Ohio Journal of Science: Volume 107, Issue 3 (June, 2007)

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Front Matter
pp. 0
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (1.25MB)

The Effects of June Precipitation on Alliaria petiolata (Garlic Mustard) Growth, Density and Survival
Hochstedler, Wendy W.; Gorchov, David L. pp. 26-31
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (394.59KB)

Comparison of Plant Species Richness, Diversity, and Biomass in Ohio Wetlands
Thompson, Kim; Miller, Michael C.; Culley, Theresa pp. 32-38
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (113.77KB)

Associative Rhizosphere Nitrogen Fixation (Acetylene Reduction) Among Plants from Ohio Peatlands
Wickstrom, Conrad E.; Garono, Ralph J. pp. 39-43
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (130.16KB)

Comparison of Two Hair Snares for Raccoons
Belant, Jerrold L.; Wolford, Joanne E. pp. 44-47
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (182.84KB)

Book Review
Shrake, Douglas L. pp. 48
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Back Matter
pp. 999
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (138.22KB)

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    Front Matter
    (2007-06)
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    The Effects of June Precipitation on Alliaria petiolata (Garlic Mustard) Growth, Density and Survival
    (2007-06) Hochstedler, Wendy W.; Gorchov, David L.
    The factors that determine population dynamics of invasive plant species are not well studied. Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard), an invasive biennial, exhibits annual fluctuation in rosette and adult density. June precipitation has been found to correlate with rosette A. petiolata density in October and adult density the following May. Since ability to predict density would facilitate management of this invasive species, we experimentally tested the impact of precipitation on A. petiolata rosette growth and survival. Rain was excluded in June 2005 from thirty-six 0.8 x 0.8 m plots in a second-growth woodlot in southwest Ohio. Plots were lined to a depth of 20 cm, and randomly assigned to receive a dry (1 cm), average (10 cm) or wet (20 cm) water treatment. In the central 0.25 m2 of each plot we assessed soil moisture, rosette root depth, root and shoot biomass, and survival. Soil moisture content, measured with a time domain reflectometer, was significantly affected by treatment. However, rosette biomass, root length, fruit production and survival did not differ among treatments. Assessment of soil water availability between treatments indicated dry treatments may not have dried the soil as much as occurs in drought years. While the hypothesis that heavier June precipitation enables rosettes to survive summer drought was not supported, it cannot be rejected based on our experiment. June precipitation is probably not a reliable predictor of A. petiolata rosette survival in years with above average precipitation; however the effect of spring drought on A. petiolata requires further investigation.
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    Comparison of Plant Species Richness, Diversity, and Biomass in Ohio Wetlands
    (2007-06) Thompson, Kim; Miller, Michael C.; Culley, Theresa
    Wetlands are restored and created in many areas of the world to mitigate problems of flooding, pollution and loss of wildlife habitat resulting from urbanization and agriculture. Consequently it is important to understand the factors that determine wetland ecological function as expressed in terms of vegetation. Five different restored, created and unplanned wetlands of young age (1-9 years) in southwestern Ohio were examined for differences in plant species richness and diversity as well as biomass productivity of cattail (Typha spp.) and great bulrush (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani). At all sites, the majority of identified plant species were native (77% to 88%), and nearly half of all taxa in each site were wetland indicator species. The proportion of volunteer species in each site ranged from 51% to 100%. Significant differences detected among sites in both species richness and diversity (Shannon-Weiner Index) were solely due to one of the created sites; significant differences were also obtained among habitat types (shore, emergent zone, and open water). In contrast to Typha, aboveground biomass of Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani differed significantly among sites but not inflorescence biomass. Overall, there were few differences in plant species richness, diversity or biomass among most restored, created and unplanned sites, suggesting that different methods of wetland formation may yield similar vegetative components within the early stages of development.
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    Associative Rhizosphere Nitrogen Fixation (Acetylene Reduction) Among Plants from Ohio Peatlands
    (2007-06) Wickstrom, Conrad E.; Garono, Ralph J.
    The macrophytes of wetlands are known, and in some cases, the nitrogenase activity (NA) of these plants has been examined as well. This activity, however, has been only partially studied in peatlands, particularly in northeastern Ohio where numerous peat-forming bogs and fens are located. We tested 18 flowering plants and 1 Bryophyte inhabiting peatlands in this region of the United States for potential rhizosphere nitrogen fixation using the acetylene reduction technique. The roots and adherent soil of selected plants from 3 bogs (Fern Lake, Kent, and Triangle Lake) and 1 fen (J. Arthur Herrick) were tested for ethylene evolution following incubation under an acetylene atmosphere. NA was observed at each peatland, and 89% of the plants tested were NA positive. The signature plants of the bogs, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and the fen, Potentilla fruticosa, were NA positive, whereas Sphagnum spp. was negative at 2 of the 4 peatlands. The highest rates of NA were associated with Typha spp. where the mean rates for ethylene evolved by Typha angustifolia rhizosphere were 233.2 nmoles g Dry Mass-1 24 h-1 and 407.2 X 102 nmoles m-2 24 h-1. Rhizosphere NA of 3 previously unstudied plants (Acorus americanus, Decodon verticillatus and Symplocarpus foetidus) are given. Diazotroph relationships directly and indirectly enrich the associated plants and soil with nitrogen such that the success of newly constructed or reclaimed wetlands may be fostered by inclusion of plant species known to harbor associative diazotrophs. The widespread occurrence and frequency of nitrogen fixation in these habitats argues for inclusion of this activity during investigative and management studies of wetlands.
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    Comparison of Two Hair Snares for Raccoons
    (2007-06) Belant, Jerrold L.; Wolford, Joanne E.
    We developed two types of snares incorporating barbed wire for obtaining hair samples from raccoons (Procyon lotor) suitable for DNA analyses. The hair snares were a wood box with a single strand of barbed wire positioned 20 cm above the lower edge of the entrance and a 5 gallon bucket with 2 strands of barbed wire in an inverted ‘V’ position. Snares were placed from August to November 2005 along forested roads in the central Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Both hair snares collected samples suitable for DNA analyses; however, the number of hair samples collected/100 snare nights was greater (P < 0.001) for bucket snares (n = 36) than for wood box snares (n = 5). Capture efficacy was also greater (P = 0.013) for bucket snares (91%, n = 35) than for box snares (68%, n = 44). The overall number of hairs collected at bucket snares was greater (P = 0.021) than the number of hairs collected at wood box snares. Barbed wire was an effective medium for obtaining hair samples from free-ranging raccoons. Because of greater performance, low cost, and ease of construction, we recommend use of bucket snares over wood box snares.
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    Book Review
    (2007-06) Shrake, Douglas L.
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    Back Matter
    (2007-06)