Ohio Journal of Science: Volume 93, Issue 3 (June, 1993)

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Front Matter
pp. 0
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (630KB)

Brief Note: Ohio Lamprey, Ichthyomyzon bdellium (Petromyzonidae), in Ohio: A Review and Recent Records
Barnes, Mark D.; Rice, Daniel L.; Phinney, George J. pp. 42-43
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (252KB)

Effects of Diet on Seven-Day Ceriodaphnia dubia Toxicity Tests
Cerda, Blas; Olive, John H. pp. 44-47
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (465KB)

The Seasonal Distribution of Some Bacteriophages in the Akron Sewage Treatment Plant
Huynh, Tru Dien; Kory, Martha M. pp. 48-50
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (262KB)

Climatological Aspects of Drought in Ohio
Rogers, Jeffrey C. pp. 51-59
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (955KB)

The OAS Newsletter
pp. 58A-58H
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (5830KB)

Centennial Symposium: Scientific Basis of Service Delivery for Older Adults
pp. 60-60
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (87KB)

Centennial Symposium Paper: Solving Older Adults' Medigap Insurance Problems Through Skilled Training
Caramela-Miller, Sandra A.; Darr, Ralph F. pp. 61-63
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (313KB)

Centennial Symposium Paper: Functional Motor Skills Measurements in Older Adults: Implications for Home Care Service Delivery
Gandee, Robert N.; Knierim, Helen; Fox, David; Kadavy, Carla pp. 64-67
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (416KB)

Centennial Symposium Paper: The Need for Outcome Rather Than Process Evaluations
Newman, Isadore; Newman, Carole pp. 68-71
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (379KB)

Centennial Symposium Paper: Science in the Service of Older Adults: Bridging the Gap
Deitchman, Robert pp. 72-73
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (253KB)

Book Reviews
pp. 74-75
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Back Matter
pp. 999
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (705KB)

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    Back Matter
    (1993-06)
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    Book Reviews
    (1993-06)
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    Centennial Symposium Paper: Science in the Service of Older Adults: Bridging the Gap
    (1993-06) Deitchman, Robert
    The successful solutions to many of the problems facing the older adult population center around the ability of the aged to use, evaluate, and understand the detailed and technical information available to them from a variety of areas. Currently, many disciplines are involved in investigating problems of older adults relative to neighborhoods, consumer product liability, housing needs, employment, assessment and diagnosis of potential client problems, discrimination and race relations, health, cultural effects, and public matters of assistance. Relative to these efforts, scientific and technical data are available concerning the establishment of formal and informal networks to effectively address these concerns. An associated problem confronting older adults is the confusion experienced when they attempt to assimilate the relevant scientific information available. The focus of this paper is the process for the successful use of this information by seniors and coping strategies for combating data shock.
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    Centennial Symposium Paper: The Need for Outcome Rather Than Process Evaluations
    (1993-06) Newman, Isadore; Newman, Carole
    This paper presents a theoretical model which discusses the value of and need for the use of outcome rather than process evaluations of programs for the elderly. The theoretical framework is based on the highly successful philosophical model of statistical quality control used in industry, which assumes the best way to improve quality is to look at the outcomes. Most accreditation associations, such as the Joint Committee on the Accreditation of Health Care Organizations (JCAHCO), tend to emphasize process evaluations. It is the position of this paper that a change is needed which would shift that evaluation emphasis to assessing program outcome. The authors identify how outcome evaluations can be developed, taking into consideration need assessment, procedures, and multiple stakeholder concerns within the design of the evaluation. Also included is a discussion of the value of a learning and motivational approach rather than one that is punitive and judgmental.
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    Centennial Symposium Paper: Functional Motor Skills Measurements in Older Adults: Implications for Home Care Service Delivery
    (1993-06) Gandee, Robert N.; Knierim, Helen; Fox, David; Kadavy, Carla
    The maintenance of motor skills is critical to the preservation of the independence of older adults. Because subjective differences have been observed, selected motor skills of older adults attending the Slippery Rock University Elderhostel (EH) and the Senior Centers (SC) of Butler County, PA, were compared. While no differences were identified between Elderhostel and Senior Center participants on the measurements of flexibility, card sorting, penny pick-up and coordination, statistical differences did emerge for grip strength, arm curl, and agility. The Elderhostel participants were significantly better than Senior Center participants in the motor skills associated with strength, balance, and agility. These data have implications for therapists, administrators, and other care providers conducting home care programs for older adults.
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    Centennial Symposium Paper: Solving Older Adults' Medigap Insurance Problems Through Skilled Training
    (1993-06) Caramela-Miller, Sandra A.; Darr, Ralph F.
    A critical problem occurs when older adults purchase Medigap supplemental insurance to cover Medicare's gaps, since the elderly generally fail to understand the basics of these gaps. If consumers are better informed, they may be able to better evaluate and choose an adequate policy fitting their individual needs. Further, if older adults can be taught strategies through guided training, to help them deal with the enormous amounts of information in the policies, and, if this information can be presented in an organized form, such as a matrix, their processing of the information may be facilitated. This should lead to more intelligent problem solving behavior. An applied cognitive aging training approach will be discussed in an information processing framework, with particular emphasis on expert-novice differences, and transfer of training. The field environment selected for this study is a demonstration counseling project in Summit County, OH, that has been operational since May 1990. This project was borne out of the cooperative efforts of the Ohio Attorney General's Office, an appointed Insurance Advisory Committee composed of representatives from the area's major hospitals and senior citizens centers, and the Institute for Life-Span Development and Gerontology at The University of Akron.
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    Centennial Symposium: Scientific Basis of Service Delivery for Older Adults
    (1993-06)
    These papers illustrate the opportunities for scholars and scientists of the various disciplines to examine the personal and societal problems confronting this ever increasing aging population segment. Gandee et al. examine the relationships among the older adults' motor skill performance, quality of life, and self-selected recreation activities. Caramela-Miller and Darr highlight the complexities of the barriers of bureaucracy in the aging service networks and in Medicare which prevent aging individuals from acquiring needed services. Newman and Newman present an outcome evaluation model to promote and enhance the delivery of services for older adults. In the concluding paper of the series, Deitchman highlights the complexity of the information seeking skills required for older adults to solve and resolve problems within the delivery system. The series presents a glimpse of the many research questions that will confront scholars and scientists of the 21st century.
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    The OAS Newsletter
    (1993-06)
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    Climatological Aspects of Drought in Ohio
    (1993-06) Rogers, Jeffrey C.
    Precipitation and Palmer hydrological drought index (PHDI) data have been used to identify past occurrences of Ohio drought, to illustrate the temporal variability occurring statewide within dry periods, and to compare some of the key dry spells to those of 1987-88 and 1991-92. Periods of hydrologic drought and low precipitation generally persist for 2 to 5 years and tend to cluster in time, such as occurred from 1930-1966. It is not uncommon for precipitation to return to normal or near normal conditions while short-term drought persists in terms of streamflow, ground water supply, and runoff, as measured by the PHDI. The period April 1930 to March 1931 is the driest on record in Ohio although longer periods of low precipitation have occurred from 1893-1896, 1952-1955, and 1963-1965. The temporal clusters of droughts are separated by prolonged wet periods, including those extending roughly from 1875-1893, 1905-1924, and 1966-1987. Correlations between Ohio monthly precipitation and mean air temperature suggest that drought is linked to unusually high summer temperatures through mechanisms such as increased evapotranspiration, leading to increased fluxes of sensible heat from dry soil surfaces. In winter, warm conditions tend to favor higher precipitation, soil recharge, and runoff. Variations in mean temperature and atmospheric circulation may also be linked to other observed climatic features such as long-term trends in soil-water recharge season (October-March) precipitation.
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    The Seasonal Distribution of Some Bacteriophages in the Akron Sewage Treatment Plant
    (1993-06) Huynh, Tru Dien; Kory, Martha M.
    Bacteriophages are present in all human and animal sewage. However, environmental factors, such as the change in seasons, may affect the composition and viability of phages in sewage. The consequence of seasonal change (fall, winter, summer) on the isolation from raw sewage of bacteriophages specific for Escherichia colt, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, andEnterococcus faecalis were studied. The total number of phages isolated in each season varied little. However, the bacteriophage populations did vary concurrently with the change of seasons, with some phages isolated only in one season of the year (i.e., seasonal phage strains). There were many seasonal strains of E. coli phages (17 of the 43 isolated) and Enterococcus phages in the sewage (12 of the 15 isolated), but only a few seasonal Pseudomonas phages (3 of the 15 isolated). While the time of year that the seasonal phages were isolated varied, no season had the majority of the phage isolates. The present study indicates a seasonal distribution in the isolation of bacteriophages from sewage in Northeastern Ohio.
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    Effects of Diet on Seven-Day Ceriodaphnia dubia Toxicity Tests
    (1993-06) Cerda, Blas; Olive, John H.
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four diets on the results of seven-day Ceriodaphnia dubia toxicity tests. Survival and reproduction were used as indices to detect the sensitivity of this species to acute and chronic copper stress. All toxicity tests were conducted using the moderately hard reconstituted water recommended in 1989 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Diet differentially affected the acute and chronic toxicity of copper. Daphnids fed Selenastrum capricomutum (alga) showed the greatest sensitivity, followed by those fed the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardti, then by animals fed a Yeast-CerophyllT1^-Trout Food (YCTF) mixture plus Selenastrum, and finally by animals fed YCTF alone. These differences may result from the poor nutritional adequacy of Selenastrum when fed alone, the different caloric contents of the diets, the increased toxicant uptake by the organisms through ingestion of copperladen algal cells, and/or copper ions sequestered by fats and insoluble substances in YCTF. We recognize that diet is an important variable in seven-day toxicity tests, and that the selection of a diet should not be based only on its effects on long-term culturing of C. dubia, but also on its possible effects on test results.
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    Brief Note: Ohio Lamprey, Ichthyomyzon bdellium (Petromyzonidae), in Ohio: A Review and Recent Records
    (1993-06) Barnes, Mark D.; Rice, Daniel L.; Phinney, George J.
    Prior to 1983 only isolated specimens of Ohio lamprey {Ichthyomyzon bdellium) were collected at a few sites in the Ohio River drainage of Ohio, where it is listed as an endangered species. Seining surveys of the Little Muskingum River in 1983 and 1992 discovered a concentration of unattached adults in a riffle in May, as well as a recently metamorphosed subadult and an ammocoete, indicating that the species probably spawns there. Other Ohio River tributaries may support spawning populations as well.
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    Front Matter
    (1993-06)