Ohio Journal of Science: Volume 89, Issue 5 (December, 1989)

Permanent URI for this collection

Front Matter
pp. 0
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (3087KB)

Foreword
Mitsch, William J. pp. 116-117
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (205KB)

The 1987 "Boatload of Knowledge" - Graduate Environmental Research and Education on the Ohio River
Mitsch, William J.; Mullins, Gary W.; Cavanaugh, Teresa M.; Taylor, Ralph W. pp. 118-127
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (2882KB)

The Original Boatload of Knowledge Down the Ohio River: William Maclure's and Robert Owen's Transfer of Science and Education to the Midwest, 1825-1826
Pitzer, Donald E. pp. 128-142
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (6129KB)

Resource Development and Conservation History Along the Ohio River
Frost, Sherman L.; Mitsch, William J. pp. 143-152
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (4348KB)

Water Quality Trends of the Upper Ohio River from 1977 to 1987
Cavanaugh, Teresa M.; Mitsch, William J. pp. 153-163
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (988KB)

Dissolved Oxygen Profiles at Major Wastewater Discharges and Hydroelectric Dams on the Ohio River
Wellner, Joseph P., Jr.; Dinger, James S. pp. 164-171
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (586KB)

Heavy Metal Concentrations in Ohio River Sediments – Longitdunal and Temporal Patterns
Youger, John D.; Mitsch, William J. pp. 172-175
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (1073KB)

Non-volatile Chemical Mutagens in Sediments of the Kanawha River, West Virginia
Waldron, Marcus C.; White, Alan R. pp. 176-180
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (553KB)

Fishes of the Ohio River
Pearson, William D.; Pearson, B. Jaunelle pp. 181-187
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (803KB)

Changes in Freshwater Mussel Populations of the Ohio River: 1,000 BP to Recent Times
Taylor, Ralph W. pp. 188-191
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (396KB)

Birds in the Ohio River Valley: Possible Indicators of Environmental Quality
Todt, David E. pp. 192-194
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (869KB)

Book Reviews
pp. 196-196
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (124KB)

Obituaries of Members of the Ohio Academy of Science: Report of the Necrology Committee, 1989
pp. 197-200
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (427KB)

The Ohio Academy of Science Officers, Committees and Academy Representatives for 1989-90
pp. 201-202
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (193KB)

Index to Volume 89
pp. 203-211
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (737KB)

The Ohio Journal of Science Table of Contents – Volume 89
pp. 212-213
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (100KB)

Back Matter
pp. 999
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (1131KB)

Browse

Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 18 of 18
  • Item
    Back Matter
    (1989-12)
  • Item
    Index to Volume 89
    (1989-12)
  • Item
    Book Reviews
    (1989-12)
  • Item
    Birds in the Ohio River Valley: Possible Indicators of Environmental Quality
    (1989-12) Todt, David E.
    The 1987 Boatload of Knowledge provided a unique opportunity to census the birds along the Ohio River from Pittsburgh to Louisville. A daily species count and determinations of species diversity on three sections of the River were done. While some difficulties were experienced during the censusing along the River, the overall results, field work plus a literature and information search, point to differences in bird species diversity along the Ohio River. The diversity of birds species corresponds to differences observed in the habitat along the sampled sections of the Ohio River.
  • Item
    Changes in Freshwater Mussel Populations of the Ohio River: 1,000 BP to Recent Times
    (1989-12) Taylor, Ralph W.
    Through the use of literature records and new data, it was possible to compile a list of species of freshwater mussels that inhabited the upper Ohio River (Ohio River Mile [ORM] 0-300) around a thousand years ago. This information was derived from specimens found associated with Indian middens located along the banks of the Ohio.
  • Item
    Fishes of the Ohio River
    (1989-12) Pearson, William D.; Pearson, B. Jaunelle
    To date, 159 species of fishes (14 of them introduced by humans) have been reported from the Ohio River. Three native fishes {Acipenser fulvescens, Alosa alabamae, and Ammocrypta asprella) have apparently been eliminated from the river. The Ohio River fish community was severely affected by the siltation of clean gravel substrates, and the inundation of those substrates by the canalization of the river before 1927. In the past 20-30 years, populations of many species have increased, particularly in the upper third of the river. Some pollution-intolerant species which had disappeared from the upper reaches of the river between 1900 and 1950 have been returning since 1970 (e.g. Polyodon spathula, Hiodon tergisus, and Carpiodes velifer). A few pollution-tolerant species have declined in abundance since 1970 (e.g. bullheads and Ictalurus catus). The most abundant fishes in the lock chamber samples of 1957-87 were Notropis atherinoides, Dorosoma cepedianum, Aplodinotus grunniens, Notropis volucellus, and Ictalurus punctatus. The ongoing recovery of the Ohio River fish community should encourage us to take additional steps to protect the river from catastrophic spills of toxic materials and to reintroduce eliminated native fishes.
  • Item
    Non-volatile Chemical Mutagens in Sediments of the Kanawha River, West Virginia
    (1989-12) Waldron, Marcus C.; White, Alan R.
    Sediments from the Kanawha River Basin were examined for the presence of non-volatile chemical mutagens using the Salmonella /mammalian microsome assay. Surface sediments were collected at two sites, one upstream and the other downstream from the chemical manufacturing complexes at South Charleston, Institute, and Nitro, WV. Sediment samples were prepared for extraction by milling a portion of wet sediment with anhydrous sodium sulfate. Preliminary chemical fractionation was achieved by extracting milled samples sequentially with Freon-113, methylene chloride, acetone, and methanol. Bacterial mutagenicity tests were performed on each solvent fraction using Salmonella tester strains TA98 and TA100, with and without the addition of Aroclor-induced rat liver microsomal (S9) enzymes. Mutagens were recovered from both sampling sites and mutagenic responses were very similar in the two sediment samples. Both sites exhibited more TA98 than TA100 mutagenesis, indicating a greater abundance of frame-shift mutagens as compared to base-substitution type mutagens. The more polar sediment extracts (acetone and methanol) contained more mutagenic residues than did the less polar methylene chloride fractions. No mutagenic activity was recovered in the nonpolar Freon-113 extracts. Methanol extracts from the two sampling sites were different in that the downstream sample contained at least one direct-acting frame-shift mutagen, while the upstream sample was mutagenic only in the presence of S9 enzymes.
  • Item
    Heavy Metal Concentrations in Ohio River Sediments – Longitdunal and Temporal Patterns
    (1989-12) Youger, John D.; Mitsch, William J.
    Concentrations of barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc were determined in sediment samples collected in 1987 at 11 sites in the Ohio River between Pittsburgh, PA, and Louisville, KY. Samples were digested by nitric acid treatment. Concentrations of metals generally decreased with distance downstream, with highest values occurring in the industrial upper Ohio River. The longitudinal trend paralleled the pattern found 10 years earlier by the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, nickel and zinc in 1987 were lower at most sites than those in 1977. In contrast, the manganese concentration was generally higher in 1987, while barium levels did not differ between the two sampling periods. Most metal concentrations in the Ohio River remain greater by two to eight standard deviations than background concentrations of metals published for the State of Ohio.
  • Item
    Dissolved Oxygen Profiles at Major Wastewater Discharges and Hydroelectric Dams on the Ohio River
    (1989-12) Wellner, Joseph P., Jr.; Dinger, James S.
    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the summer of 1987 did not change significantly along the Ohio River between Wheeling, WV and Louisville, KY. Depth variation was evident but no temperature stratification was observed. DO concentrations downstream of hydroelectric dams decreased in each case. Degassing of the water passing through the turbines may have accounted for this decrease. No correlation was found between DO concentration and volume of effluent discharged from waste water treatment plants (WWTP). Elevated DO concentrations existed at and below WWTPs, indicative of the general effectiveness of WWTP reaeration on DO concentrations at the point of discharge and approximately one mi down river. WWTPs in the highly urbanized Cincinnati area yielded results similar to the WWTPs as a whole, but a slight sag was evident at the Dry Creek WWTP. A hypothetical grab-sample taken at 1.5 m depth at mid-channel was compared to the mean obtained from a nine-sample-profile. The variation was not significant, indicating that grab-sampling would be equivalent to more detailed and expensive profile sampling under similar flow conditions in the river.
  • Item
    Water Quality Trends of the Upper Ohio River from 1977 to 1987
    (1989-12) Cavanaugh, Teresa M.; Mitsch, William J.
    Water quality trends from 1977 to 1987 at four stations in the upper Ohio River were explored statistically by use of the seasonal Kendall test for trends and informally described by comparison with flow data and water quality criteria. Monthly data for eight chemical parameters were evaluated: cyanide, phenolics, copper, iron, lead, zinc, dissolved oxygen, and total suspended solids. Results indicated general improvements in the water quality, most notably in decreasing concentrations of cyanide, phenolics, lead, and zinc. The strongest trends were noted for cyanide. Flow adjustment of the data did not affect conclusions about concentration trends, and flow-concentration regressions were weak.
  • Item
    Resource Development and Conservation History Along the Ohio River
    (1989-12) Frost, Sherman L.; Mitsch, William J.
    The 1578 km-long Ohio River has a rich history of natural resource use and abuse, starting with the development of the river itself for navigational purposes. There is a rich early record of natural history studies by Bartram, Michaux, Lesueur, Rafinesque and others. The navigational use of the river began with snag pulling and has progressed to modern high-lift dams. Flood control, navigation of tributaries, and canal-building have been water resource development projects of the past. Early industries that developed around the availability and abundance of coal, oil, natural gas, salt, iron ore, timber, and clay in the valley ultimately led to the more recent pottery, iron and steel, chemical, and power generation industries along the river and its tributaries. There were also major horticultural developments of apple orchards, wine vineyards, and even silk worm farms along the river and a modest button industry from the mussels in the river itself. The pollution of the Ohio River has been a concern for decades, and the involvement of the federal government and the establishment of interstate compacts have led to the development of significant understanding of the science of water pollution and to the general improvement of the river's water quality.
  • Item
    The Original Boatload of Knowledge Down the Ohio River: William Maclure's and Robert Owen's Transfer of Science and Education to the Midwest, 1825-1826
    (1989-12) Pitzer, Donald E.
    ... more learning than ever was before contained in a boat was Robert Owen's description of the Boatload of Knowledge that descended the Ohio River from Pittsburgh to his projected Utopia at New Harmony, Indiana, in the winter of 1825-26. Among the scientists and Pestalozzian educators aboard the keelboat christened Philanthropist were key figures from the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. William Maclure was its president and the father of American geology. Thomas Say was the Academy's librarian, a conchologist later called the father of American descriptive entomology. Charles Alexandre Lesueur was the Academy's curator known as a naturalist, zoologist, ichthyologist, artist and teacher who made 127 sketches during the voyage. The research, publications, schools, libraries and reforms of those on the Boatload of Knowledge impacted scientifically, culturally, socially and economically to benefit the Midwest and the nation.
  • Item
    The 1987 "Boatload of Knowledge" - Graduate Environmental Research and Education on the Ohio River
    (1989-12) Mitsch, William J.; Mullins, Gary W.; Cavanaugh, Teresa M.; Taylor, Ralph W.
    A modern version of the 1826 Boatload of Knowledge journey down the Ohio River was accomplished in the summer of 1987 with a 965 km, 15-day, graduate education and research trip on the river from Pittsburgh, PA, to Louisville, KY. Nine graduate students from throughout the Ohio River Basin were involved in an educational program that involved individual research projects and project planning and logistics. Eighteen faculty from 11 different colleges and universities and 33 professionals from various agencies, industries, and organizations participated in lectures and other presentations for the students along the journey. A total of 173 people were involved in some aspect of the 15-day trip. Emphasis was on the ecological and environmental issues of the river and its valley, the historical aspects of human cultures, and the use of natural resources along the river. Research results included two research studies each on the sediment and water quality of the river along its length, a census on bird populations along the river, and an assessment of tree damage caused by air pollution in the Ohio Valley. Educational results included a much better understanding of the logistics and advantages of combined research-graduate education field courses along a major waterway.
  • Item
    Foreword
    (1989-12) Mitsch, William J.
  • Item
    Front Matter
    (1989-12)