Ohio Journal of Science: Volume 108, Issue 5 (December, 2008)

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Front Matter
pp. 0
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Benthic Algae of Lake Erie (1865-2006): A Review of Assemblage Composition, Ecology, and Causes and Consequences of Changing Abundance
Stewart, Timothy W.; Lowe, Rex L. pp. 82-94
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Algal Community Habitat Preferences in Old Woman Creek Wetland, Erie County, Ohio
Reeder, Brian C.; Binion, Brian M. pp. 95-102
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Parvodinium gen. nov. for the Umbonatum Group of Peridinium (Dinophyceae)
Carty, Susan pp. 103-107
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Long-term Spread and Control of Invasive, Common Reed (Phragmites australis) in Sheldon Marsh, Lake Erie
Back, Christina L.; Holomuzki, Joseph R. pp. 108-112
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Book Reviews
pp. 113-115
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Back Matter
pp. 999
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    Front Matter
    (2008-12)
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    Benthic Algae of Lake Erie (1865-2006): A Review of Assemblage Composition, Ecology, and Causes and Consequences of Changing Abundance
    (2008-12) Stewart, Timothy W.; Lowe, Rex L.
    Peer-reviewed literature and published reports were used to summarize knowledge of benthic algal assemblage composition and ecology in Lake Erie, and causes and consequences of temporal variation in algal abundance. Macroalgal assemblages in rocky littoral and soft substrate habitats have been reasonably well described and studied, as has the epiphyte/metaphyte assemblage associated with rocky littoral macroalgae. In contrast, little information exists for non-epiphytic microalgae in littoral habitat. During the period when algal records were reported (1865-2006), the rocky littoral macroalgal assemblage was often dominated by the chlorophyte genera Cladophora and Ulothrix and the rhodophyte Bangia, whereas the charophytes Chara and Nitella were most abundant in littoral soft substrate. In addition to substrate effects, assemblage composition varied as a function of depth, temperature, light levels, and nutrient concentrations. Under certain conditions, macroalgal taxa appeared to outcompete and exclude other taxa from littoral habitat. However, these organisms have also facilitated increased algal diversity by supporting epiphytes/metaphytes. In Lake Erie, significant temporal change in benthic algal abundance has been associated with: 1) eutrophication (prior to 1972), 2) oligotrophication following the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (1972-1985), and 3) invasion by Dreissena mussels (1986-2006). Increasingly eutrophic conditions were reflected by high abundance and frequent shoreline fouling by Cladophora, declining charophyte (such as Chara, Nitella) abundance, and invasion of rocky littoral habitat by euryhaline Bangia. Subsequent indicators of oligotrophication included declining Cladophora abundance, and increased diatom abundance in deepwater habitat. Effects of filter-feeding Dreissena (such as increased water clarity, phosphorus excretion) were likely causes for Cladophora resurgence in the 1990s, and likely contributed to return of Chara and Nitella to formerly occupied habitat. Algal assemblages clearly reflect environmental conditions in aquatic ecosystems. To accurately assess present and future conditions in Lake Erie, continued study of all benthic assemblages is recommended, with greater attention directed toward microalgae in littoral habitat than has occurred in the past.
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    Algal Community Habitat Preferences in Old Woman Creek Wetland, Erie County, Ohio
    (2008-12) Reeder, Brian C.; Binion, Brian M.
    Algal communities were examined from May through August 1993 in Old Woman Creek National Estuarine Research Reserve and State Natural Area and Preserve, a shallow (<0.5 meter deep) 56 ha hypereutrophic wetland, located in Erie County along the south-central shore of Lake Erie. Most of the wetland is open water; the dominant macrophyte, Nelumbo lutea, covers about 30% of the surface area. Therefore, open water algae can be the primary autotroph contributing to the wetland’s energy flow. Inflow regions are the primary collector of watershed agricultural runoff, and therefore have greater concentrations of nutrients than waters closer to Lake Erie. We did not find any difference in phytoplankon diversity between the sites near the inflow compared to sites closer to Lake Erie (the outflow). In general, half the biovolume of phytoplankton was composed of diatoms, and one-third euglenophytes. Average algal volumes of the back sites (9.01 x 106 μm3/ml) were higher than the front sites (5.92 x 106 μm3/ml). Periphyton diversity was slightly higher near the inflow. Periphyton growing on artificial substrate had about five times greater biovolume than phytoplankton; however, periphyton inverse Simpson diversity was about half of nearby phytoplankton. All sites were dominated by green algae and euglenophytes by number of individuals. Diatoms dominated under Nelumbo lutea; euglenophytes and small green algae dominated in turbid open-water regions. We suggest that light, the presence of aquatic vegetation, and hydrologic dynamics may be more important to determining the community structure in this wetland than nutrient concentrations or interspecific competition.
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    Parvodinium gen. nov. for the Umbonatum Group of Peridinium (Dinophyceae)
    (2008-12) Carty, Susan
    Peridinium is a genus of freshwater thecate dinoflagellate. Because it was one of the earliest named genera (Ehrenberg 1832), many species placed in it were later removed to other genera. Genera continue to be extracted and Peridinium, while more closely defined, still harbors groups of species unlike the type species, P. cinctum. It is the goal of this paper to remove one of the most dissimilar groups, the Umbonatum Group. Peridinium cinctum has no apical pore, three apical intercalary plates and five cingular plates. Species in the Umbonatum Group have an apical pore, two apical intercalary plates and six cingular plates warranting their separation into a new genus, Parvodinium.
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    Long-term Spread and Control of Invasive, Common Reed (Phragmites australis) in Sheldon Marsh, Lake Erie
    (2008-12) Back, Christina L.; Holomuzki, Joseph R.
    In 2001 the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) initiated a long-term, herbicide-spraying control program of Phragmites australis (common reed), a highly invasive perennial grass, in Sheldon Marsh on Lake Erie’s south shoreline. Controlling reed is a priority of many wetland managers because habitat homogenization from reed expansion may adversely affect wildlife habitat and waterfowl. Reed has historically been a minor part of wetland plant communities of the Laurentian Great Lakes but has spread rapidly since 2000 when lake water levels dropped. Here we examined ODNR records and aerial photographs using ArcGIS software and planimetry from 2000 to 2007 to (1) track annual changes in reed localities and areal coverage, (2) compare short-term effectiveness of glyphosate (Glypro® and AquaNeat®) and imazapyr (Habitat®) herbicides, and (3) estimate control costs. Reed first appeared in a small, isolated patch in 1998 but expanded to comprise approximately 18 percent of the marsh’s emergent vegetation by 2001. Annual change in areal cover was not related to minor changes in already low Lake Erie water levels. However, reed amount decreased from 6.7 ha (= 14.8 percent of emergent vegetation) in 2004 to 2.5 ha in 2007 after a two- to three-fold annual increase in amount of herbicide used. Short-term, post-spraying necrosis (browning) was slower for Phragmites treated with a five percent Habitat® solution than with a 30 percent AquaNeat® solution. Slowed necrosis presumably prolongs photosynthesis and plant nutrient uptake and delays habitat deterioration for some wildlife, but provides time for vegetative spread. Seven years of herbiciding have contained reed to approximately six percent of the emergent plant cover. Estimated control expenditures from 2003 to 2007 were \$8475 USD (average approximately \$1700/year); a small cost to maintain system ecological diversity.
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    Book Reviews
    (2008-12)
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    Back Matter
    (2008-12)