Research and Scholarship (John Glenn College of Public Affairs)

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    The Three Ages of Government: From the Person, to the Group, to the World
    (University of Michigan Press, 2020) Raadschelders, Jos C. N.
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    Who Pays for Retail Electric Deregulation?: Evidence of Cross-Subsidization from Complete Bill Data
    (International Association for Energy Economics, 2019-03-01) Dormady, Noah; Hoyt, Matthew; Roa-Henriquez, Alfredo; Welch, William
    Retail electric deregulation has been identified in the literature to have favorable price impacts to businesses and households because of the introduction of competition into rate-setting. Those studies often ignore the important role of regulatory intervention. They are also generally national or multi-state aggregated studies that ignore state- and utility-specific dynamics, and most rely on Energy Information Administration (EIA) price data that does not account for riders and surcharges on consumer bills, which can total more than 60 percent of bills. Using a unique panel of representative, complete electricity bill data from the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio (PUCO), this paper provides a multi-utility panel regression analysis of the effect of retail deregulation on total electric bills in Ohio. The results identify two main sources of cross-subsidization that have generally cancelled out the favorable effects of restructuring. Both types of cross-subsidies result in substantial burden shifts to residential consumers.
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    The Consignment Mechanism in Carbon Markets: A Laboratory Investigation
    (Elsevier, 2018) Dormady, Noah; Healy, Paul J.
    Unlike other auction-based carbon emission markets, California’s carbon market (AB32) utilizes a consignment auction design in which utilities are allocated a share of emissions permits that they must sell into the uniform-price auction. Auction revenue is returned to the consignee, which creates an incentive to increase the auction clearing price through strategic bidding. In a numerical example, we identify the incentive that consignees have to overstate their quantity demanded in the auction, since this increases the probability that the auction clears at a higher price. This results in inefficient allocations and inflated auction prices. We test this effect through a series of laboratory experiments and confirm these predictions. Findings indicate that short-run firm profits are lower in a consignment auction than in a non-consignment auction market, and that firms are more likely to not receive the quantity of permits they need for program compliance in the auction. We conclude with implications for the design and modification of future Coasian markets.
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    Generating clustered journal maps: an automated system for hierarchical classification
    (Springer Netherlands, 2017-01-03) Leydesdorff, Loet; Bornmann, Lutz; Wagner, Caroline S.
    Journal maps and classifications for 11,359 journals listed in the combined Journal Citation Reports 2015 of the Science and Social Sciences Citation Indexes are provided at https://leydesdorff.github.io/journals/ and http://www.leydesdorff.net/jcr15. A routine using VOSviewer for integrating the journal mapping and their hierarchical clusterings is also made available. In this short communication, we provide background on the journal mapping/clustering and an explanation about and instructions for the routine. We compare journal maps for 2015 with those for 2014 and show the delineations among fields and subfields to be sensitive to fluctuations. Labels for fields and sub-fields are not provided by the routine, but an analyst can add them for pragmatic or intellectual reasons. The routine provides a means of testing one’s assumptions against a baseline without claiming authority; clusters of related journals can be visualized to understand communities. The routine is generic and can be used for any 1-mode network.
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    Openness and Impact of Leading Scientific Countries
    (Frontiers, 2018-03-28) Wagner, Caroline S.; Whetsell, Travis; Baas, Jeroen; Jonkers, Koen
    The rapid rise of international collaboration over the past three decades, demonstrated in coauthorship of scientific articles, raises the question of whether countries benefit from cooperative science and how this might be measured. We develop and compare measures to ask this question. For all source publications in 2013, we obtained from Elsevier national-level full and fractional paper counts as well as accompanying field-weighted citation counts. Then we collected information from Elsevier on the percent of all internationally coauthored papers for each country, as well as Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) measures of the international mobility of the scientific workforce in 2013, and conducted a principle component analysis that produced an openness index. We added data from the OECD on government budget allocation on research and development (GBARD) for 2011 to tie in the public spending that contributed to the 2013 output. We found that openness among advanced science systems is strongly correlated with impact—the more internationally engaged a nation is in terms of coauthorships and researcher mobility, the higher the impact of scientific work. The results have important implications for policy making around investment, as well as the flows of students, researchers, and technical workers.
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    Betweenness and diversity in journal citation networks as measures of interdisciplinarity—A tribute to Eugene Garfield
    (Springer Netherlands, 2017-10-04) Leydesdorff, Loet; Wagner, Caroline S.; Bornmann, Lutz
    Journals were central to Eugene Garfield’s research interests. Among other things, journals are considered as units of analysis for bibliographic databases such as the Web of Science and Scopus. In addition to providing a basis for disciplinary classifications of journals, journal citation patterns span networks across boundaries to variable extents. Using betweenness centrality (BC) and diversity, we elaborate on the question of how to distinguish and rank journals in terms of interdisciplinarity. Interdisciplinarity, however, is difficult to operationalize in the absence of an operational definition of disciplines; the diversity of a unit of analysis is sample-dependent. BC can be considered as a measure of multi-disciplinarity. Diversity of co-citation in a citing document has been considered as an indicator of knowledge integration, but an author can also generate trans-disciplinary—that is, non-disciplined—variation by citing sources from other disciplines. Diversity in the bibliographic coupling among citing documents can analogously be considered as diffusion or differentiation of knowledge across disciplines. Because the citation networks in the cited direction reflect both structure and variation, diversity in this direction is perhaps the best available measure of interdisciplinarity at the journal level. Furthermore, diversity is based on a summation and can therefore be decomposed; differences among (sub)sets can be tested for statistical significance. In the appendix, a general-purpose routine for measuring diversity in networks is provided.
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    The Continuing Growth of Global Cooperation Networks in Research: A Conundrum for National Governments
    (Public Library of Science, 2015-07-21) Wagner, Caroline S.; Park, Han Woo; Leydesdorff, Loet
    Global scientific collaboration continues to grow as a share of all international scientific cooperation, measured as coauthorships of peer-reviewed, published papers. The percent of all scientific papers that are internationally coauthored has more than doubled in 20 years, and they account for all the growth in output among the scientifically advanced countries. Emerging countries, particularly China, have increased their participation in global R&D, in part by doubling their spending on R&D; they are increasingly likely to appear as partners on internationally coauthored scientific papers. Given the growth of connections at the international level, it is helpful to examine the phenomenon as a communications network and to consider the network as a new organization on the world stage that adds to and complements national systems. When examined as interconnections across the globe over two decades, the network has grown denser but not more clustered, meaning there are many more connections but they are not grouping into exclusive ‘cliques’. This suggests that power relationships within the network do not reproduce those of the political system. The network is an open system, attracting productive scientists to participate in international projects. National government science and technology policies could gain efficiencies and influence by developing policies designed to maximize network benefits—a model different from those policies hitherto designed for international cooperation.