ItemFarmers' Experiences as Victims of Crime: An Exploratory Study on the Isle of Anglesey(Ohio State University. Libraries, 2017-06) Holmes, Tim; Jones, JaneFarming is not only a profession, for many it is a lifestyle. Farmers’ place of work is often their home and this reality poses several questions about the challenges farmers face with regard to dealing with victimisation and creating an effective crime prevention strategy. This paper reports on the findings of an exploratory study of farmers’ views on the Isle of Anglesey. A mixed method design was used based on postal surveys and interviews, to explore farmers’ experiences as victims of crime, and opinions on the support provided by local government agencies, the police, and the community. Findings suggest that farmers had minimal experience as victims of crime, which resulted in complacency towards crime prevention and reliance on the local community to identify trustworthy employees and potential crime threats. ItemCrime Prevention on Farms: Experiences from Victoria, Australia(Ohio State University. Libraries, 2017-06) Harkness, AlistairWhilst rural offending has hitherto been largely overlooked, the canon of scholarly examination of rural crime – including farm crime literature – is slowly growing. In addition to bearing financial costs for farming communities, rural crime bears significant social impacts. Implementation of crime prevention tactics and techniques is, therefore, essential to reducing farmer victimisation. Focussing on property theft from farms in Victoria, Australia, this article draws upon interviews with rural police members and survey data obtained from farmers, and considers the opportunities presented to offenders – often unwittingly by farmers themselves. It considers the situational crime prevention categories of increasing effort, increasing risk and reducing rewards – although developed for urban environments –for farmers and police in rural areas; and argues that improved capable guardianship on farms through human and electronic means, although difficult to achieve, can address farm victimisation and offending rates. ItemAn Exploratory Assessment of Agricultural Crimes in Georgia(Ohio State University. Libraries, 2017-06) McIntyre, R. Neal, Jr.; Prine, Rudy K.; Knowles, FredRural crimes have often been ignored in criminological studies. An even lesser explored subject of inquiry is the nature and prevalence of agricultural or farm crimes within rural America. The examination of these type offenses is important to having a more accurate understanding of crime. The current study adds to our current knowledge of crime by exploring instances of agricultural crime in the State of Georgia. Using a victimization survey to gather data from individuals involved in the agricultural industry, the study provides an exploratory assessment of the prevalence of farm crimes in Georgia as well as examining factors, such as years of farming experience and farm size, that were found to have a significant correlation to victimization. Based on the data, instances of trespass, poaching, and theft were more prevalent on larger farming operations. Additionally, findings suggest that individuals who had over 25 years of farming experience had more frequently been the victim of theft and poaching within the 12 month period prior to the project. Consistent with prior studies, respondents frequently elected to not report their victimization to law enforcement authorities. Future studies should examine reasons why agricultural crime frequently goes unreported to the police officials as well as exploring measures used by the farming community to reduce their probability of victimization. ItemCrop Theft and Soil Fertility Management in the Highlands of Ethiopia(Ohio State University. Libraries, 2017-06) Chiwona-Karltun, Linley; Lemenih, Mulugeta; Tolera, Motuma; Berisso, Tadesse; Karltun, ErikTheft of crops in rural areas is largely attributed to poverty and hunger. Crop theft has the consequence of soil fertility management being vastly impaired, a possible association examined by very few studies. The emphasis of most soil fertility studies has been on the effect of biophysical conditions and economics, which are the lack of capability of farmers as well as the failure of macro-economic policies to support good soil fertility management practices. The challenges that farmers face at the individual, household and community levels, as well as the barriers hampering farmers from practicing adequate soil fertility management, are still poorly understood. We need to extend our thinking beyond contextual issues of poverty, hunger, climate and seasonality to acquire a more nuanced understanding of food security in transforming rural agrarian societies. This study investigated the role of crop theft, particularly of legume bean crops, and its impact on soil fertility management. The results revealed that crop theft of legume bean crops deteriorated local intercropping and crop rotation soil fertility management practices. Crop theft had serious consequences on other socio-economic and cultural aspects of day-to-day life that deteriorated human relationships and eroded trust. ItemFarm Crime in England and Wales: A Preliminary Scoping Study Examining Farmer Attitudes(Ohio State University. Libraries, 2017-06) Smith, Kreseda; Byrne, RichardFarms stand apart from other rural businesses in the levels of crimes they experience, and the impact of farm crime reverberates far beyond the immediate rural community. However, there continues to be a lack of interest in farm crime as a research topic in both England and Wales. This study explores attitudes of farmers towards farm crime, crime prevention, the police, and potential predictors of farm victimisation2. An online survey was completed by 71 farmers; a further 55 farmers partially completed the survey providing important additional data. An analysis of the survey results shows low levels of confidence in and reporting to the police, low levels of crime prevention usage, and varying potential predictors of victimisation.. This survey extends existing international farm crime research to the UK, and aims to establish an understanding of farmers' attitudes towards crime prevention and the police; and how these attitudes and farm characteristics relate to victimisation levels. This lays the foundations for further research and the introduction of behavioural science into the farm crime prevention arena. ItemFarm Crime Victimisation in Kenya: A Routine Activity Approach(Ohio State University. Libraries, 2017-06) Bunei, Emmanuel K.; Barasa, Francis O.Farmers globally and Kenyan farmers in particular are facing a number of challenges stemming from continuous change in the social-cultural, economic, and ecological context of farming and a concomitant rise in crimes against farms. While research has been carried out on the theft of cattle and crops, much of it has concentrated on the nature, cause and extent of farm crime, crime prevention, and reporting behaviours, and comparatively little has focussed on applying criminological theory to the situation in Kenya or any other region of the world. Thus, this paper uses Routine Activity Theory to explain what makes certain farms, farmers, and farm property more likely to be victimised. In general, we find support for the basic tenets of the theory as a way to contextualise our understanding of farm crime in the various agricultural regions of Kenya, and suggest that it can be employed for framing farm crime within the diverse geographies and societies of the world today. Indeed, the rapidly changing social-economic environment of agriculture has generated an increase in opportunistic offenders, and the shattering of traditional natural and informal controls that prevented most farm crimes in the past. Both changes create increased visibility and accessibility to valuable and high demand farm properties. ItemCritiquing the Inter-Disciplinary Literature on Food Fraud(Ohio State University. Libraries, 2017-06) Smith, Robert; Manning, Louise; McElwee, GerardThe European Horsemeat Scandal of 2013 is a recent manifestation of the problem of ‘Food fraud’. It is important from a criminological perspective because it exists at the nexus between organized crime and bad business practice and is a contemporary example of criminal-entrepreneurship. From a practical perspective it is a pernicious criminal activity perpetuated by diverse organized-crime-groups, rogue-entrepreneurs and food-industry-insiders. It is a white-collar-crime committed in the commercial arena, across an extended international food-chain. Geographic and policy boundaries make it difficult to police. Although a high level of awareness of the fraud exists globally, there is a dearth of critical academic research into the phenomenon. The extant literature is spread thinly across various disciplinary silos. This essay by two Business School Scholars and a Food Scientist, discusses the need to develop a more critical, inter-disciplinary approach to developing appropriate theoretical frameworks.