(1974-09) Bruggers, Richard L.; Jackson, William B.
Eye-lens growth in larval, transforming, and adult bullfrogs was recorded, and the use of the lens-weight to age adults was examined. Over 500 animals in different developmental stages were captured from ponds in Wood County, Ohio. Using standard techniques, the lenses were removed, fixed, dried, and weighed. The animals also were weighed, measured, and internally sexed. Lens-weight in conjunction with developmental stage allowed separation of cohort populations (those animals from different spawning periods). Adults collected immediately after spring emergence, whose age had been estimated by the pterygoid-bone-ageing method, could be separated into annual classes. The eye-lens weight increased with age, although the rate of increase varied with the developmental stage of the animal. Mean lens-weights were significantly different for each developmental stage in the bullfrog life history, yet considerable overlap and individual variation occurred. The eye-lens growth of poorly-fed laboratory animals continued at a rate similar to that of animals in the wild.
Holmes County, Ohio, located in a geologically and biologically interesting portion of the state and yet little known botanically, was the object of a floristic study during the growing seasons of 1970 and 1971. The result of this study, a catalog listing 1,061 vascular plant species, is statistically summarized. This summary is prefaced by a brief discussion concerning the natural areas of Holmes County and the history of its vegetation.
(1974-09) Shurbet, G. L.; Lewis, T. O.; Boullion, T. L.
Necessary and sufficient conditions for the matrix equation XAX = B and for the n system of matrix equations XAX = B, 2 CijXD;j = K,, i=l,2, . . . ,m, to be solvable are proven in this paper. If solvable, all solutions of the equation or system are determined. These results are used to obtain particular solutions of the general quadratic matrix equation XAX+BX + XC = D.