Ohio Journal of Science: Volume 86, Issue 1 (March, 1986)

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Front Matter
pp. 0
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (1036KB)

Impact of Municipal Wastewater Effluent on Water Quality, Periphyton, and Invertebrates in the Little Miami River Near Xenia, Ohio
Lewis, Michael A. pp. 2-8
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (975KB)

Seasonal Temperature Patterns of Selected Cities in and Around Ohio
McCloskey, John W. pp. 8-10
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (330KB)

Effects of Nutrient Enrichment on the Producer Trophic Level of a Six-Year Old-Field Community
Hyder, M. Beth; Barrett, Gary W. pp. 10-14
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (518KB)

Longevity in the Drosophila virilis Species Group. I. The D. virilis Phylad
Durbin, Edward J.; Yoon, Jong Sik pp. 14-17
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (496KB)

The Occurrence and Distribution of River Redhorse, Moxostoma carinatum and Greater Redhorse, Moxostoma valenciennesi in the Sandusky River, Ohio
Yoder, Chris O.; Beaumier, Raymond A. pp. 18-21
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (399KB)

Uptake and Distribution of Manganese and Zinc in Pinus virginiana Seedlings Infected with Pisolithus tinctorius
Miller, Frederick A.; Rudolph, Emanuel D. pp. 22-25
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (450KB)

Food of White Perch (Morone americana) and Potential for Competition with Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) in Lake Erie
Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Margraf, F. Joseph pp. 26-29
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (799KB)

Small Mammal Populations on Ohio Strip-Mined Lands Reclaimed with Herbaceous Vegetation Under Old New Reclamation Laws
McGowan, Kevin J.; Bookhout, Theodore A. pp. 29-32
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (522KB)

The Caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Stillfork Swamp Nature Preserve, Carroll County, Ohio
Usis, John D.; MacLean, David B. pp. 33-40
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (911KB)

Comparison of Caddisfly Fauna (Trichoptera) of Glaciated and Nonglaciated Lentic Sites in Eastern Ohio
Usis, John D.; MacLean, David B. pp. 41-44
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (427KB)

Brief Note: Seasonal and Developmental Changes in Fat Deposition in the Silverjaw Minnow Ericymba buccata Cope
Wallace, Dale pp. 44-46
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Book Reviews
pp. 46
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (148KB)

List of Reviewers of Papers for the Ohio Journal of Science During 1985
pp. 47
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Back Matter
pp. 999
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    Back Matter
    (1986-03)
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    Book Reviews
    (1986-03)
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    Comparison of Caddisfly Fauna (Trichoptera) of Glaciated and Nonglaciated Lentic Sites in Eastern Ohio
    (1986-03) Usis, John D.; MacLean, David B.
    The caddisfly faunas of Stillfork Swamp, an unglaciated Carroll County site, and Watercress Marsh, a glaciated Columbiana County site, were evaluated in light of differences in physiography and past glacial history. The large and diverse fauna of Stillfork Swamp suggests that caddisflies, including numerous species of the predominantly northern Limnephilidae, survived the Pleistocene close to the southern extent of glaciation in eastern Ohio. The fauna of these periglacial wetlands suggests that physiography is a major factor in the distribution of Ohio Trichoptera.
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    The Caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Stillfork Swamp Nature Preserve, Carroll County, Ohio
    (1986-03) Usis, John D.; MacLean, David B.
    A survey of Trichoptera (caddisflies) carried out in 1984 and 1985 at Stillfork Swamp, Carroll County, Ohio resulted in a total of 7,974 adults representing nine families, 38 genera, and 104 species. Polycentropus clinei (Milne), Pycnopsyche aglona Ross, and Frenesia difficilis (Walker) represent new state records. Leptoceridae, the largest family, was represented by 25 species and constituted 22.5% of the total collection. The Hydropsychidae, Hydroptilidae, Limnephilidae, and Polycentropodidae included 22, 20, 15, and 13 species respectively. The most abundant genus, himnephilus, was represented by two species, indivisus Walker and submonilifer Walker, both characteristic of temporary lentic waters. Seasonal distribution, species diversity, and trophic structure were evaluated. Shredders, the largest trophic category, constituted 31.7% of the species and 37.8% of the total collection.
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    Small Mammal Populations on Ohio Strip-Mined Lands Reclaimed with Herbaceous Vegetation Under Old New Reclamation Laws
    (1986-03) McGowan, Kevin J.; Bookhout, Theodore A.
    During the summers of 1978 and 1979, indices to small mammal populations were obtained in east-central Ohio on lands strip-mined for coal. The study sites were on lands reclaimed with herbaceous vegetation before or after enactment of the 1972 Ohio reclamation laws that required topsoiling before seeding. In the two years, 26,489 snap-trap-nights and 564 pitfall-trap-nights were recorded, and 3,403 mammals of eight species were captured. The post-1972 sites, seeded with a grass-legume mixture, a common practice, had the greatest numbers, with Microtus pennsylvanicus accounting for 86% of all captures. The pre-1972 site had the lowest total numbers, with Blarina brevicauda accounting for 62% of all captures. The capture of primarily a single mammalian species on the post-1972 reclaimed areas probably resulted from lack of vegetational diversity and absence of a litter layer. Mining companies commonly mow reclaimed sites 1-3 times annually. As long as this practice continues, the plant and animal communities likely will remain simple. However, small mammal numbers were significantly increased by practices instituted after the 1972 reclamation laws.
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    Food of White Perch (Morone americana) and Potential for Competition with Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) in Lake Erie
    (1986-03) Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Margraf, F. Joseph
    The white perch (Morone americana) is an east coast estuarine species that invaded Lake Erie in the 1950s, but did not increase in abundance until the mid 1970s. We studied the food of white perch in the Sandusky Bay area of western Lake Erie in 1981 and 1982 to assess potential for interactions with yellow perch. Based on volumetric displacement of individual food taxa, diets of white perch were similar to those of yellow perch, overlapping broadly in June and July 1981, when both species ate cladocerans and chironomids. Overlap declined in August 1981 when white perch began feeding on young-of-the-year gizzard shad, which were not generally eaten by yellow perch. Because food is limiting growth of yellow perch in western Lake Erie, if white perch continue to proliferate and share food with yellow perch, then competition could influence growth rates of yellow perch and thus could play an important role in attempting to manage the yellow perch fishery.
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    Uptake and Distribution of Manganese and Zinc in Pinus virginiana Seedlings Infected with Pisolithus tinctorius
    (1986-03) Miller, Frederick A.; Rudolph, Emanuel D.
    Nursery grown seedlings of Pinus virginiana with infection by Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) versus seedlings with naturally occurring mycorrhizae were used in greenhouse experiments to determine the influence of mycorrhizae on manganese and zinc uptake and distribution in seedlings. Unamended Pt mycorrhizal seedlings and those treated with 48.0 mg Mn/pot over a 2-week period accumulated significantly higher Mn concentrations in shoots than non-Pt mycorrhizal plants. Manganese accumulated in roots of non-Pt mycorrhizal, but not Pt mycorrhizal plants. Seedlings treated with 2.4 mg Zn/pot over a 2-week period had less Mn concentrated in shoots than those unamended treatments. Zinc was significantly more concentrated in the roots than in the shoots of Pt mycorrhizal plants.
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    The Occurrence and Distribution of River Redhorse, Moxostoma carinatum and Greater Redhorse, Moxostoma valenciennesi in the Sandusky River, Ohio
    (1986-03) Yoder, Chris O.; Beaumier, Raymond A.
    Electrofishing collections at 10 locations in the middle Sandusky River mainstem between Tiffin and Fremont revealed the presence of previously unknown populations of river redhorse (Moxostoma carinatum) and greater redhorse (Moxostoma valenciennesi). The discovery of these populations expands the Lake Erie drainage distribution of both species which have been either declining in abundance or extirpated in many areas. It is doubtful that these species have recently invaded the middle Sandusky River since barriers to upstream fish movements have been in place in the vicinity of Fremont since the early 1800s. Both species snowed a preference for locations with a moderate to swift current, pool-run-riffle habitat, and a convoluted bedrock channel with a boulder, rubble, and gravel substrate. Sampling locations that were impounded or where the river was predominantly pooled contained comparatively few or no individuals.
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    Longevity in the Drosophila virilis Species Group. I. The D. virilis Phylad
    (1986-03) Durbin, Edward J.; Yoon, Jong Sik
    Adult longevity of Drosophila is dependent upon many factors. In this study, the differences in longevity due to species, strain, and sex were examined for members of the D. virilis species phylad: D. virilis, lummei, texana, americana, and novamexicana. Newly eclosed adults from 12 laboratory strains representing diverse geographical localities were analyzed as to their longevity on standard cornmeal medium in order to discover interspecific, intraspecific, and sexual differences. The Texmelucan strain of D. virilis lived the longest. Males of this strain had an average longevity of 69 days, but females survived nearly 90 days. In contrast, the Chinook strain of D. americana was the shortest-lived with males surviving for 24 days, whereas the females lived 34 days. The other strains had mean longevities between these two extremes with there being significant interspecific differences. Drosophila virilis and D. lummei were not significantly different from each other but both lived significantly longer than the other three species; however, D. texana, D. americana, and D. novamexicana were not significantly different from each other. Significant intraspecific variation was found within D. virilis, D. texana, and D. americana. Females usually lived longer than males although the differences were not significant. Variation in the adult longevity of members of this phylad may be at least partially due to, although not limited to, differences in species, strain, and sex.
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    Effects of Nutrient Enrichment on the Producer Trophic Level of a Six-Year Old-Field Community
    (1986-03) Hyder, M. Beth; Barrett, Gary W.
    The effects of nutrient enrichment (i.e., application of sewage sludge and fertilizer) on a 6-yearold- field community were investigated. Vegetation was harvested in eight 0.1-ha plots comprising three treatments. Three plots were treated five times annually (May-September) with sludge; three plots were treated with an equivalent nutrient subsidy of urea-phosphate fertilizer; and two plots were left as untreated controls.
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    Seasonal Temperature Patterns of Selected Cities in and Around Ohio
    (1986-03) McCloskey, John W.
    A sinusoidal temperature model has been developed which describes maximum and minimum temperature patterns through a yearly cycle for the major cities in and around the state of Ohio. Thirty-year monthly means provide the basis for the calculation of model parameters that are used to analytically compare temperature patterns among the selected cities. An amplitude of 11.8°C for the minimum temperature cycle in Columbus implies that the average minimum temperature for January in this city was 23.6°C colder than the average summer minimum temperature for July. Larger amplitudes for the maximum temperature cycles imply a larger difference between average summer daily extremes than for average winter daily extremes. With minimum winter temperatures well below freezing over the state, the model indicates a period of over 100 days during winter where the average minimum daily temperatures are below 0°C.
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    Impact of Municipal Wastewater Effluent on Water Quality, Periphyton, and Invertebrates in the Little Miami River Near Xenia, Ohio
    (1986-03) Lewis, Michael A.
    Water quality, periphyton, and invertebrates were determined for the Little Miami River above and below a municipal wastewater outfall during July-September 1984. The primary impact of the effluent on water quality was to increase nitrogen-containing compounds. Organosphosphate and chlorinated insecticides were non-detectable in any water sample and levels of potentially toxic metals were low. A total of 122 attached periphyton species were identified from substrates colonized for four weeks during each month. Diatoms dominated the periphyton and were represented by 106 species. The more abundant forms were Amphora perpusilla and Navicula minima which comprised on the average over 70% of the total cell volume. Thirty-one algal species of minor abundance were observed only above the discharge point, relative to eight restricted below the discharge in water containing approximately 15-35% effluent. A. perpusilla comprised on the average 80% of all forms below the outfall relative to 30% above during August and September. In contrast, N. minima was more abundant above (39%) than below (2%). Despite these differences in composition, a diversity index was relatively high, ranging from 1.7 to 3.2. In addition, algal density above and below the outfall was similar. At least 20 species of invertebrates, primarily chironomids, were identified during the study. Sixteen invertebrates occurred above the discharge point and 12 below.
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    Front Matter
    (1986-03)