White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus} have been increasing dramatically in the eastern United States, with concomitant increases in impacts resulting from deer browsing and deer-vehicle collisions. In Ohio, the number of deer were estimated at near zero in 1940 to over 450,000 in 1995. We analyzed estimates of deer harvest and deer-vehicle collisions in 1995 for 88 counties in Ohio. These data were also related to county-level spatial data on the length of major highways, urban land, rural land, crop land, forest land, all land, and human population. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the spatial and temporal trends of white-tailed deer across Ohio and to relate these patterns to the formerly mentioned environmental and human variables. For 1995 data, positive relationships existed between the amount of urban land in the county versus the number of deer-vehicle collisions, the amount of forest land in the county versus the number of deer harvested, the human population of a county versus the number of deer-vehicle collisions, and the length of major highways in a county versus the number of deer-vehicle collisions. Negative relationships existed between the amount of crop land in a county versus the number of deer harvested, the amount of crop land versus the number of deer-vehicle collisions, and the amount of urban land versus the number of deer harvested. Nine counties, representing various levels of land-use and human population tendencies, were analyzed for historic trends in deer harvest (1985-1995) and deer-vehicle collisions (1988-1995); in each case, there were substantial rises over the previous decade. Extensions of the resulting regression lines show the possibility for continued increases in deervehicle collisions, especially those with a high human population and forest cover. The dramatic increases in deer populations can be attributed to increasing forest land in the state, more habitat of shrubby land, few predators, mild winters, and the deer's ability to adapt to human-inhabited environments.
(1999-09) Martin-Hayden, James M.; Andreus, Eric S.; Minarovic, Raymond J.; Kozak, Sharon L.
Because the carbonate aquifer in much of northwestern Ohio is the principal water resource, understanding the avenues of recharge and resulting pathways of solute transport are crucial to the assessment of water resource availability, water quality and contaminant transport. This study uses estimates of evapotranspiration, measurements of piezometric heads and calculations of groundwater fluxes to investigate carbonate aquifer recharge from a small basin within the carbonate aquifer recharge area 2 km south of Whitehouse, OH. Of the 0.240 m of soil moisture surplus, approximately 43% runs off by way of drain tiles, ditches, and streams leaving 0.135 m as potential recharge for the deeper carbonate aquifer. Direct recharge to the 2% of the carbonate aquifer that is covered by less than 2 m of overburden accounts for a small percentage of the total recharge. Large amounts of radial flow from this shallow bedrock area suggest contributions from sources other than direct recharge or shallow lateral flow. The only remaining possible source of excess recharge in the shallow bedrock area is recharge contributed by streams through vertical fracture zones. Even where the glacial till is thick and vertical permeability is low, large vertical gradients over large areas induce significant bedrock recharge. Because direct recharge is derived from soil moisture surplus and surface water contributions in the area of shallow bedrock, the aquifer is most susceptible to contamination from these sources during the wet seasons. Conversely, even though recharge through the glacial till is maintained throughout the year, threats of contamination due to this vertical recharge are diminished.
(1999-09) Summerville, Keith S.; Jacquot, Joseph J.; Stander, Ryan F.
Using a combination of blacklight, mercury vapor light, and sugar bait sampling techniques, we collected moths over a 2-yr period in Butler County, OH, and compiled a list of 392 species. Seventy-eight percent (305) of these species were found to be new county records. A checklist is provided as a baseline catalogue of the moths of Butler County, OH. An analysis of historical county records revealed a bias towards large or colorful species. Although many species we collected are considered common, several infrequently encountered species were discovered. Our effort suggests that biological surveys in fragmented landscapes may reveal unexpected biological diversity.