Brief Note: The Influence of Habitat Characteristics on
Nestbox Selection by Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis) and Four
Competitors Horn, David Joseph; Benninger-Truax, Mary; Ulaszewski, Donald
W. pp. 57-59
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(1996-06) Horn, David Joseph; Benninger-Truax, Mary; Ulaszewski, Donald W.
During the breeding seasons of 1990-1992 and 1994, we examined how habitat characteristics surrounding nestboxes influenced nesting success of eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis} and nesting attempts by tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), bluebirds, house sparrows (Passer domesticus), and deer mice (Peromyscus spp.). Using linear regression analyses, significant positive correlations were detected between both the number of nesting attempts and nesting success of eastern bluebirds and the distance to the nearest tree >3.0 m tall. The number of house sparrow nesting attempts was positively associated with the distance to the nearest tree <3.0 m tall. Negative relationships were observed between both the distance of nestboxes to the nearest tree >3.0m and <3-0 m tall and the number of nesting attempts by mice. Although the habitat requirements of these cavity-nesting species overlap, specific nest-site characteristics may influence both the number of nesting attempts and the nesting success of each species.
Several fossil fish were discovered in 1994 in the Upper Devonian Chadakoin Formation, near Howard Falls, just outside of Edinboro, Erie County, Pennsylvania. These fossils are fragmentary in nature and have been described based on their morphology. They are identified as the median dorsal plate of the large arthrodire Dunkleosteus terrelli Newberry, 1873, and the spines of probable acanthodian fishes. The identification of the median dorsal plate of Dunkleosteus represents a new occurrence of the genus. In general, these discoveries are of scientific interest because very little is known about the composition of the fish fauna that inhabited the Devonian shallow seas of northwestern Pennsylvania.
To identify unmet education and prevention needs in a medium-sized Midwestern metropolitan community seven target populations were surveyed to determine AIDS/HIV knowledge levels, risk behaviors, and sources of information/services. Target groups included community youth, school youth, HIV-positive persons, women, gay/bisexual individuals, racial/ethnic groups, persons incarcerated and/or on probation with the criminal justice system, and substance users. Persons in the different target groups were surveyed using a standardized, self-administered survey instrument containing questions on demographics; HIV-related risk behavior; knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HIV; and questions tailored for the various target groups. Responses were voluntary and anonymous. Data were analyzed based on frequency distribution and correlation. Findings suggested that knowledge about HIV and AIDS was relatively high among all groups; while the knowledge levels appeared to be high, respondents reported continued high risk behavior. Abstinence and condom use to reduce risk of HIV exposure were recognized as effective; yet neither abstinence nor condom use was reported as common practice by the respondents, even the HIV-positive respondents. Since it appears that education is failing to effect change, a new approach to bring HIV/AIDS risk reduction to a more personal level must be examined and implemented.
(1996-06) Egan, Todd P.; Danielson, Neil D.; Gorchov, David L.
Two experiments were carried out to test the hypothesis that herbivory induces higher levels of taxanes in the bark of two year old Taxus media cv Hicksii cuttings. For the first experiment bark was cut 1.0 mm deep every 5.0 mm in two groups of cuttings; with 0.1% 2,4-D applied over the wounded bark in one group. Both groups and a control were harvested one week later. In the second experiment bark was wounded (as above) and treated cuttings with their respective control groups analyzed one and three weeks after treatment. Bark extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Cutting significantly decreased taxol levels in the second, but not the first, experiment.
(1996-06) Williams, Roger N.; Ellis, M. S.; Fickle, D. S.
These data represent the second year of a two-year survey to inventory a wide range of insect species inhabiting the Killbuck Marsh Wildlife Area. The principal objective was to collect information on insect biodiversity in this wetland area for future reference. Emphasis was focused on aquatic insects including predaceous diving beetles (Dytiscidae), water scavenger beetles (Hydrophilidae), and crawling water beetles (Haliplidae). Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) were also included. Blacklight, flight intercept, Nitidulid Inventory Technique, underwater light, and malaise traps were utilized, as well as carrion bait and aquatic netting for collection techniques at five unique habitats. Overall, 477 species in 94 families and subfamilies in 13 orders were identified as a result of this survey.