The Silica Formation of northwestern Ohio contains an abundant and diverse Ostracode fauna. This fauna was previously studied by Grace A. Stewart in 1936, at which time only the lower part of the formation was exposed. This study shows that the fauna is even more diverse than that described by Stewart. Five new species, Hollinella attenuata, Halliella simplex, Nodella tetralobata, N. digitalis, and Primitiella multicostata, are described.
his article reviews American literature concerning the matter of certain aquatic insects as causes of allergic distress. The effects of bites and stings are not included. Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) were cited as a cause of hay fever as early as 1913. Inhalation of body fragments of mayflies is believed to be the causative agent. Similar medical histories are associated with the caddisflies (Trichoptera). The incidence of sensitivity to these insects is sufficiently large to consider this problem to be of general medical interest. Some evidence indicates that persons continually exposed to these insects could develop sensitivities to them. Allergists are now studying the biochemical and immunological aspects of insect allergy. A selected list of references is included with the article
Few specimens of the hoary bat have been reported from Ohio in the past, but there are now records of adult bats from Cuyahoga, Franklin, Hamilton, Loraine, Ottawa, Portage, Ross and Wood Counties. Pregnant females and/or very young bats have been taken in several counties, indicating that the hoary bat breeds in Ohio. The birth of a hoary bat in Ohio during the middle of May is reported from Hamilton County. The earliest record for Lasiurus cinereus in Ohio is May 14 and the latest record, October 14. It is suggested that this bat may be more common in Ohio than previously supposed.
A plaque technique for quantitating enteric viruses using liquid growth medium on the agar overlay was developed. Deletion of neutral red and staining of plaques using crystal violet, following plaque development, facilitated the technique. This method utilized a minimal number of monkey kidney epithelial cells for testing the greatest number of samples.
Newborn laboratory hybrids of Peromyscus maniculatus and P. polionotus were observed daily from birth to weaning and compared with offspring of each of the parent types. The Fi hybrids were intermediate between the parent types in mean age at which pinnae unfolded, hair appeared, and eyes opened. Of the parent types, the pinnae of P. polionotus opened one day later than P. maniculatus. Hybrid offspring were less viable than the parent types, with a mortality peak noted during the second postnatal week.
A toxin extracted from a waterbloom of the blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa was found to have an LDioo to mice of 3 mg/kg. Death occurred in less than 4 hours and was accompanied by symptoms corresponding to those of the fast death factor found by others in blue-green algae. The toxin was found to have no effects on three species of fish and a microcrustacean in concentrations up to 10 mg/1, and showed no growth-inhibitory effects on a diatom.
Acute static bioassays were conducted with 13 pesticides to determine their comparative toxicity to fish. There was a wide range in the toxicity of these compounds with 96-hour TLm values ranging from 0.0033 to 4.0 mg/1. Of the compounds tested, Thiodan, a chlorinated hydrocarbon, and Thimet, an organic phosphorus pesticide, were the most toxic; and Bayer 29493, an organic phosphorus compound, and Fermate, a carbamate, were the least toxic. In about half of these static tests, toxicity increased significantly with an increase of exposure time from 24 to 96 hours. The toxicity of the organic phosphorus and chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds did not appear to be influenced by the water quality characteristics (pH, hardness, alkalinity) examined. The toxicity of two of the carbamates was influenced by water quality characteristics.
The purpose of this paper is to present the fundamental technical arrangement involved for optical radar, its resolution, and requirements concerning the light source for use with it. Some basic optical radar problems are explained and pertinent equations are derived.
The paper shows that 1017 quanta per pulse at a repetition rate of 77 per second are sufficient to achieve optical radar. For this a minimum volume of only 1 mm3 is required for a luminescent semiconductor to produce this quanta flux. The light source does not necessarily have to be a laser, since the narrow bandwidth of the lasers cannot, by the present state of the art, be fully utilized with the overall optical bandwidth of such a system. If a source can produce the necessary quanta flux with a bandwidth of not more than about 20 A, the job will be as well performed by this source as by a laser. Very promising luminescent semiconductors for such an endeavor, using the visible spectrum, seem to be the II-VI compounds. An automatic passive optical range-finder system using a special pick-up transducer (conceived by the author) which automatically suppresses any background structure (clouds, etc.) is explained.
In the Reeves Pheasant, the 10th juvenal primary is retained throughout the first winter. Adult males start their primary molt two months earlier and complete it three weeks earlier than do the females. There are 18 rectrices in both juveniles and adults, but the molt is centrifugal in the former and centripetal in the latter. Adult males start their rectrix molt one month earlier, and complete it one and one-half months earlier than females.
The effect of ascorbic acid and thiamine supplementation on response to chronic heat stress was measured in male guinea pigs. Chronic heat stress was associated with decreased food intake, weight loss, and decreased oxygen consumption. Colonic temperatures of heat-stressed guinea pigs remained above normal throughout the stress period. Total leukocyte and hemoglobin levels were significantly lower and eosinophil levels significantly higher in heat-stressed animals. Heart rates were not significantly different during early anesthesia. When body temperature fell to 36°C, heart rates were significantly less in heat-stressed animals. Necropsy indicated decreased liver weight to body weight ratios, decreased percentage of dry weight in adrenals, and increased percentage of dry weight in the livers of animals in the heat. No effect of vitamin supplementation on the physiological changes resulting from heat stress were found. Comparison with the effects of cold stress as reported in the literature indicates that heat and cold are dissimilar in their physiological effect on the guinea pig and that the response to vitamin supplementation is also dissimilar.