33rd Hayes Graduate Research Forum (March, 2019)

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Submission Instructions for Students

Arts
1st place: Reymore, Lindsey
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2nd place: Shea, Nicholas
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3rd place: Katz, Hilary
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Biological Sciences
1st place: Volpedo, Greta
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2nd place: Chavez, Michael
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3rd place: Middleton, Justin
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Business
1st place: Philipp-Muller, Aviva
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Education and Human Ecology
1st place: Kraatz, Elizabeth
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2nd place: Yan, Jia
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3rd place: Wang, Guangyi
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Engineering
1st place: Dong, Huiming
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2nd place: Clayson, Keyton
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3rd place: Tang, Nina Shirley
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FAES
1st place: Gillespie, Daniel
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2nd place: Manwill, Preston
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3rd place: Chagas de Freitas, Cecilia
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Health Sciences
1st place: Kenney, Adam
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2nd place: Nalin, Ansel
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3rd place: Knippler, Christina


Humanities
1st place: Wu, Zeyuan
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2nd place: Iglesias Pascual, Hector
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3rd place: Estiri, Ehsan
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Math and Physical Sciences
1st place: Tuttle, Madison
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2nd place: Wong, Curt
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3rd place: Franjesevic, Andrew
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Social and Behavioral Sciences
1st place: Siev, Joseph
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2nd place: Madison, Annelise
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3rd place: Hubner, Austin
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Poster Division: Arts and Humanities
1st place: Koh, Youngaah
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Poster Division: Biological Sciences
1st place: Pukos, Nicole
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2nd place: Noble, Benjamin
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3rd place: Closs, Gary, Jr.


Poster Division: Engineering
1st place: Baser, Deven
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2nd place: Jain, Deeksha
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3rd place: Einstein, Noah
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Poster Division: Health Sciences
1st place: Hussein, Walaa
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2nd place: Scott, Kimberley
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3rd place: Bican, Rachel
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Poster Division: Math and Physical Sciences
1st place: Scudder, Michael
2nd place: Chen, Andrew
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Poster Division: Social Sciences
1st place: Nagpal, Manisha
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2nd place: Frazer, Rebecca
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3rd place: Perry, Andrew
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Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 40
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    The relationship between spatiotemporal kinematics of the upper extremity and motor development in early infancy: an exploratory study
    (2019-03) Bican, Rachel; Heathcock, Jill
    Reaching is a critical milestone during early infancy, as it allows for the infant to interact with their environment. Upper extremity movement and infant development has been studied utilizing both kinematics and clinical tools, but little is known about the relationship between these measurements. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between spatiotemporal kinematics of the upper extremity, physical infant growth, and motor development as measured using a common clinical outcome assessment.
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    Rapid access to oxazoles from feedstock chemicals via tandem oxidation
    (2019-03) Chen, Andrew; Nagib, David
    A radical cascade strategy for the modular synthesis of oxazoles from feedstock alcohols and nitriles has been developed. This double C-H oxidation is enabled by in situ generated imidate and acyloxy radicals, which afford regio- and chemo- selective β C-H bisfunctionalization. A preliminary synthetic scope and utility of this tandem hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) approach to access oxazoles is included, along with experiments and computational support that provide insight into the selectivity and mechanism of both HAT events.
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    Large Scale Integration of Renewable Electrical Energy into the Electrical Grid
    (2019-03) Wong, Curt; Sevov, Christo
    Electrical energy is the most consumed form of energy in the entire world. However, the primary way to produce electrical energy is from fossil fuels. Incorporating renewable energy as a replacement to fossil fuels is becoming increasingly important. Unfortunately, direct incorporation of renewable energy leads to blackouts. An efficient method to store electrical energy is required to prevent blackouts and allow renewable energy to be incorporated into the grid. Of the available technology, Li-ion batteries have emerged as a potential candidate for this purpose. However, high cost and safety are concerns that prevent global-scale installation of Li-ion batteries. Redox-flow batteries have recently gained attention as a potential alternative to Li-ion batteries. Because of their design, redox-flow batteries are safer and inexpensive compared to their counterparts.
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    Biological Control of crazy root disease on hydroponically grown tomatoes using Pseudomonas strains
    (2019-03) Chagas de Freitas, Cecilia; Taylor, Christopher
    Crazy root disease (CRD) caused by Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a problematic disease leading to substantial losses in marketable yield in hydroponically grown cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum). Growers use strict hygiene protocols and sanitation, relying on hydrogen peroxide and other sanitizers to clean the hydroponic system after disease outbreaks, however, this is an expensive and time-consuming process. Biological control is emerging as a possible solution to this troubling problem. Biological control is an environmentally sound and effective means of reducing or mitigating pests and diseases by employing the use of natural enemies. In this work, we have tested and identified numerous strains of Pseudomonas that can inhibit the growth of A. rhizogenes under in vitro and in planta conditions. In our in vitro experiments, 14 out of 52 different Pseudomonas strains were able to inhibit pathogen growth. In our, in planta experiments, we identified three different strains (1B1, 48G9, and 93G8) that were able to reduce disease incidence up to 95% on Kalanchoe and soybean. Pseudomonas treatments were able to reduce Agrobacterium rhizogenes numbers by nearly 1000-fold in soybean and 100-fold in tomato. On hydroponically grown tomatoes, 1B1 and 93G8 were able to reduce disease incidence by 80%, compared with the non-Pseudomonas control while stain 48G9 was able to reduce disease incidence by 50%. Our results suggest that certain Pseudomonas strains can inhibit A. rhizogenes growth and disease development under hydroponic conditions and can be a potential biocontrol agent for hydroponic growers in the future.
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    Heteroatom-doped Carbon Nanostructures as Catalysts for Electrochemical Halogen Production Technologies
    (2019-03) Jain, Deeksha; Ozkan, Umit
    Hydrochloric acid electrolysis is a widely used chlorine manufacturing process. The energy requirements of HCl electrolysis can be significantly reduced by replacing the traditional H2-evolving cathode with an oxygen depolarized cathode (ODC). Successful operation of this technology requires good ORR characteristics of ODC catalysts, along with high resistance to poisoning in the presence of Cl- anions. State-of-the-art ORR catalyst, namely Pt/C, is highly susceptible to poisoning in the presence of Cl-. Alternative precious metal catalysts such as RhxSy/C demonstrate somewhat higher Cl- poisoning resistance but the exorbitant cost of Rh limits its economic viability. We have evaluated the use of nitrogen-doped carbon nanostructures (CNx) and iron-nitrogen coordinated carbon-supported materials (FeNC) as ODC catalysts by investigating the effect of Cl- exposure on the ORR activity of these materials. Interestingly, while Pt/C, RhxSy/C and FeNC catalysts show a loss in ORR activity, the activity of CNx significantly improves after exposure to Cl- anions. A combination of electrochemical measurements and spectroscopic characterization is used to fundamentally investigate this enhancement in ORR activity of CNx.
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    Exploring strategies to improve yields of oxidative coupling of methane in a chemical looping system
    (2019-03) Baser, Deven; Fan, Liang-Shih
    Since the shale gas boom, methane, a major component of shale gas, is an important source of energy in USA. Methane is largely viewed as a fuel, which is combusted in air it to produce CO2, H2O, and energy. However, there exist several technologies that utilize methane as a hydrocarbon precursor to produce chemical products. One such technology is chemical looping oxidative coupling of methane (OCM), for directly converting methane into higher hydrocarbons such as ethylene. Traditionally, a catalytic OCM system is employed for this reaction, where methane and molecular oxygen are co-fed over a catalyst bed. The chemical looping method utilizes the lattice oxygen in a catalytic oxygen carrier (COC) for methane oxidation. This novel process eliminates the inefficiencies associated with molecular oxygen, theoretically improving the performance over the catalytic system. This study highlights the formation mechanism of oxygen vacancies on the COC and its role in chemical looping OCM.
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    Can expertise survive? Examining the effects of social transmission on scientific messages
    (2019-03) Hubner, Austin; Dixon, Graham
    Individuals are often exposed to science information from both expert and non-expert sources. Previous work has yet to examine whether individuals are more likely to remember the information conveyed by the expert compared to the non-expert. In the research reported here, we examine (1) people’s likelihood of remembering information conveyed by domain-specific expert and non-expert scientists and (2) whether information from experts is more likely to survive social transmission processes. We find that information from expert sources are more likely to be remembered than non-expert sources and that information from experts are more likely to remain intact over person-to-person transmission. These are important findings for the field of science communication as it illustrates that individuals are distinguishing expert and non-expert sources when encoding information into memory.
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    Culturally Relevant Informal Art Education for Korean-American Elementary Students: Impact and Policy Implications
    (2019-03) Koh, Youngaah
    This study explores the impact of culturally relevant informal, community-based art education for Korean-American elementary students through a case study of a 10-week art curriculum that was implemented at a Korean protestant church in Columbus, Ohio in Fall 2018. It finds that the students showed a unique hybrid identity that consists of Korean, American, and Christian cultures, and thus culturally relevant art education for them should address a balance of all such identities. The curriculum seems to have offered students an opportunity to contemplate on their own through art, and initiate conversations within their family about their hybrid identity. The author argues that culturally relevant art education has a potential to positively impact students’ cultural competence and critical consciousness in the long term, thus also potentially contributing to their successful acculturation. The study also discusses the study’s implications for social cohesion policy due to culturally relevant art education’s ability to create bonded bridging social capital.
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    Addressing Issues of Representation in Popular Music Research
    (2019-03) Shea, Nicholas; Gawboy, Anna
    Musical communication has been characterized as the perceptual process of inferring structure and meaning from an auditory surface (Temperley, 2004). Tonality, as the temporal relationship between chords, is often a primary measure of musical structure; for example, sections of a song (e.g., verse, chorus) and musical styles (e.g., “pop” or “rock”) are structural features that can be distinguished by tonal content. However, the historical over-prioritization of tonality has led to the glorification of Western European art (i.e., “classical”) music as a compositional ideal. As a result, vernacular styles such as popular music have been regarded as derivative in research. A focus on tonality also discounts the lived experiences of musicians who create and perform popular music, as perceptual research suggests only formally trained listeners can realize tonal structures from an auditory surface (Pollard-Gott, 1983). Because popular music is intended for broad audiences and is created by diverse groups of musicians, tonality may not be an appropriate model of communication for most listeners. Songwriters have consistently advocated that instruments are critical to musical organization (De Souza, 2017; Sudnow, 1987). They argue that “riffs” or repetitive musical gestures played on the guitar or piano are a compositional first step. Riffs, however, cannot be represented by tonality alone. Because many pop-rock musicians famously have little to no formal training, and frequently report composing songs from their instruments, an ecological-based theory of affordances (Gibson, 1986) suggests that the physical constraints of instrument may be a more appropriate measure of how musical structure is generated and communicated more broadly. This study responds with an objective measure of musical communication by 1) observing how online communities of musicians convey structure to one another through digital versions of pop-rock songs, and 2) by tracking how songs are performed and composed in real time using motion capture technology. In doing so, the study sets a methodological precedent for validating the contributions of creators of popular music. Resulting data will also provide researchers with the computational resources to look beyond tonality to describe how the components of musical organization influences perception for all listeners.
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    Glutamatergic Regulation of Remyelination After Spinal Cord Injury
    (2019-03) Pukos, Nicole; McTigue, Dana
    Chronic demyelination, resulting in slowed conduction velocity and impaired recovery, is a hallmark of spinal cord injury (SCI), and is partially due to the loss of oligodendrocytes (OLs). OLs are terminally differentiated and cannot self-renew; thus, the endogenous repair that occurs after SCI is largely attributed to the robust proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) that differentiate into mature OLs. Since OPCs are the primary source of new myelin, it is critical to understand how OPCs are regulated at various times pre and post-injury. Evidence from chemical demyelination studies show glutamate is packaged in vesicular glutamate transporter (Vglut)-positive vesicles and stored along demyelinated axon shafts. Activity-dependent release of glutamate from these axons stimulates OPC migration, differentiation, and ultimately remyelination. Since spinal tracts are mostly glutamatergic, we expect a similar phenomenon to occur after SCI. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Vglut2 accumulates in axons after SCI and predicts OPC-axon contact points. For this, we collected spinal cords from naïve and SCI mice from 7 days to 6 months post-injury (mpi) to examine Vglut2 distribution in axons. This revealed the number of Vglut2+ puncta in spared white matter increased continuously after SCI to a peak 9-fold greater than naïve at 6mpi. The number of Vglut2+ puncta within axons contacted by OPC processes was also quantified. In naïve tissue, ~10% of Vglut2+ puncta were contacted by an OPC process. OPC/Vglut2 contacts increased significantly by 28dpi and rose to a peak at 6mpi when 40% of Vglut2 puncta had an OPC contact. These results suggest axonal glutamate release promotes OPC contacts with axons after SCI and may play a role in remyelination. Overall this work shows for the first time that OPCs contact Vglut2-enriched regions of axons after CNS trauma, and suggests that loss of such contacts may contribute to chronic post-SCI demyelination.
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    Words, Music, and Meaning: The Debate on Qin Song in Late Imperial China
    (2019-03) Wu, Zeyuan; Goh, Meow Hui; Sieber, Patricia
    This paper investigates the relations between words, music, and meaning in the views of the late imperial Chinese literati, focusing on the practitioners of the qin (the seven-string zither) who were at once poets, musicians, and scholars. Qin song (a combination of qin-playing and song-singing) saw its heyday during the 16th and 17th centuries. However, the debate about whether qin music should be accompanied with lyrics (and/or singing) started to rise also during this time. The debate eventually led to a decline of qin song from the 18th century onward (Liang, 1969; Xu, 1982; Zhan, 2005). In this paper, I challenge previous scholars’ explanation that the debate over qin song during this period was a result of different aesthetic preferences or the competitions between schools. For a deeper understanding of this debate, I compare the musical works and the paratext (prefaces, postfaces, instructional essays) in different collections of qin music published in wood-block print from the 16th to the 19th century. Moreover, because the qin was long regarded as an indispensable means of self-cultivation and moral transformation in premodern China, I situate these qin practitioners’ writings and works into the broader intellectual and religious contexts of this period. I suggest that their debate over qin song was not simply an issue of musical aesthetics, but it implied a broader intellectual concern, namely, what was the ideal way to communicate moral teachings. While both sides of the debate agreed that music was a powerful means for communication, the advocates of qin song still found words to be indispensable for clear expression and accurate comprehension. The opponents, however, insisted that music alone was sufficient, while language might become an obstacle to communicating the true meaning. I argue that both the flourish and the decline of qin song in the late-imperial period suggest an increasing emphasis on the limit of language as a communicative tool. Given that the qin was traditionally regarded as the “instrument of the sage-kings,” my findings about these qin practitioners contrast with a prevalent view in the 18th century that one must use a philological approach to truly understand the sage’s teaching.
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    Structure-Activity Relationships for Substituted 3-Pyridinol Mannich Bases in the Resurrection of Methylphosphonate-Aged Human Acetylcholinesterase
    (2019-03) Franjesevic, Andrew; Hadad, Christopher
    Methylphosphonate chemical nerve agents have been used throughout history for a number of nefarious purposes, resulting in the deaths of thousands. Methylphosphonate nerve agents belong to a class of organophosphorus (OP) molecules that inhibit the function of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The inhibition of AChE leads to a cholinergic crisis that if not treated results in death. Therapeutics have been developed to treat the inhibited state of AChE; however, a spontaneous aging reaction competes with this reactivation and leaves the enzyme in a state that is recalcitrant to all known therapeutics. Herein, we have developed a number of compounds that can effectively recover the activity of the aged form of the enzyme, resurrection, and investigated the structural features that lead to increases in efficacy. In total, 20 novel compounds were determined to be capable of resurrecting aged-human AChE with the most efficient compound recovering nearly 15% of aged AChE activity over 24 hours.
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    Chemotherapy-exacerbated cancer cell colonization of the lung is mediated by host-ATF3-dependent and -independent processes.
    (2019-03) Middleton, Justin; Hai, Tsonwin
    Even with modern advances in personalized medicine, chemotherapy is still a primary adjunct therapy to treat cancer patients around the world. Emerging evidence indicates that chemotherapy can paradoxically produce a pro-cancer response by triggering tissue repair pathways, inflammation and immune suppression. We have previously shown that chemotherapy exacerbates metastasis in a mouse model of breast cancer, even while shrinking the primary tumor. This effect largely disappeared in mice lacking the gene ATF3, otherwise known as ATF3 knockout (KO) mice. ATF3 is a stress-inducible gene that encodes a transcription factor that regulates hundreds of genes, and is upregulated by chemotherapy. We hypothesized that chemotherapy-derived stress changes the host in an ATF3-dependent manner that produces a better “soil” in which cancer cells can grow. In order to directly test the effects of chemotherapy on the site of metastasis, we developed an experimental metastasis model where wildtype (WT) or ATF3 KO mice are treated with cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel – two widely used chemotherapeutic drugs – four days before breast cancer cells are intravenously injected. By the point that cancer cells are injected, the drugs have been eliminated from the body, ensuring that the chemotherapy has no effect on the cancer cells, only the host. We found that chemotherapy led to an increase in cancer cell colonization of the lungs only in WT mice, indicating that treatment changes the metastatic environment in an ATF3-dependent manner. Using in vitro adhesion experiments, we found that the serum of treated mice increases the adhesion of cancer cells to blood vessel endothelial cells. Additionally, we found an increase in immunosuppressive inflammatory monocytes in the lung, and an increase in myeloid precursors in the bone marrow following chemotherapy, only in WT mice. Finally, we found that depleting ATF3 only in myeloid cells using conditional KO mice resulted in a significant decrease in cancer burden in the lungs, suggesting that myeloid cells are a key component of the chemo-exacerbated metastasis phenotype we observe. Myeloid cells are known to prevent cancer cell death and increase cancer cell proliferation and extravasation—key steps for cancer cells during the colonization process. Future work will attempt to uncover the mechanisms behind this myeloid-regulated increase in colonization, with the overall goal of identifying cellular and molecular targets to inhibit that may improve the efficacy of chemotherapy.
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    Cinnamodial Analogues with Insecticidal and Antifeedant Activity to Control the Aedes aegypti Mosquito
    (2019-03) Manwill, Preston; Rakotondraibe, Liva
    The Aedes aegypti mosquito serves as a major vector for viral diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, which are spreading across the globe and threatening public health. In addition to increased vector transmission, the prevalence of insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is also on the rise, thus solidifying the need for new, safe and effective insecticides to control mosquito populations. Plants have been an indispensable source of novel compounds possessing pharmacological activities relevant to public health. Pyrethroids, for instance, the most widely used insecticides in the United States and the only class approved for insecticide treated nets, are derived from natural pyrethrins isolated from the flowers of Chrysanthemum (Asteraceae).We recently identified that cinnamodial, a natural compound present in the bark of the Malagasy medicinal plant Cinnamosma fragrans Baill. (Canellaceae), exhibited significant larval and adult toxicity to Ae. aegypti and outperformed DEET – the gold standard for insect repellents – at repelling adult female Ae. aegypti from feeding. Cinnamodial belongs to the drimane sesquiterpene class of natural products and possesses two aldehyde functional groups located nearby each other, one of which being conjugated with a neighboring alkene, altogether, this α,β-unsaturated 1,4-dialdehyde moiety may play a critical role in eliciting insecticidal and antifeedant activity. In this study large quantities of cinnamodial were isolated from C. fragrans and several semisynthetic analogues were prepared to probe the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for larvicidal, adulticidal and antifeedant activity against Ae. aegypti. Initial efforts were focused on modification of the dialdehyde functionality to produce more active analogues and to understand the importance of the 1,4-dialdehyde and the α,ß-unsaturated carbonyl in the observed bioactivity of cinnamodial. This study represents the first investigation into the preliminary SAR of cinnamodial as an agent to control the spread of the medically important Ae. aegypti mosquito. Overall, we have identified several derivatives that confirm the importance of the α,ß-unsaturated carbonyl for mosquitocidal activity and the dialdehyde moiety for antifeedant activity. Additionally, two effective cinnamodial analogs have been identified which may serve as hit compounds for the generation of new Ae. aegypti larvicides and adulticides.
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    Identity-based preference frames as determinants of the effectiveness of valenced persuasive messages
    (2019-03) Siev, Joseph; Petty, Richard
    Negative messages have become increasingly predominant in political communication, but is this strategy always wise? This research shows that the effectiveness of negatively-framed and positively-framed messages depend on recipients' tendencies to think of their preferences in terms of support or opposition. In particular, partisans tend to conceptualize their political preferences in terms of support for their ingroup party, whereas independents tend to conceptualize their preferences in terms of opposition to their non-preferred party. As a consequence, partisans respond more favorably to support-framed persuasive messages, while independents respond more favorably to opposition-framed messages.
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    Bone marrow-derived stromal cells and Notch ligands support the sequential acquisition of CD94 and NKp80 during human NK cell development
    (2019-03) Nalin, Ansel; Freud, Aharon
    Human natural killer (NK) cells develop in secondary lymphoid tissues (SLTs) from precursor cells that differentiate into NK and other innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subsets. We investigated the role of Notch signaling in NK cell maturation. We used a stromal feeder cell development assay together with activation of Notch signaling to generate mature NK cells in vitro from SLT-derived ILC precursor cells (ILCPs). NK cell developmental stages express Notch receptors at the surface. Activation of Notch in immature NK cells promoted the developmental transition wherein NK cells attain functional maturity. In vitro-derived NK cells in the presence of Notch activation expressed the surface activating receptor NKp80, expressed transcription factors T-BET and EOMES, and produced perforin, granzymes, and interferon-γ. These data identify Notch signaling as a cellular pathway regulating NK cell functional maturation.
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    Bacterial Translocation Predicts Future Depressive Symptoms in Breast Cancer Survivors and Controls: A Two-Year Observational Study
    (2019-03) Madison, Annelise; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice
    Purpose: There is cross-sectional evidence of elevated bacterial translocation among depressed individuals; however, it is unclear if depressive symptoms precede bacterial translocation or vice versa. Methods: The current study examined bidirectional longitudinal associations between bacterial translocation markers and depressive symptoms in 315 women (n=209 breast cancer survivors, n=106 non-cancer controls). At three visits, women completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression questionnaire (CES-D) and provided blood samples to assess lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and serum soluble CD14 (sCD14), and their ratio, markers of bacterial translocation. Results: After adjusting for key demographic variables, health behaviors, cancer treatment, and baseline depressive symptoms, women with higher baseline LBP (p=0.013) and LBP/sCD14 (p=0.007), but not sCD14 (p=0.85), had greater depressive symptoms at later visit. A woman at the 75th percentile for LBP or LBP/sCD14 at baseline was 18% more likely to report clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥16) at follow-up than a woman at the lowest quartile of bacterial translocation. In contrast, baseline depressive symptoms did not predict bacterial translocation at follow-up. Conclusion: These results support the bottom-up pathway, suggesting that bacterial translocation fuels later depressive symptoms among healthy women and breast cancer survivors alike. Thus, interventions that target the gut barrier and microbiota, including dietary changes, probiotics, and prebiotics, may lessen the risk of depression.
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    Making the rainbow connection: Audio-visual crossmodal correspondences between colors and musical instrument timbres
    (2019-03) Reymore, Lindsey; Huron, David
    Music is an art form for the sense of hearing, but the words we use to describe musical sounds intriguingly recruit imagery from a much wider range of sensory experience: the ‘bright’ blare of a trumpet, the ‘sweet’ song of an oboe, or the ‘sharp’ exclamation of a piccolo. Are these associations simply the result of co-opting and re-defining existing words, or are they evidence of deeper perceptual connections among the senses? In a previous research project, I interviewed two dozen musicians and asked them to describe the timbres, or sound qualities, of musical instruments. I noticed that the musicians often volunteered color-related words to describe musical timbres. For example, interviewees described the bass clarinet as “a very deep, dark, navy-blue colored sound,” the saxophone as “orange,” the oboe as “yellow, with green undertones,” the flute as a “sky blue color,” and the piccolo as “fuchsia pink.” In addition to naming colors, participants often used words with visual, and specifically color-related, meanings: “light,” “bright,” “dark,” “warm,” and “cool” were among the top 25 most frequently used words. Informally, timbre is also referred to as “tone color,” and the language used by musicians in these interviews suggests that this alternate name may be more than mere analogy. The nature of these connections is scientifically interesting—how widespread are cross-sensory associations and what are their origins? Does metaphorical language predict how people match color and sound? The answers to these questions are not only important scientifically, but also artistically. Audio-visual correspondences are particularly important for the relatively new genre of music visualization, in which music is intentionally paired or co-created with color, shape, and movement (think Disney’s “Fantasia). Understanding the psychology of expectation for audio-visual correspondences allows theorists to consider and analyze how such art plays with expectations and provides artists with new resources. Inspired by my observations of color-related language in the interviews, I designed a series of empirical studies to investigate whether there are latent, commonly shared correspondences between musical instrument sounds and colors. Such potential timbre-color correspondences have not been explored by any published study to date. Based on the interview data and extant studies from psychology, ethology, and neuroscience that address how sounds may be mapped to visual features, I compiled a list of descriptive terms for sound that I predicted would tap into associations between timbre and color. In the first study, I hypothesized that sounds that are rated as smaller, brighter, higher, and happier are associated with lighter colors, while sounds that are rated as bigger, darker, lower, and sadder are associated with darker colors. Furthermore, I posited that instruments that were considered “warm” would be more likely to be matched with warm colors, while “cool” sounding instruments would be more likely to be matched with cool colors. First, participants listened to sounds of six different musical instruments and chose colors that they believed best matched the sound quality or character of the instrument. Then, they listened to the same six instruments and rated how well each of the adjectives (e.g. “bright,” “warm,” etc.) described those sounds. The 106 participants in the first study were visitors recruited from the Center for Science and Industry (COSI) in Columbus, and the study was completed using headphones and iPads with apps custom-built for the experiment. The results of the first study support the first hypothesis that smaller, brighter, higher, and happier sounds correspond with lighter colors, and bigger, darker, lower, and sadder sounds correspond with darker colors. The second hypothesis, that warm colors correspond with warm sounds and cool colors with cool sounds, is not supported. Intriguingly, negative correlations between ratings of words that seem to be opposites (e.g. “bright” and “dark”) were not as strong as would be anticipated if these pairs were true opposites, from which I make the recommendation that future studies in timbre should avoid bipolar scales that assume opposites, allowing for more complexity in responses. These results support and clarify the role of cross-sensory, metaphorical language in structuring such correspondences. Questions of cross-sensory mapping and metaphor are relevant not only to musical research on timbre and music visualization, but also to cognitive science, psychology, linguistics, and neuroscience, and so these results will contribute to multiple fields of inquiry.
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    Chronic gabapentin prevents maladaptive plasticity after high-level spinal cord injury in mice
    (2019-03) Noble, Benjamin; Popovich, Phillip
    Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially fatal condition of episodic vascular hypertension that develops in animals and people when a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs above the major sympathetic outflow (spinal level T5). In most cases, the frequency of AD increases over time after SCI, indicating that progressive reorganization of intraspinal circuitry and new synapse formation below the level of injury causes the exaggerated spinal autonomic reflexes that define AD. A strict bladder/bowel care regimen and anti-hypertensive medications can help reduce the incidence of AD but prevention of AD may only be possible with new interventions that block or reverse the formation of structural plasticity in the spinal cord below the level of injury. Thrombospondins (TSPs) are glial-derived proteins that promote excitatory synaptogenesis by binding neuronal α2δ1 receptors. Recent data show that gabapentin (GBP), a drug commonly used to treat neuropathic pain, binds to neuronal α2δ-1 receptors and can reduce the formation of new synapses. Here, we tested the hypothesis that chronic treatment with GBP would limit maladaptive post-injury synaptogenesis and reduce the severity or frequency of AD and associated immune suppression after SCI. In mice with a complete T3 SCI, chronic GBP blocks excitatory synaptogenesis within spinal autonomic lamina, reduces sprouting of both autonomic interneurons that control immune organs, and sensory afferents that have been implicated in nociceptive triggering of AD reflexes. In vivo radio-telemetry revealed chronic GBP delayed the onset and decreased the frequency of spontaneous AD, and reduced the severity of experimentally induced AD. Chronic GBP also protected mice from SCI-induced immune depression. These data show GBP could be repurposed as a prophylactic therapy in at-risk SCI patients to prevent maladaptive anatomical reorganization, AD, and immunosuppression.
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    Engaging the Dark Side: Exploring Identification with Morally Deviant Antagonists
    (2019-03) Frazer, Rebecca; Moyer-Gusé, Emily
    This work investigates whether moral salience (vice salience vs. virtue salience) and the revelation timing of a character’s immoral behavior in a fictional narrative (late reveal vs. early reveal) impact identification with morally ambiguous antagonists. Further, real-world attitudinal outcomes of antagonist identification are examined. A two-part study (n = 173) demonstrated that identification with a fictional antagonist can significantly impact real-world attitudes. Additionally, gender differences emerged in the impact of revelation timing on identification.