AS part of a COSI Academy research project, data from a recent statewide analysis of effective groundwater recharge were reexamined by students to further discern relations between recharge and selected environmental characteristics of individual drainage basins: 1) location of the main stem of a river relative to coarse and fine surficial sediments and 2) influence of land use. Lack of sufficiently detailed data was the principal difficulty in most phases of the examination. Other than a potential relation between recharge and the percentages of agricultural and forested land, no relations were found in visual comparisons of mapped and tabulated data.
Models of snakes varying in color pattern have been used to test hypotheses about predation and mimicry. In the present study, clay models of the common garter snake were used to test for a difference in attack frequency between adult and juvenile striped and melanistic garter snakes; such difference may indicate a difference in cryptic coloration between the two morphs. The research was performed on the shores of Sandusky Bay and Lake Erie, where polymorphic garter snake populations contain both striped and melanistic garter snakes. There was no difference in attack frequency between the two morphs; however, juvenile snake models were attacked more frequently than adult ones. The study suggests that melanism may not confer a strong disadvantage with respect to visually-oriented predators.
A new species of Argulus is described based on 18 specimens taken from the salamander (achoque or ajolote) Ambystoma dumerilii Duges, collected in Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico. Diagnostic characters include the shape of the respiratory areas, number of sclerites in suction cup rods, and structures on the legs of males. Females are heavily stippled, whereas males have a very distinctive pigment pattern consisting of abundant melanophores covering the testes dors ally and two dark, inverted triangular patches on the carapace dorsally. The new species is similar to the North American species, A versicolor,A. americanus, A. maculosus, and A diversus. A single, dorsal pore was observed on each caudal ramus using scanning electron microscopy; these pores have not been reported previously in the Branchiura.
(2003-06) Riccardi, Cynthia L.; McCarthy, Brian C.
Deep Woods, a 114-ha private preserve in Hocking County, OH, is the site of an all taxa biotic inventory (ATBI) coordinated by the Ohio Biological Survey. Here we describe the forest vegetation and natural history of the site and evaluate the role of human disturbance in structuring the regional landscape. Due to various abiotic factors, the area offers a diversity of habitats and species. The bedrock geology consists of sedimentary rock from the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian formations with alluvial deposits along a riparian corridor. At least three soil orders are represented: alfisols, inceptisols, and ultisols. As is typical of most of unglaciated Ohio, the forests here have been subjected to a long history of anthropogenic disturbance. The first inhabitants of the area were ancient moundbuilders (ca. 2500 YBP). During the 1700s, Shawnee and Delaware groups resided throughout the county. Anglo settlers drove all Native American groups out of the area by the early 1800s. The original land survey data (1801) suggested that the dominant vegetation at Deep Woods was composed of Quercus alba, Q. velutina, Carya spp., and Cornus florida (relative importance value, RIV = 34, 13, 12, 11%, respectively). Tax records show that Anglo-ownership of the property dates from the mid-1830s. County death records indicate occupations of 19th century landowners primarily as farmers. Dominant vegetation types include: hydric floodplain, mesic upland, and xeric ridgetop. Betula nigra, Carpinus caroliniana, Ulmus americana, andLiriodendron tulipifera (RIV = 16, 11, 11, 10%) dominate the floodplain. Whereas L. tulipifera, Acer saccharum, andB. alleghaniensis (RIV = 21, 15, 11%) and A rubrum, Q. prinus, and Q. alba (RIV= 27, 13, 9%) dominate the upland and ridgetop, respectively. Several other minor habitats also exist such as pasture fields, hemlock ravines, sandstone outcrops, and rockhouse formations. We conclude that the present species composition resembles the 1801 land survey, even though the post settlement disturbances were different than Native American disturbance regimes.
(2003-06) Mancl, Karen M.; Carr, Kathleen; Morrone, Michele
Environmental literacy is defined as an understanding of natural systems combined with how they interact with human social systems. An Ohio study measured adults' knowledge of ecological principles as the basis of understanding. A telephone survey of 504 Ohio adults measured their knowledge of ecological principles along with their demographics. Low literacy adults are significantly different from those who exhibit high literacy. The lowest literacy group was characterized as less educated, below the median household income, older, female, and minority. Low literacy adults are less likely to engage in outdoor activities, gain information from environmental groups, but are more likely to gain information from television. Low literacy adults are more likely than high literacy adults to use alternative transportation. In targeting environmental education programs to heads of households and Ohio voters, adults with low environmental literacy need to be approached differently than those with high literacy.