Polar Oral History Program

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The Polar Oral History Program is administered by The American Polar Society and The Ohio State University's Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center Archival Program and funded by the National Science Foundation. The purpose is to document the early years of American polar exploration by interviewing those who were in the polar regions since the 1930's. Ultimately, the goal is to preserve the heritage of American polar exploration for future generations of researchers and scientists. This collection consists of transcripts of these oral interviews. For information contact the polar curator.

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    Interview of Stephen Pyne by Jean de Pomereu
    (Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center Archival Program, 2021-05-25) Pyne, Stephen J., 1949-
    Although Stephen Pyne is best known as a historian of fire, his book The Ice (1986) continues to be regarded by many as one of the most important contributions to Antarctic literature. The writing of The Ice is the focus of this oral history. Parts 1 & 2 focus on his journey to Antarctica and what he found there. Part 3 focuses on the writing and reception of The Ice. Stephen Pyne was born in the United States in 1949. He attended Brophy, a Jesuit high School in Phoenix, Arizona, and went on to obtain a Bachelors Degree from Stanford University. He later attended the University of Texas, Austin, where attained his Masters degree in 1974 and his PhD in 1976. In parallel to his studies and research, he spent fifteen seasons (1967-1981) as a wildland firefighter on the North Rim of Grand Canyon National Park. Pyne's first book was a biography of pioneering geologist Grove Karl Gilbert. His second was entitled Fire in America: A Cultural History of Wildland and Rural Fire (1982) and started a lifelong interest in the human and environmental history of fire. In 1981, despite not having any prior interest in the Polar Regions, he received an invitation to apply for an Antarctic Fellowship funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities. In his application, he proposed to write a general history of the earth sciences with Antarctica as part of the story. He was granted the fellowship on this basis and spent three months in Antarctica during the austral summer of 1981-1982. As a guest of the Unites States Antarctic Program (USAP), Pyne flew from Christchurch, New Zealand, to McMurdo Station on Ross Island. At McMurdo he followed a mandatory field-training course and accustomed himself to US Antarctic logistics, science and culture. From there, he accompanied a geological field party to North Victoria Land where he spent two weeks and realized for the first time that his book would need to refocus entirely on Antarctica and its primordial element: ice. After spending some more time in the field in the Allan Hills and the Dry Valleys, Pyne returned to McMurdo and asked to visit Dome C where the USAP had established a field camp in collaboration with French scientists. Before travelling to Dome C, however, he was first sent to spend about a week at the South Pole for altitude acclimatisation. Pyne spent around ten days at Dome C and accustomed himself to the unique environmental specificities of what he went on to refer to as the 'source region'. Following his stay at Dome C, Pyne returned to McMurdo and embarked on the icebreaker USS Glacier aboard which he sailed back to Punta Arenas, Chile, via the Amundsen Sea and the United States' Palmer Station on Anvers Island along the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. Back home at the University of Iowa where he was employed at the time, he got caught up in more pressing commissions focusing on the history of fire and of the Grand Canyon and did not have the time to write his Antarctic book. Eventually, he decided to take a leave of absence from the University of Iowa in order to write the book. With no money except what little savings he had with his wife, Pyne returned to Arizona, stopped everything and wrote furiously for four months to get the book finished before money ran out. This done, he took up a temporary job whilst working on edits and rewrites. When presented with the final draft, Pyne’s intended publisher, Oxford University Press, with whom he had an advance contract, rejected it. Another university press refused to publish the text unless it was cut in half. He declined and The Ice was eventually published by the nascent University of Iowa Press in 1986. Against all expectations, the book received a highly complementary review from the New York Times and was selected as one of the Times' ten best books for 1987. It has now been republished seven times in both hard and paper-back editions in both the US and the UK. Following the publication of The Ice, Pyne returned to his interest on fire, writing more than twenty books on the subject. These where interspersed with a smaller number books on what he identified as the three great ages of discovery, as well as on writing techniques for history and nonfiction. He spent the rest of his teaching career at Arizona State University (ASU), mostly as a member of School of Life Sciences to which he transferred in 1999. He remains an emeritus professor at ASU and continues to live in the wider Phoenix agglomeration where he raises Tunis sheep with his wife Sonja. Despite standing alone within his wider oeuvre, Pyne still considers The Ice to be his best book: the one that is most likely to stand the test of time.
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    Interview of Frederick E. Crory by Brian Shoemaker
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2012-02-24) Crory, Frederick E.
    Mr. Crory (Fred) grew up as a Massachusetts farm boy. At age 15 he joined the Massachusetts National Guard and at age 17 joined the Marines – serving in Guam and Japan. He also served during the Korean War. Upon discharge he used the G.I. Bill and attended the University of Massachusetts graduating with a degree in Civil Engineering. During his senior year one of his professors, Karl Hendrickson, introduced him to soil mechanics in the Polar Regions. This led to a job at the Army Corps of Engineers at their Arctic Construction and Frost Effects Laboratory (ACFEL). Fred describes his experiences in doing basic research for construction projects in the Arctic. Early on he began to work on developing adequate piling supports for the Distant Early Warning System (DEW) Line bases. Later it was on towers that oscillated due to the wind and affected their foundations. He explains frost heaving in airfields constructed on permafrost. This work took him to Fairbanks for a two-year (1956-59) assignment where he traveled the entire north Alaskan Coast conducting Arctic construction studies. Back in Massachusetts he took over the pile-testing program at ACFEL. He explains the merger of ACFEL and the Snow, Ice, Permafrost Research Experiment (SIPRE) to the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) in 1961 and the move to Hanover. Fred took over the Foundations Group of CRREL in the early 1960’s. With the development of the oil industry on the North Slope of Alaska, Fred became involved with development of foundations for oil-rigs, roads, airstrips, the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and etc. He explains his work studying how to protect the tundra and permafrost at test sites at Inagok, Tunaluk and Lisburne. He visited the USSR three time s to learn from their methods. He also traveled to Thule in Greenland to develop “refrigerated foundations” for the radars, the Ballistic Missile Warning System in Clear, Alaska and DEW line stations across the north slope of Canada and the United States when they were upgraded to automated sites of the North Warning System. Along the way he picked up a Master of Science degree from the College of Applied Sciences of the University of New Hampshire. Fred retired in 1990 and conducted Arctic consulting work until 1995. He is fully retired today and lives in Hanover, New Hampshire.
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    Interview of Albert L. Raithel by Brian Shoemaker
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2012-01-06) Raithel, Albert L.
    Capt. Raithel had a very short career with VX-6 during Deep Freeze II (1956-57). However, he flew one of the first P2V’s there and his narrative gives a good understanding of the development of P2V operations in Antarctica. After only one year flying with the squadron, he was transferred to the Naval Academy as an instructor. The following is pertinent: 1. Read about Byrd Expeditions in 1930’s 2. Was member of the first Air Scout Troop in Miami, Florida in 1943, attended Naval Academy and then flight training in 1953. 3. In 1954 Bernt Balchen invited him to fly in the Arctic with the USAF 10th Rescue Squadron – fell through because of the aircraft demands of the Korean War Airlift. 4. Volunteered for Deep Freeze in 1955 when the volunteer notice came out, but due to Administrative error was not selected. 5. In 1956 he appealed to Admiral Richard Black for orders to Antarctica. Black told Admiral Dufek and Dufek personally picked Raithel. In March 1956 he reported to VX-6. 6. He explains how Lockheed converted P2V’s to skis and explains how the skis operated in the field. 7. Al flew as co-pilot to Charlie Otti. Other P2V pilots were Jack Torbert, Stan Antos (USMC) and Jack Coley who had been on Ski Jump in the Arctic. 8. Briefly discusses the P2V crash at McMurdo that killed four people. 9. Relates story of Jack Otti and him picking up P2V at Lockheed Los Angeles and flying to New Zealand and thence McMurdo arriving on 3 January 1957. 10. Describes the first P2V flights to the South Pole. First was flown by Jack Torbert and Stan Antos. Raithel and Otti followed. 11. Planes were very overgrossed. Used 16 JATO for take-off at McMurdo and carried 16 more internally for take-off from South Pole. Landed at South Pole on 8 January. Mentions crew were Don Thomas ADR-1 (plane captain), Buzz Hudson (radioman) Ed Silberman (Navigator – USMC). 12. Discusses operation of the jets and reciprocating engines – jets burned av-gas. Had an integral heaters in each nacelle to warm the engines at low temperatures. 13. Returned to New Zealand on 13 January after only 10 day in Antarctica, due to failures of the attaching fittings in the aircraft ski system. Never returned. 14. Commented that Dufek was “sort-of” the Commanding Officer of VX-6. “Capt Cordinier and CDR Ward were more-or-less relegated to gofers.” 15. Ordered to Naval Academy shortly after returning to the United States due to completion of four continuous years of sea duty. 16. In 1957 he was ordered as advisor for air operations to work with Xavier deMaere of the Belgian Antarctic Program. Later in 1974 while he was assigned to NATO Staff in Brussels he again worked closely with Admiral deMaere.
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    Interview of Frank G. Stokes by Brian Shoemaker
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2012-01-06) Stokes, Frank G.
    Capt Stokes became interested in Admiral Byrd after listening to the Admiral’s broadcasts during his expeditions. He graduated from the Naval Academy in 1953 and after his first tour of duty volunteered for Operation Deep Freeze. He was assigned to Little America in the fall of 1957 as the Communications Officer. He sailed from Seattle aboard the USS Atka via Christchurch to Little America at Kainan Bay. He gives good descriptions about life “On the Ice”. Mentions that Gus Shinn was their station pilot and that he spent the summer at Little America. Give a thorough accounting of the incident of Bert Crary falling into Kainan Bay when the ice front collapsed. Mentions “Little America College” and the regular lecture series that was involved. Little America was officially closed as a science base at the end of IGY (Dec 31, 1958), but Stokes was left behind with a close-out crew. He closed out the station on January 19, 1959 – he was the last to leave. He never had duty again in the Antarctic, but returned twice as a tourist in 1994 and 1995. The following is pertinent: 1. Listened to Admiral Byrd on radio as a young man. 2. While at Naval Academy wrote thesis on Admiral Byrd. 3. Volunteered for Deep Freeze after his first tour in fleet in 1957. 4. Was sent to Thule Greenland for survival school. 5. Was assigned as the Communications Officer to Antarctic Support Activities headed by Capt Pat Mayer. 6. He flew to Christchurch and boarded the USS Atka and headed for Kainan Bay. 7. He describes crashing two helicopters at Little America. 8. Slept in sleeping bag at first until previous winter crew left. 9. CDR Tommy Thompson was CO of Little America – Stokes boss. 10. Stokes was also Postal Officer requiring him to fly to Byrd Station and McMurdo. 11. Describes “Goober Beer”. 12. Discusses “All Hands” Club and fraternization with enlisted. 13. Discusses Antarctic Weather Central. 14. Describes the effect of sun-spots on communications. 15. States that there were four pilots assigned during the winter – they flew all winter. 16. He was duty officer when Bert Crary, the chief scientist in Antarctica, fell into Kainan Bay and was rescued by helicopter. He describes the incident in detail since he coordinated the rescue. 17. He discusses HAM Radio and its importance to morale. 18. Talks about the routine of steam-baths with others of the staff. 19. Frank and the scientists started “Little America College” which had lectures and movies every night. 20. He discusses the closing of Little America V. Stokes was the last man to leave. 21. Traveled to New Zealand on the USS Arneb 22. Returned to Ross Sea with Fuch and Hillary in 1994 as a tourist and again in 1995. 23. In 2001 Stokes joined a group from the Planetary Studies Foundation and Harper College to collect meteorites in Antarctica.
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    Interview of Charles A. Burroughs by Brian Shoemaker
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2012-01-06) Burroughs, Charles A.
    Capt. Burroughs was commissioned as an Ensign in the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey upon graduation from the University of Connecticut in 1958 and was immediately sent to Alaska aboard the R/V Patton, a small hydrographic survey ship. Later he was assigned to the Bering Sea aboard the R/V Pathfinder where they surveyed the coast of the Aleutian Peninsula while based at Dutch Harbor. He attended graduate school (Major in Geodetic Science) from 1962-63 at The Ohio State University. He then worked in triangulation fieldwork in the Arctic, including the establishment of the first Coast and Geodetic satellite triangulation station in the Arctic at Cambridge Bay, NWT in 1964 during the winter. He discusses his experiences while there and also talks about the remains of the M/V Maud, Amundsen's ship that rests in shallow water just offshore. In 1965, Capt. Burroughs performed reconnaissance for four more satellite triangulation stations on St. Lawrence Island, Shemya Island, Pt. Barrow and Cold Bay. These were important accomplishments because they laid the groundwork for more accurate photographic mapping systems of the Arctic Basin, as well as providing data for the establishment of a world –wide geodetic datum. After the C&GS was rolled into ESSA in 1965, and finally NOAA in 1970, he was given Command of the NOAA Ship Fairweather during 1973-74, where he made modern hydrographic surveys of the Cook Inlet and Glacier Bay, Alaska (utilizing automated hydrographic survey systems). From 1976 until he retired in 1985, he held a number of staff and administrative positions in NOAA Headquarters, including Chief of Staff to the Director of the NOAA Corps. This was a short, but good interview. As an aside it should be noted that Capt. Burroughs is still involved with mapping and has been an officer of numerous mapping societies including president of the Washington Map Society, editor The PORTOLAN, the Society newsletter/journal, and secretary of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Society. He is an authority on The U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-42, commanded by Lt. Charles Wilkes that made significant discoveries of the Antarctic coastline. He has written a chapter in the Book Magnificent Voyages, The U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-42, Smithsonian 1985. The book details the relationship between the expedition and the fledgling Smithsonian and the perseverance of Admiral Wilkes, who for 40 years attended to the curation of the expedition collections.
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    Interview of John E. Sater by Brian Shoemaker
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2012-01-06) Sater, John E.
    Mr. Sater’s polar career began 1955 when he was in the Army as part of the First Engineering Arctic Task Force. This group studied methods of constructing snow compacted runways on the Greenland Ice Cap. Later he got a bachelors degree at Ohio State University under the tutelage of Dr Richard Goldthwaite. During the IGY he did surface motion studies on the McCall Glacier under a project funded by the Arctic Institute of North America. His career from this point on was centered about AINA and Arctic research although he had one tour in the Antarctic with the British. The interview was disjointed as he jumped around somewhat. There was some very revealing information, however. The following is pertinent: 1. While in the Army he was sent to Greenland (1955-56) as part of the First Engineer Arctic Task force that studied the construction of snow compacted runways on the central icecap. 2. Pointed out that the USAF was able to land C-124 Globemaster aircraft on the man-made runways and unload large Army tanks. Sater feels that the same type runways would be useful in Antarctica. Basically they used a heating device to melt the surface layer of snow and then sheep’s-foot construction roller to compact it. 3. During IGY he was part of the team that did motion studies on the McCall Glacier in the Romanzov Mountains, Alaska. Other team members included Dick Hubley (Station Leader), Bob Mason and Charles Keeler. Hubley committed suicide – he explains the details. 4. In 1960 Mr. Sater sailed to Antarctica on the Kista Dan as the U.S. Representative with the British Antarctic Survey. Sir Vivian Fuchs was in charge. The ship was frozen in “the ice” for a long period of time until the USS Glacier was able to free it. Scientific objectives were not met. 5. After IGY he returned to AINA where he helped to organize the Arctic Basin Symposium (1962) and to edit the Proceedings of the Arctic Basin Symposium (1963) – major work at that time. 6. Mr. Sater was the Station Leader on (Arctic Research Laboratory Ice Station II) ARLIS II from September 1962 to May 1963. Studies conducted Oceanography (?), Meteorology (Phil Church), Biology (John Moore), Acoustics (Beaumont Buck), Aurora (Vic Fisher). 7. Worked at Naval Arctic Research Laboratory as a supply coordinator from 1963 to 1964 8. Returned to AINA in 1964 and coordinated the North Water Project of Baffin Bay (polyna study). Used the Canadian Icebreaker St Laurent. Researchers included Larry Coachman, Robin Munch, Max Dunbar, Sven Orbin (McGill). 9. Discusses the aircraft crash in Arctic Ocean on the way back from ARLIS II. Plane took off with diesel fuel in the reserve tanks and when the tanks were switched the engines quit. Max Brewer, John Schindler and Zimmerman (pilot) were aboard. Aircraft put down in the dark on the ice pack. Air Force rescued them by landing on the ice. 10. Explains the Bi-national Status of AINA. There was a Canadian Directorate and U.S. Directorate. At first they were in Montreal and Baltimore respectively. It was incorporated on both sides of the border, but run by the same Board of Directors. Sater took over U.S. operation in 1970. AINA maintained itself by doing ice forecasts for the oil companies. It was closed in 1980 due to lack of money. Today the Canadian Directorate is at the University of Calgary and the U.S. Directorate is at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks. Chairman of the two boards are ex-officio on the other nations board.
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    Interview of Gordon Cartwright by Brian Shoemaker
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2011-10-21) Cartwright, Gordon
    Mr Cartwright began a career with the US Weather Bureau in 1929 and served in positions of increasing responsibility witnessing all of the major developments in meteorological data collection and forecasting, the advent of satellites for weather reporting, the creation of NOAA from the USWB and other agencies and the USWB role in the Arctic and the Antarctic. Career highlights discussed in this interview include: during World War II, Cartwright organized a series of weather reporting stations along the ALCAN Highway for reporting Arctic weather conditions; he developed the Joint Arctic Weather Reporting System (JAWS) with the Canadians; he funded the construction of the initial weather reporting bases at Resolute and Alert; he was selected as an exchange scientist with the Russians during the IGY.
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    Interview of William R. Anderson by Raimund E. Goerler
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2011-10-21) Anderson, William R., 1921-
    The interview focuses almost entirely upon Anderson's role as captain of the nuclear submarine Nautilus in crossing from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean on August 3, 1958. Topics include planning for the expedition, unsuccessful efforts, fears that the Navy would cancel the expedition after the first failure, and the importance of Dr. Waldo Lyon in developing the special instruments that enabled the submarine to measure ice thickness and plot the Barrow Sea Canyon.
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    Interview of Edwin C. Flowers by Laura J. Kissel
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2011-10-21) Flowers, Edwin C.
    Recollections of Flowers' experience in Antarctica during the IGY as weather observer. Topics include: how he became a meteorologist and subsequently how he became involved with the IGY; daily life at the station; his role as a weather observer and what was involved in that, such as balloon launches; Paul Siple, and his influence on all who were there; relationship between navy personnel and civilian scientists; his relationship with other important people in Antarctica during that time.
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    Interview of Herbert T. Ueda by Brian Shoemaker
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2010-01-08) Ueda, Herbert T.
    Mr. Herbert T. Ueda (Herb), originally from the Puyallup Valley, Washington, was incarcerated in Japanese-American internment camps during WWII. After the war he held a variety of jobs until drafted into the Army in 1951. After his release from active duty he used the G.I. Bill to obtain a degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Illinois. After college, in 1958, he obtained a job at the Snow, Ice and Permafrost Research Establishment (SIPRE) in Wilmette, Illinois. His supervisor for the next several years at SIPRE and at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) in Hanover, NH was B. Lyle Hansen. During his career he made 24 trips to Greenland, four to Antarctica and ten to Alaska, working on numerous scientific projects. His first fifteen years were involved in deep ice core drilling with Lyle Hansen, eventually supervising the field operations. In 1966 he and Lyle Hansen led the team that was the first to drill through the Greenland Ice Cap at Camp Century, Greenland, hitting bedrock at 4550 feet – “The most satisfying moment of my career.” Herb then shifted to Antarctica and began drilling at Byrd Station, which he compares to Camp Century. In 1968 he and his team were the first to drill through the Antarctic Ice Sheet at Byrd Station hitting bottom at 7102 feet. He retired from CRREL in 1987 and went to work briefly for the Polar Ice Coring Office (PICO) in Fairbanks, AK as Technical Director in 1989. He returned to Greenland during the first field season of the GISP drilling project.
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    Interview of Earl R. Hillis by Brian Shoemaker
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2010-01-06) Hillis, Earl R.
    1. Born in Campaign, Tennessee 9/15/33. Grew up in Chattanooga, TN. 2. Attended David Lipscomb College (now Lipscomb University) for one year and Alabama Polytechnic Institute (Auburn University) for one year before entering the NAVCAD Flight Training program of the Navy. 3. Commissioned Ensign and Received wings in June 1956. 4. First duty was with VX-6 for Antarctic research support. 5. Checked out in the Otter and picked up one squadron Otter at DeHaviland factory in Toronto. 6. Otters shipped as deck-load on ships to Antarctica. 7. Hillis sailed on USNS Joseph F. Merrell from Davisville, RI to Antarctica. Merrell escorted through the ice pack by USS Eastwind and USS Glacier. Spent Christmas 1956 in McMurdo . 8. In January 1957 he traveled to Little America where he was assigned. 9. ENS. Hillis flew with LCDR Harvey Speed and ENS. Bill Schick as a co-pilot/navigator. Their plane that they wintered-over with was the Que-Sera-Sera the plane that previously was the first ever to land at the South Pole. Their main responsibility was to support the tractor trains from Little America to Byrd Station (80 degrees south and 120 degrees west). 10. LCDR Hillis gives a good account of the use of the various navigational instruments used to fly around Antarctica – radar (APS-42), N-1 Gyro, Periscopic Sextant, Sun Compass, Ground Patterns in the ice surfaces, RACON Beacon, ADF, and Magnetic compass (“useless in polar regions”). He also comments on the Grid Navigation System in use. 11. Plane hauled fuel to the tractors. 12. Discusses ski landings and ski construction. 13. He was part of three flight crews that wintered-over at LA V. 14. Flew over to LA I, LA II and LA III and opened the tunnels to the old Byrd camps. 15. Flew many cargo flights to South Pole. “All flights were way over-grossed.” ie overweight with cargo ED. 16. Capt Dickey was C.O. of LA V 17. Pilots who wintered-over at LA V: LCDRs Jim Waldron (O-in-C), Harvey Speed, and Bill Schick and Lt Anderson and ENS Aygarn as well as Hillis. 18. Says HAM Radio was extremely important to morale. 19. August 1957 Speed, Schick and Hillis flew back and forth to McMurdo before the sun came up. 20. Describes Otter crash at McMurdo by winter-over crew just before sundown. Said it was probably “avoidable!” 21. Remained “on the ice” until December 1957. Supported science traverses as well as the Byrd Station tractor trains. 22. Orders to FASRON 102 at NAS Norfolk. Flew WV/R7V C-121) for project Magnet for Naval Oceanographic Office in the Arctic. Explains the project. 23. Worked from Thule April 1964 flying infra- red photography of ice pack. 24. Flew ice reconnaissance for submarine USS Sargo’s winter transit through the Bering Strait in Arctic in 1960 using C-121 (WV/R7V) . 25. Flew over North Pole as well as the South Pole. This interview is particularly good in that the interviewee gives a very detailed primer on navigation in the Antarctic. LCDR Hillis was one of the authorities on Antarctic aerial navigation in the IGY era and is eloquent in his explanation on how the different elements of navigation work.
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    Interview of Gerald F. Carlson by Brian Shoemaker
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2010-01-05) Carlson, Gerald F., 1925-
    Mr. Carlson was just finishing his BA in Sociology at Washington State University in Pullman, WA in 1951 when he heard About the Alaska Native Services Office of the Department of Interior teaching program for native children. He and his wife Donna both signed up and three days later they were flying north to Alaska. His first year with the service he and his wife were assigned to a native boarding school in White Mountain, Alaska – near Nome. He recounts their experiences teaching grades K-12. There were some 300 Inupiat Eskimo children who boarded at the school. They lived in a dormitory with 10 other teachers and a school nurse. Mr. Carlson recounts the experiences, challenges and problems. He has remained in touch with some of his former students from that time; following their lives and careers. The second year with the Alaskan Native Services Office the Carlsons were assigned to Little Diomede Island where they were the only teachers for all grades K – 12. He tells very engaging story of sailing on the MV North Star from the Alaska mainland to Little Diomede and of having to unload all of their belongings into an umiak (walrus skin canoe) and being taken ashore through a rough surf. He describes Big Diomede, USSR, Little Diomede, USA and the Fairway rock on the Bering Strait. There were 130 Inupiat on Little Diomede – 35 were students from K-8 in a one-room schoolhouse. The schoolhouse served as the Carlson’s home – it was the only square building on the island except for a small church built by the famous Father Tom Cunningham. Their only contact with the outside world was with the school’s short-wave radio. The Inupiat lived in stone igloos – very primitive. Again he discusses the challenges of teaching. The MV North Star visited the island twice each year – first when the ice broke up in the Bering Strait and in late summer as it was heading south out of the Chukchi Sea. He discusses the problems teaching. First he had to adapt to local needs – the primary one was getting in 180 days of teaching before walrus migration began in the spring. That was when everyone was needed to help with the annual walrus hunt – therefore it was necessary to teach trough holidays and some weekends. He reports that the kids really wanted to learn and that there were no discipline problems. Beginning students had to be taught English because their primary language was inupiat. He had many other duties that he had to learn on the job – like radio operator (the only means of communication with the outside world) and surgeon since there was no medical care. There were problems with alcohol with the adults (until it was completely consumed) and the frightened children stayed in the school with the Carlsons until the sprees were over. He describes seal hunts on the sea ice and walrus hunts by umiak. Donna Carlson became pregnant and at the end of the school year the Carlsons elected to leave in the fall of 1954. They describe sailing across the Bering Strait to Cape Prince of whales in an umiak and from there flying to Nome and back to the State of Washington The Carlsons returned to Little Diomede 40 years later in 1993 and noted the changes. People lived in houses. There was a grammar school with six elementary teachers as well as a high school with four teachers. There was telephone service. Etc. Dramatic changes. Gerry Carlson has written a very humorous book, Two on the Rocks, about his experiences on Little Diomede. A copy is appended to Carlson’s file. Those interested in purchasing a copy may order Two on the Rocks by Gerald F. Carlson, ISBN: 1-58721-680-9. Library of Congress card Number 66-25144
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    Interview of Eugene L. Boudette by Brian Shoemaker
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2010-01-04) Boudette, Eugene L.
    Dr. Boudette (Gene) used the G.I. Bill to go to college after WW II. He obtained a B.S. in Geology in1951 from the University of New Hampshire and went to work for the New England Division of the Army Corps of Engineers. The job took him to the Northern Greenland icecap where he completed test drilling for what later became Camp Century. His drills did not work properly and he became the go-between with the manufacturer and the Army to develop equipment that would work in polar conditions in what he calls an “imagination problem.” Later he was involved with work at Camp Tuto in Greenland. In 1952 he applied to go to work for the U.S. Geological Survey – Geologic Division. As he related it, this division was absorbed with determining “how Antarctica was put together” geologically. “It was time to link Antarctica up with the rest of the world.” There were theories, but they needed to be verified. So Gene went to Antarctica in 1959 to take part in a West Antarctic traverse as the geologist. This was the first traverse of 1959-60. It traversed from Byrd Station to the Weddell Sea to the Clarke Mountains and back to Byrd. Gene comments about a reconnaissance flights by VX-6 along the route and the mutual rapport and respect he had with the pilots – and comments that this was key to the success of the traverse. During the traverse, when they passed the Sentinel Mountains Gene discovered they were basically Kenyite. On leg two in the Clark Mountains he discovered rocks older than Kenyite. He also discovered a new province of older rocks that were similar to the Mountains of New Hampshire. He reported this discovery in his findings. Plans were laid for the following season in Antarctica at the USGS in Washington. This was a large-scale program of geological research for Antarctica under his leadership. This led to fielding the Victoria Land traverse of 1960-61. There were problems that year with logistics, communications (due to sun-spots) and weather. He comments that he was stopped in Christchurch by the Navy medical establishment when they detected a problem with his blood sugar. This ended his career in the field in Antarctica although there was no manifestation of disability for years. His work in the field passed to Art Ford and John Aaron. After retiring from the USGS he attended Dartmouth University earning a Doctorate of Geology. He took a position as a Professor of Geology at the University of New Hampshire and concurrently was appointed as the State Geologist of New Hampshire.
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    Interview of John Svensson by Brian Shoemaker
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2010-01-04) Svensson, John, 1940-
    Abstract of Contents: Capt Svensson’s (John) career began in Antarctica when he was stationed in McMurdo Station with the Naval Support Force Antarctica as a Sea Bee surveyor. He left the Navy in 1964 and landed a job at the Arctic Section of the Department of Oceanography of the University of Washington working with Dr. Larry Coachman. While at the University of Washington he served as “Scientific Cruise Leader” for numerous projects in Arctic seas. He left the University of Washington in 1970 after breaking his leg and became a commercial fisherman: The following is succinct: 1. John grew up in Santa Monica. Joined the Navy as a Sea Bee in 1961. Assigned to duty in McMurdo Station, Antarctica in 1963 and wintered-over there. Surveyed in runways at the end of the winter. Discusses Russian visit to McMurdo, life at station and work with scientists there. Left the Navy in 1964 when his tour of duty was over. 2. Shortly after leaving the Navy John landed a job with the University of Washington Department of Oceanography (Dr. Larry Coachman). He traveled to Ice Station T-3 iceberg station via the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory in October1966 and served as Dr. Coachman’s “Scientific Cruise Leader” until January 1968. He describes the scientific work there – not just his own, but other programs as well since he was curious and helped everyone with their work. He also gave some good descriptions of some facets of life on the floating iceberg station 3. In the summer of 1968 John served as the “Scientific Cruise Leader” for the University of Washington aboard the USCGC Staten Island in the Bering Sea. The research involved current measurements at 60 stations in the Bering Sea – some deep-sea currents over 3 knots. Describes 4. In the fall of 1969 John was in charge of the Davis Strait Project whereby they were measuring currents in polynas. He broke is leg and the project was terminated. Unfortunately his career at the University of Washington was interrupted because the leg did not heal satisfactorily and limited him to some degree. 5. Later life: a. Returned to College and obtained a MS in Public Administration. b. Taught high school at Franklin High School in Seattle. c. Involved with Yacht racing (32’ keel boats). d. Finally wound up as a commercial fisherman. He bought his own boat and has been very successful. He attributes his success to the current measurement research that he did from T-3 in the Arctic and from icebreakers in the Bering Sea.
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    Interview of Harley D. Nygren by Brian Shoemaker
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2009-08-18) Nygren, Harley D.
    The interview with Admiral Nygren was short, but very informative. He was the founder and organizer of the NOAA Corps and became its first Director when it was formed. He served in this capacity from 1971 to 1981 and reported to four Presidents – Nixon, Ford, Carter, and Reagan. His early career, however, found him on duty in the Arctic where he was assigned for three years to the Arctic Field Party of the Coast and Geodetic Survey. He was also assigned as United States Representative on the British Antarctic Survey Expedition of 1962 and was a member of the U.S. Inspection Team to Antarctica in 1970. He retired in 1981 with 36 years active service. He was well prepared for the interview with a written resume that is in his file. This interviewers tape recorder failed as the interview began and Admiral Nygren dug one from his basement that, after some tinkering, worked fine on this interview and several other interviews in the following week. The following is pertinent: 1. During WWII (1942) he joined the Navy and was assigned to the Navy College Training Program and earned his commission and B.S. in 1945. 2. In September 1947 he joined the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 3. He was trained as an Astronomic Observer in 1948 4. In 1949 he was assigned to the USCGS Arctic Field Party. His party surveyed the coastline and the near offshore from Point Lay to Barter Island – this is where he cut his scientific teeth. This was the first accurate survey of the Alaska North Slope coastline. The maps that resulted from the survey are still in use today. The work began in January each year and proceeded until September. This cycle went on for three years. 5. The work was immediately useful to the Navy who needed the information to sail inside the Barrier Island chain off the North Slope of Alaska. 6. He recounts the excitement and trials that were endured. He notes that they employed 50 Inupiat who were invaluable to conducting the survey. 7. Lt. JG Nygren, with his knowledge of the Alaskan Coastline, piloted a Navy convoy of LSTs along the North Slope. 8. From 1952 to 1954 he had two ship assignments – the Depot Bay and the Pathfinder –conducting surveys in the Bering Sea. 9. From 1957 – 61 he served aboard three other ships that worked off of Alaska – Explorer, Pathfinder and Pioneer. 10. In 1959 while on sabbatical at the University of Washington he was asked by Professor Fleming sail with the Brown Bear – a 128 foot wooden ship – when it sailed into the ice off Point Barrow. He recounts the experience briefly. 11. In 1962 he served as U.S. Representative with the British Antarctic Survey in Antarctica spending 5 months aboard the RRS Shackleton. Henry Dater was the head of the U.S. team. The team also conducted Antarctic Treaty Inspections of Argentine and Chilean Stations during this period. 12. CDR Nygren was assigned as Executive Officer of the Surveyor in 1966. He fleeted up to Commanding Officer in 1968 and shortly afterward was appointed to Captain. The ship conducted surveys in the Bering Sea and geophysical work off of St Lawrence Island and Cape Prince of Whales. 13. In 1970 he served on the United States Antarctic Treaty Inspection team. 14. After this assignment he was appointed as Associate Administrator of ESSA (Environmental Services Administration) and promoted to RADM and when NOAA Corps was formed he was chosen as its first Director, a position that he held for ten years until he retired in 1981. In this capacity he directed all of NOAA’s activities in the Arctic and regularly visited his ships and stations in the field for ten years. 15. In his capacity as Director of the NOAA Corps he served on numerous national boards and committees and through them had a major influence on national interests in both Polar Regions.
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    Interview of Stephen L. DenHartog by Brian Shoemaker
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2009-08-12) DenHartog, Stephen L.
    Summary of Contents: Stephen DenHartog (Denny) first went to Antarctica in late 1957. He and Buck Wilson sailed from San Diego aboard the USS Burton Island and rode the vessel all the way to McMurdo with a short stop in New Zealand. From McMurdo they rode the USNS Nespelen a tanker to Little America V (LAV). In January 1958. From LAV he flew out and joined the Ross Ice Shelf Traverse under Bert Crary, senior scientist for the Antarctic IGY program, and relieved Bill Cromie as glaciologist. Later he conducted glaciological observations out to Mile 160 along the “Byrd Station Highway.” He was with Bert Crary when the ice front by Little America crumbled taking Bert with it. He ran back and alerted the camp – eventually saving Crary’s life. During the winter he and Crary conducted oceanographic research from the sea-ice on Kainan Bay. After the winter of 1958 he participated in the Victoria Land Traverse from LAV across the Ross Ice Shelf, up the Skeleton Glacier to the Antarctic Plateau to 81degrees South and 132 degrees East and thence to McMurdo Station. In 1961 Denny traveled to Barrow Alaska and thence to Arctic Research Lab Ice Station II (ARLIS II) on a tabular iceberg in the Arctic Ocean. In 1962 he returned to McMurdo for gravity survey work. In the spring months of 1962 thru 65 he completed gravity surveys from Cessna 180 aircraft flying from Point Barrow, AK. In 1969 Denny rode the SS Manhattan from Point Barrow to Halifax to assess its icebreaking capability. In 1970 he returned on the ship to the Arctic, again to test the icebreaking ability. The purpose of these tests was to gain data for building large icebreaking tankers as an alternative to the proposed Alyeska Pipeline. From 1970 to 1992 he worked for the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory in Hanover, NH. His specialty was to study river and lake ice. While there he also worked on the blue ice runway project with Charles Swithenbank and Malcom Mellor.
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    Interview of Craig W. Brown by Brian Shoemaker
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2009-07-22) Brown, Craig W., 1937-
    Mr. Brown graduated from the University of Iowa in 1960 with a degree in electrical engineering. He was in graduate school at the University of Idaho when he read a U.S. Weather Bureau recruitment brochure for work in Antarctica. He answered the advertisement and was accepted by the USWB in 1962. In June of 1962 he was sent to the USWB Station in Kansas City, KS where he was trained to maintain and repair the parabolic tracking radar to track weather balloons. From there he went to Herndon, VA where he learned to us the Dobson Ozone Spectro-Photometer and the Regener Chemiluminescent Ozone detector. The Dobson measured upper atmosphere ozone and the Regener measured surface ozone. The final training leg was at Scripps Institute of Oceanography where he was trained to measure carbon dioxide concentrations. From there he proceeded to McMurdo Sound via Christchurch and after one day there was flown to the South Pole Station on the 12th of November 1962. He noted that it was 39 degrees below zero at the time. He describes the South Pole Station - the only evidence was a doorway arch sticking up above the terrain leading down to the station which was about 12 feet below the surface due to drifting snow. The scientists who spent the prior year left the day after he and other scientists arrived. His partner from the USWB was Ken Jensen. He and Ken shared 24 hour per day scientific data-collection duties for a year. He describes his research measurement of upper atmosphere ozone using Ultra-Violet radiation via the Dobson Ozone Spectrophotometer year around, surface ozone via chemiluminesce, and carbon dioxide measurements day-in and day-out. He briefly describes other scientific research that was taking place at South Pole at the time: - Aurora studies by Bob Fries for the Arctic Institute of North America under the direction of N. J. Oliver of the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory. - Ionospheric studies of the D, E F1 and F2 layers by Bill Burgess for the Nationa Bureau of Standards under the direction of a Mr. Hough.. - VLF (Very Low Frequency) radio studies by Jim Petlock for Stanford University directed by Robert Helliwell - Seismology research by Ron Davis for the US Coast and Geodetic Survey under the direction of Captain Robert A. Earle. - Surface radioactivity by Jack Falkenhoff of the Weather Bureau for the U. S. Naval Research Laboratory under the direction of Dr. L. B. Lockhart, Jr. - Weather by Charlie Roberts, Harry Spohn, and Ken Jensen of the U. S. weather Bureau. Mr. Brown covers station life – movies at night, the food, a typical day in his life, the library, “house mouse” duties. He describes the sundown, lack of storms, temperature record of 110 degrees Fahrenheit below zero, auroras and other weather phenomena including the sunrise after a six-month absence. He was replaced after a year and describes the experience of arriving in Christchurch and seeing green grass, fresh food and women in November of 1963. After a short stay at Scripps Institute of Oceanography writing up his research on carbon dioxide and publishing a paper with Dr Charles Keeling (The Concentration of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide in Antarctica – enclosed in file with the tape and transcript) he proceeded to the University of Idaho where he received an MS in Electrical Engineering. Afterward he spent a career with the Navy as a civilian researcher at what eventually became the Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC). While at NOSC he conducted classified research from an ice station (APLIS) in the Arctic Ocean in 1986. He retired from the Naval Ocean Systems Center in 1995 and went to work for Raytheon He retired from Raytheon on April 30, 2002.
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    Interview of Dale R. Reed by Brian Shoemaker
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2009-07-22) Reed, Dale R.
    Born: Lakewood, Colorado on June 7 1935. BS Electrical Engineering (57) and MS Electrical Engineering (65), University of Colorado, Boulder. Father was mentor – influenced him to become an engineer. Employed (57) by National Bureau of Standards(NBS) Boulder. First tour(Deep Freeze III) 1957 – 1959, Ellsworth Station, Filchner Ice Shelf, Weddell Sea. Sailed November 1957 from Norfolk, Virginia on AKA-92 USS. Wyandot. Precision Depth Recordings Mid Atlantic Ridge for Lamont Laboratories of Columbia University. Traveled to Antarctica with Cdr. Schlossbach USN(Ret) Relieved the Finn Ronne party which had spent first winter at Ellsworth. Lt. Paul Tidd station Commanding Officer. Isolated under the ice with 40 other intrepid explorers. Cosmic Ray studies for Dr. Robert B. Brode, UC Berkeley and Ionospheric Studies for NBS. Slept in Jamesway science hut with ‘clicking cosmic ray counters.” Communications with families via Amateur Radio(KC4USW) was very important morale booster. In summer of 1959 Argentines arrived aboard icebreaker General Belgrano, One month on the USCGC Edisto traveling from Ellsworth to Buenos Aires, Argentina. Studied geology at the University of Colorado for two months before driving red MGA to Alaska. Second tour(Operation Deep Freeze) Byrd Station 1959–1961. Conducted Ionospheric and Radio Noise research for NBS at Boulder. Very Low Frequency(VLF) research(Whistlers West) for Dr. Robert Helliwell of Stanford University. Daily walks along a rope safety line to the buried Radio Noise and VLF research facilities. Old Byrd Station being crushed as New Byrd was being built. Airborne VLF tent traverse with co-scientists Neil Brice and Oliver Cromwell Morse III. Honored for his Antarctic work by the naming of Reed Ridge in the Thiel Mountains. Conducted(NBS Boulder) scale model antenna location studies for future installation on the USNS Eltanin Antarctic research vessel. Mr. Reed concluded that the quality of the research data he collected was marginal. He eventually returned to the University of Colorado to teach and earn his Masters in Electrical Engineering followed by thirty years in Electromagnetic Engineering at Boeing – a very rewarding career that was jump-started in Antarctica.
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    Interview of Bernard G. Koether by Brian Shoemaker
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2009-07-06) Koether, Bernard G.
    Mr. Bernard G. Koether (Ben) has a very unique polar background. He grew up in City Island, New York and spent much of his formative years as a teenager and college student involved with sailing ships. In the summer of 1953 Ben landed a job on the Vema, a 220-foot topsail schooner to Northern Labrador as far north as Belle Isle. After graduating from Brown University in June 1959, he was commissioned an Ensign in the US Navy and was assigned to the USS Glacier for duty. He made two cruises to Antarctica aboard the Glacier the first in the 1959-60 Antarctic summer season and the second during the 1960-61 summer season. Shortly afterward Ben resigned his commission and left the navy to begin a career in business. He recently retired and assumed the duties as President of the Glacier Society, an organization dedicated to preserving the USS Glacier and bringing her back on-line as a National Heirloom for the United States. The following is pertinent: 1. As a young man living in City Island New York, Ben was exposed to books on polar exploration and more importantly to sailing ships. a. The Atlantic, a three-masted sailing schooner that held the sailing speed record across the Atlantic Ocean was tied up at City Island. b. The Vema, a 220-foot topsail schooner was also there. It was built by Barbara Hutton and was used by the U.S. Navy as a picket ship in Greenland waters during WWII. The owner of the Vema was Lou Kennedy, who had formerly owned the Bear (formerly the USCGC Bear of Arctic and Antarctic fame). c. Kennedy’s father was a friend of the Koether family – Ben parlayed this connection into a summer job aboard the Vema in the summer of 1953. Lamont-Doherty Geophysical Institute had chartered the Vema for oceanographic research. Dr. Bruce Heezen and Dr. Maurice Ewing were aboard as Principal Investigators for the cruise, leading a team of 26 scientists. This was a critical point in young Ben’s life – the Vema sailed up the Arctic Coast of Labrador conducting scientific observations, the scientists and their work impressed him and, most importantly Heezen and Ewing convinced him that he must attend college – they appeared to be his mentors. 2. After graduating from Brown University in 1959 - where he was also enrolled in the Naval ROTC program – Ben was commissioned an Ensign in the United States Navy. a. In June of 1959 Captain P.W. Porter, who shortly afterward became the Commanding Officer, detailed him to the icebreaker USS Glacier. b. Ben reported to the Glacier in mid-June of 1959. (In 2002, during the interview, Ben stated that this was “The most significant event of my life!” He did not realize this at the time!!) c. The Glacier cruised to Antarctica in company with the USS Atka, another icebreaker, during the 1959-60 season in Antarctica. The chief scientist aboard was Mr. Philip Smith of the National Science Foundation. He describes life aboard ship and the work that was done. He also notes that the Glacier was used to evacuate the last personnel from Little America V and decommission the base. d. The following summer of 1960-61 Glacier sailed in company with the icebreaker USS Burton Island to Antarctica. Ben covers the event of him being selected as ships navigator even though he was one of the most junior officers on the ship – no doubt because of his experience on the Vema and other sailing ships. He also relates the event whereby the two icebreakers sailed into the Bellinghausen Sea in clear weather and ice-free waters – a true voyage of exploration. Once there the ships were beset by the sea-ice when the wind shifted and appeared to be frozen-in for the winter. The crews were in extremis because they did not have enough food or fuel for the winter. Ben had to get them out as navigator and went below and prayed to God for favorable winds for three days – his prayers were answered when the wind came up from the south at 125 knots and cleared the ice pack. He still believes that God answered his prayers and that angels were looking out for him. He describes the trip back to Boston via the Antarctic Peninsula, rescuing the Krista Dan and bringing Sir Vivian Fuchs back to Stanley, Falkland Islands. He relates the story of crossing the Drake Passage in a storm and the ship taking a 68-degree roll and captain Porter being injured. He resigned his commission after this cruise and entered the business world. 3. In August 1999, Ben attended a USS/USCGC Glacier reunion and wound up as the President of the Glacier Society - he has dedicated himself to acquiring the ship from the United States Government and returning her to operational status as a National Heirloom. Thus far, under his leadership, they have obtained the rights to the vessel, which currently is anchored in Suisun Bay, California. Plans call for the vessel to be moved from Suisun Bay to the Mare Island Naval Shipyard in November 2002 where it will undergo a refit under the loving care of the former crewman from the ship.
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    Interview of Donald Carpenter by Brian Shoemaker
    (Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, 2008-10-27) Carpenter, Donald
    Dr. Carpenter and parents moved from Spokane, Washington to Portland, Oregon when he was 5 years old. His two grandfathers were faculty members at two different universities. His father became leader of communications for Northwest Bell. Dr. Carpenter’s first degree was in political science. While in the U.S. Navy he went to an electronics school and later was called for the Korean War. Academics were very important to him, though he was unfocused for a time. He studied a variety of subjects, including Russian at Columbia University. After not being cleared for positions with the U.S. Information Agency and with the CIA, he enrolled in electrical engineering at Stanford. As a student, he was looking at the data from the "Whistler’s West" IGY program. Research workers were studying the influence of large solar storms on communications; they determined that the plasma around the earth diminished in density. Carpenter observed that the change in density was greater at the higher latitudes then at lower latitudes. Low frequency radio waves can interact with particles. He deduced the sharp discontinuity in space. The whistlers would reflect back and forth along the magnetic field. Siple Station in Antarctica was located to receive whistler activity from a wide range of latitudes. From the data collected in 1963 and 1965 Carpenter was able to describe the plasmashere. Dr. Carpenter stresses the contributions of persons like Mike Trimpi, who have unique talents in designing and collecting field data. Constantine Greengals, a Russian scientist, collected data that supported the drop in density. The data supported Carpenter’s data, but scientists in both countries were not convinced. He described the use of rockets launched from Siple Station in 1980-81 to observe properties of the wave as it entered the ionosphere. Rob Flint directed a project at the Plateau Station to study the inactions of the low frequency radio noise with the optical emissions (Southern Lights), Dr. Carpenter describes the tug-of-war between the earth and the sun on the plasma. Although radiation from the sun produces currents on earth, he is not sure that the sun causes "space weather". Major Topics 1. As a graduate in electrical engineering, to analyze data about the "whistlers"; and lead to study of plasmapause. 2. School years were spent in Portland, Oregon. 3. Years in undergraduate studies and in military service are described. 4. At Whistler’s West network, found that the clearest tones came from lightning. 5. The changes in whistler activity related to the distribution of charge particles with height and associated with solar storms. 6. Something was causing the earth’s plasma to greatly diminish in density. 7. Propagation velocity of a pulse or wave packet along the Earth’s magnetic field is slower than the speed of light in a vacuum, a slow wave. 8. By placing a station at each end of the magnetic field, e.g. Byrd Station and Great Whale River, Canada, whistlers and other natural noises could be studied. 9. During the IGY, Carpenter compared the characteristics of whistlers received at various stations. He was able to deduce from the data that there is a sharp discontinuity in space. 10. The Eight Station in Antarctica had no local lightning activity. They verified that not only direct signals from the Navy transmitters but also delayed signals could be received. 11. Cold plasma provides the propagation medium for waves but hot plasma can exchange energy. 12. Siple was an ideal station because it was on a stable ice sheet, a conjugate point, signals could be received in an accessible region of Canada, and saw abundant whistler activity from many latitudes. 13. The studies of the wave environment of the earth were extended by using orbiting geophysical observations.