Undergraduate Research Festival

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    Perception of AI in Healthcare: 5000 Baby Project
    (2024-04) Greenstein, Sydney; Lowes, Linda
    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a new technology, one whose term originates from 1956- less than 70 years ago.2 Originally being used for things like the automotive industry, as well as computers. But now, the interest turns to healthcare. The market for AI in healthcare has been projected to be $187 billion in 2030.6 But how do the public and hospital staff view AI in healthcare? A recent study in 2021 noted some concerns, such as insurance coverage, the cost of it, as well as technological failures, and the possibility of hacking.10 While there are plenty of articles regarding AI, there are less about public opinion. Seeking to gather data about public opinion, a survey was sent out to Nationwide Children’s staff and interns asking 5 different statements. Each respondent gave a numerical value in regards to the statements and these results were graphed. These results indicated that while AI is accepted by some, it still isn’t as widely accepted as some other technological healthcare advances such as computed tomography (CT) scan and X-rays. More research, with a larger population of subjects, on public opinion regarding AI will need to be done.
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    Staying the Course or Charting a New Path? An Examination of Therapist Options When Working with Low Engaging Patients
    (2024-04) Schmittenberg, Mia; Strunk, Daniel
    Introduction: Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depression, a substantial portion of CBT patients still do not achieve positive therapeutic outcomes. Those who engage less with homework are especially at risk (Kazantzis & Shinkfield, 2007). When early engagement is low, a therapist might persist in using the same basic approach or change to a new approach. There is limited evidence to guide therapists in selecting between these options. To address this issue, we examine use of persistence versus changing approach strategies in differentiating sessions followed by high or low homework engagement among patients who had shown more limited engagement in early sessions. Methods: Drawing data from a clinical trial of two variants of CBT for depression (N = 150), we focus on a relatively low-engaging subset of 80 participants (53.3%) who reported homework engagement below the 75th percentile across sessions 2, 3, and 4. For each of these participants, observers rated two subsequent sessions, selecting for being followed by relatively high or low engagement for each patient. Using a 6-item scale designed for this study, six raters coded the extent to which therapists continued using previously used strategies or tried new strategies in these sessions. Three scores were derived from the 6-item scale, an overall score and two subscale scores. Results: Observer-raters' judgements of the therapist approach to homework assignment exhibited poor reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) < 0.5). Considerable caution is warranted for any findings obtained with these ratings. A paired t-test of sessions followed by low and high engagement revealed a significant difference in the overall score, with sessions preceding high engagement being characterized by both greater persistence and less change of approach. A similar analysis examining overall scores as a predictor in a model of session type was not significant. Additional analyses failed to support either specific subscale in differentiating or predicting session type. Discussion: Although caution is warranted, one finding suggests that the therapist approach of flexibly persisting with the assignment of homework may promote greater homework engagement. Given the challenges with low reliability of the observer ratings, we take this finding as leaving open the possibility that flexible persistence (or not changing approach) may predict homework more robustly in future research. Future research is needed to inform how therapeutic approach can best promote homework engagement when working with low engaging patients.
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    Avian Malaria and Altitude
    (2024-04) Thiaw, Fatou; Sok, Richdara; Benderlioglu, Zeynep
    Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease in birds caused by Plasmodium parasites. The disease has contributed to the decline and extinction of several forest birds. Furthermore, avian species play a significant role as a reservoir for many pathogens and zoonotic diseases. Although zoonotic transmission of non-human malaria parasites is deemed unlikely for most Plasmodium species, climate change and rapid urbanization have put ecological pressures on parasites that may change the mode of transmission and Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease in birds caused by Plasmodium parasites. The disease has contributed to the decline and extinction of several forest birds. Furthermore, avian species play a significant role as a reservoir for many pathogens and zoonotic diseases. Although zoonotic transmission of non-human malaria parasites is deemed unlikely for most Plasmodium species, climate change and rapid urbanization have put ecological pressures on parasites that may change the mode of transmission and host-seeking behavior rendering human populations at risk. Altitude and weather are one such ecological pressure. High elevation is not a favorable habitat for Plasmodium because of its associated low temperatures. However, increasing temperatures may lead to a shift to higher elevations for Plasmodium populations. The current study investigated the relationship between elevation and avian malaria, a relatively new research area lacking adequate attention. Using secondary sources from the Dryad Repository, data on avian infection rates in three bird communities from lowland forests in Cameroon, highland forests in East Africa, and fynbos in South Africa were collected. The association between infection rates and altitude was analyzed and hot spots were mapped using geospatial information systems. The results showed an inverse trend between altitude and infection rates with higher altitude being correlated with lower infection rates, although this was not statistically significant. Analyses also revealed outliers within our small sample. Future research would benefit from larger-scale studies to confirm the observed trend and as well as collect temperature and parasitic load over a longer time period. This study underlines the importance of understanding the ecological conditions of avian malaria transmission for avian welfare with important implications for human health.
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    The Importance of Inclusive Education: Sex and Gender Differences in Sleep Apnea and Sleep Disorders
    (2024-04) Patel, Khushi; Rozanski, Michelle; Mussorfiti, Samantha; Werbinski, Janice
    The American Medical Women’s Association initiative, the Sex and Gender Health Collaborative, aims to advocate for and advance sex and gender medicine by creating inclusive medical education via factsheets. Currently, 76 factsheets are in progress, comparing and contrasting various healthcare conditions in men and women. Sex and gender, often used interchangeably, are truly two distinct ideas. Sex refers to the biological assignment at birth based on genitalia and physical characteristics. Whereas, gender refers to a spectrum of socially constructed characteristics. The importance of sex and gender medicine is to consider the whole person to create the best care plan. The purpose of my research is to fill a gap in medical understanding and education of differences between sleep apnea and sleep disorders for sex and gender. Over 30 articles were compiled via Google Scholar searches using the keywords: “Sex and gender differences in sleep,” “Sleep differences,” and “Gender-specific Sleep Apnea.” Twenty of those articles were read and extracted for data for differences between sex and gender through seven categories: risk factors, prevalence, prevention, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnostics, and treatment. The assigned physician mentor specialist then reviews the factsheet. After final approval, it is turned into an infographic to be used for the public, healthcare providers, and medical education. My research results showed a 90% rate of underdiagnosis for women with a presentation of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The results also showed differences in risk factors and treatment for men and women. Women have more significant risk factors like poorer sleep quality and increased risk of cardiovascular problems due to OSA. Even with those extra risks and presenting with the classic associated symptoms, they are less likely to be treated because they miss the treatment cutoffs, such as the apnea-hypopnea index. The need for research and medicine to include sex and gender differences is imperative for proper patient treatment and care. This research is a stepping stone in medical care and education through inclusivity and diversity. Future studies and research must focus on, understand, and specialize in health care for differences in biological sex and the gender spectrum.
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    Machine Learning and Data Analysis to Improve Vocational Rehabilitation Placement
    (2023-11) Van der Veer, Cordelia; Hawley, Joshua
    Opportunities for Ohioans with Disabilities provides Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) services to individuals with disabilities, helping participants find meaningful and accessible employment. Although Ohio has the third-largest number of apprentices in the country, there are no documented VR participants in apprenticeship programs. By analyzing VR data and apprenticeship data, my research seeks to find overlapping trends in the datasets. I matched the VR and apprenticeship data by their common variable of occupation code. I explored the demographics of participants in both programs, identified top apprenticeship occupations and programs in each region, and did a preliminary machine learning cluster analysis. From the results of the cluster analysis, apprentices and VR participants each group together in different industry/geographic clusters. However, further research with additional variables could improve the richness of cluster analysis. My results also show there are VR participants who would be good candidates for apprenticeship programs based on their geographic location and job goals. Opportunities for Ohioans with Disabilities are now incorporating these findings into their process of identifying apprenticeships for VR participants.
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    Quantification of Oceanic Organic Composition through Vibrational Spectroscopy
    (2023-11) Duah, Kezia; Allen, Heather
    The ocean is comprised of a complex mixture of molecules, and It's not always clear the identity of the components or their concentrations. Revealing the molecular identity and concentrations can help us understand the impact these molecules have on the ocean and the environment; therefore, it is necessary to find fast and reliable methods to identify these components and concentrations. Vibrational spectroscopy which measures the vibrational motion of bonds within compounds has been an invaluable tool in analyzing unknown compounds because it can identify essential properties of molecules including structural information. In our study, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) vibrational spectroscopy was used to investigate samples of glucose and egg serum albumin (ESA) which are representative compounds of organics that can be found in the ocean. Analysis of the variation within the spectroscopy data was completed. Additionally, we attempted to augment the data interpretation process using machine learning models that can be trained to differentiate data sets. Accuracy data of the machine learning predictions were also analyzed.
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    The efficacy of novel small molecule inhibitors of GSTP1 in pancreatic cancer
    (2023-11) Umerani, Aadil; Bull, Mikayla; Merchand Reyes, Giovanna; Tridandapani, Susheela; Krishan, Kumar; Butchar, Jonathan
    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal malignancy with a five-year survival rate of 11% and a median survival of only months. PDAC currently ranks as the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the US and is anticipated to ascend to the second position by 2030. The disease is predominantly propelled by oncogenic KRAS mutations. Strategies for targeting KRAS directly have not worked; therefore, the focus is on targeting the downstream effector proteins, such as Glutathione S-Transferase Pi 1 (GSTP1), which is an enzyme crucial for chemotherapy resistance and cell signaling. A collaborator synthesized the 15 innovative GSTP1 inhibitors. We assessed all 15 and selected the three that exhibited substantial efficacy, showing potent IC50 values in the sub-micromolar range, as corroborated by the WST-1 assay. Additionally, they were observed to induce apoptosis, as indicated by the Cleaved PARP western blots. Furthermore, our studies spotlighted that GSTP1 inhibition profoundly affects the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. As preparations are ongoing for the siRNA-mediated knockdown of GSTP1, in vivo studies are also on the horizon. Five million PDAC cells will be subcutaneously implanted in 6–8-week-old immune-compromised female mice, which will subsequently be treated with either the primary GSTP1 inhibitor or a vehicle control. Tumor progression will be consistently measured, and upon study conclusion, tumors will be extracted for comprehensive analysis. This research may pave the way in new treatment in PDAC treatment methodologies.
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    Epithelial- IPF Fibroblast Crosstalk and its Effects on Gene Expression of Airway Epithelial Differentiation Markers In 3D Organoids
    (2023-11) Konakalla, Sravani; Vanegas, Natalia
    Introduction: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive disease characterized by a loss of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AEC2s) and a concurrent and abnormal rise of KRT5+ basal cells in the alveoli. This phenomenon is a contributing factor to mortality in patients with this condition. We hypothesized that the interaction between IPF human lung fibroblasts (HLF) with KRT5+ basal cells in an in vitro 3D organoid model may alter the airway epithelial cells differentiation. Aim: To compare the differentiation potential of KRT5+ basal cells cocultured with IPF versus healthy human lung fibroblasts into airway organoids. Methods: A transcriptomic method, specifically single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), was conducted in an in vitro 3D organoid model. Basal cells were isolated from the bronchus and were called human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). HBECs from healthy donors were co-cultured with HLF from healthy and/or IPF donors. Two co-cultures were established for the subsequent comparisons, healthy HBEC & healthy HLF and healthy HBEC & IPF HLF and a monoculture of HBECs. Organoids were dissociated to obtain a whole cell suspension for scRNA-Seq. HBECs were segregated based on KRT5 expression and fused for UMAP. The cells were subsequently grouped into distinct basal subsets as well as differentially expressed genes (DEG) in each HBECs subset by bioinformatics analysis. Results: Five different clusters were identified by single-cell RNA-seq analysis from KRT5+ cell population: multi-potent basal, ciliated, club, club-ciliated and secretory primed basal. We also identified a cluster of PDGFRA+ fibroblasts in the co-cultures. Club and club-ciliated clusters were decreased in the healthy BC & IPF HLF co-culture compared to the co-culture with healthy HLF and BC monoculture. Our results also showed that the number of cells in the ciliated cluster increased and, conversely, the club cluster decreased in co-cultures compared to the monoculture of BC. Additionally, the results showed that the interaction of BC & IPF HLF decreased the alveolar fibroblast cluster compared to the co-culture with healthy HLF. Conclusion: The results showed that BC and IPF HLF co-culture compared to the Healthy HLF co-culture, has a lower differentiation potential in 3D airway organoids.
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    Navigating Representative Bureaucracy: Benefits, Barriers, and Vulnerabilities of Ohio Advisory Diversity Commissions
    (2023-11) Dishueme, Francesca; Bussell, Hilary
    The goal and responsibility of democratic government in the United States of America is widely understood to embrace inclusivity, opportunity, and equality, yet the erasure of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) initiatives stifles these rewards. This project aims to examine executive branch advisory commissions tailored to serve people with minority backgrounds, with the goal of discovering the benefits and barriers to integrating communities into the practical reformation of state institutions as seen by those at the helm. In the case of Ohio advisory diversity commissions, commissioners tend to match the racial/ethnic description of the community their commission is targeting. I utilized a qualitative research design through a series of 9 interviews and a comparative thematic content analysis. Informed by the anecdotal evidence of participant responses, I illustrate that representative bureaucracy greatly supports symbolic representation and its absence can have rippling effects for minority communities. I also find that, despite being recognized by the state, many believe minority interests and DEI are not currently penetrating long-standing power structures that have embedded political vulnerabilities amongst the marginalized and prevented substantive representation. This exploratory study gives critical attention to the appeal and challenges of descriptive representation as a vehicle for connection by using qualitative social science methodology that immerses the data in the perspective of political figures. Broader minority representation in government and meaningful, organic investment into the liaison model are recommended to improve the government's capacity to respond to minority interests.
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    The Synthesis of Novel Agents Targeting Salmonella enterica Typhimurium
    (2023-11) Schmitt, Jake; West, Jason; Mitton-Fry, Mark; Ahmer, Brian
    Foodborne illness resulting from non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica is a major contributor to global diarrheal diseases(1), with the potential to induce life-threatening morbidity within afflicted patients. In addition to its widespread impact, S. enterica has developed significant antimicrobial resistance, challenging the efficacy of current antibiotics. Through high-throughput screening (HTS), a promising hit compound was identified as an inhibitor of a unique Fructose-Asparagine (F-Asn) metabolic pathway utilized by S. enterica. This pathway converts F-Asn into Glucose-6-Phosphate (G6P) through a multi-step pathway involving several enzymes, including FraB(2). Inhibiting FraB leads to inhibited cell growth due to the accumulation of a toxic intermediate, 6-Phosphofructose-Aspartate (6-P-F-Asp). Building upon the original hit scaffold, an extensive exploration of structure-activity relationships (SAR) has been undertaken in an attempt to enhance the potency of the original hit and create a novel narrow-spectrum antibiotic. The original hit offers a multitude of functionality that can be easily modified to explore the SAR, which allowed for the synthesis of 26 unique derivatives. While the SAR panel may not have yielded significantly more potent compounds, ongoing HTS efforts explore alternative chemical cores to effectively inhibit this crucial metabolic pathway.
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    Designing a CRISPR-Cas9 pipeline to investigate the effects of putative genetic modifiers on Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)
    (2022-11) Ryhlick, Kamorah; Lerma, Geremy; Aloi, Natalie; Miller, Erin; Beljan, Joseph; Talbot, Jared; Amacher, Sharon
    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked neuromuscular disorder that affects about 1 in 3,500 live male births (Bushby et al. 2010). DMD is caused by a mutation of the Dystrophin (or DMD) gene that causes loss of dystrophin, a structural protein. Loss of dystrophin increases muscle's susceptibility to damage leading to muscle atrophy and loss of muscle function (Bass et al. 2016). Disease progression is variable in patients with DMD. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified putative genetic modifiers of DMD that may influence disease severity and variability (Bello et al. 2016; Flangian et al. 2013; Flanigan et al. 2021; Wess et al. 2018). I am using zebrafish, an established model organism to study DMD, to validate and further investigate these putative modifiers. CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis is highly efficient in zebrafish and can be used for rapid genetic screens by injecting Cas9 protein and a gene-specific sgRNA, targeting vital protein domains, to knock-out gene function and generate crispant fish. I designed sgRNAs to target zebrafish orthologs of DMD, LTBP4, THBS1, ETAA1, and PARD6G. Microinjection of zebrafish embryos with Cas9 and sgRNA targeting dmd causes loss of dystrophin protein, disorganization of muscle when assayed by birefringence, impaired motility, and decreased life-span of injected fish. To assay the effect of these genetic modifiers on dmd, multiplexed injections of dmd sgRNA + sgRNA targeting putative modifiers were carried out. To validate mutagenesis of putative modifiers hRMA was conducted after injection. Fish that show a dmd phenotype and mutagenesis of the putative modifier can then be used for subsequent analysis of muscle birefringence, motility, and lifespan. My data lays the foundational work to rapidly screen and identify modifiers of DMD for the development of new DMD therapeutics.
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    Fibroblast Extracellular Matrix Remodeling: Differences in Idiopathic and Normal Pulmonary Fibrosis
    (2022-11) Ertin, Celine; Novak, Caymen; Ballinger, Megan; Shukla, Vasudha; Locke, Landon; Ghadiali, Samir
    Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic lung disease that occurs when lung tissue becomes damaged as a result of injury or inflammation. The main effector cell in fibrosis is the fibroblasts, which causes remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) leading to a scar-like tissue, increased lung stiffness, reduced lung elasticity, and decreased gas exchange. A severe form of lung fibrosis is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF), which is characterized by progressive, non-resolving accumulation of ECM and has a survival of only 2-5 years after diagnosis. While the cause of IPF is unknown, it is thought to be the result of repetitive injuries to the alveolar epithelium that cause fibroblast differentiation and activation into a myofibroblast phenotype. Recent studies using scRNA sequencing have transcriptomically identified a variety of different fibroblast subpopulations; however, understanding the role of these various fibroblast subsets in remodeling ECM has not been determined. In order to measure fibroblast functions, we used confocal reflectance microscopy to quantitatively characterize ECM structure and remolding by fibroblasts isolated from normal and IPF patients. Primary human IPF and normal fibroblasts were seeded on 45 uL bovine collagen gels at a density of 10,000 cells/mL and allowed to compact and reorganize collagen fibers. The collagen gels were comprised of two layers. The first layer was 20 uL of bovine collagen that was placed in a 37 degrees C incubator for 2 hours. The second layer was then added which contained a cell and collagen mix with a volume of 25 uL. Gels were imaged 24 hours post seeding using a Leica Stellaris 5 confocal laser scanning microscope configured to collect images in reflectance mode using a 63x oil-immersion objective and a 488-nm argon laser. Images were collected with a step size of 0.3 um for 50 steps to create a z stack of images. Outlines of cells were used to calculate cell area and circularity in each slice and histograms of pixel intensity in each slice were analyzed for standard deviation as a measure of fiber bundling (i.e. lower standard deviation indicates more bundling). Results: After 24 hours, normal fibroblasts were circular in shape and small collagen fibers were uniformly distributed throughout the gel with some bundling around cells and moderate alignment of fibers in between cells. In contract, IPF fibroblasts had a highly elongated morphology with highly aligned fibers in between cells. Measurements of cell area and circularity confirm elongated morphology in IPF fibroblasts and measurements of collagen distribution confirm increased bundling (lower standard deviation) in IPF seeded gels. Interestingly, reflectance intensity was lower in IPF seed gels indicating possible uptake and degradation. Conclusions: These results show that IPF fibroblasts overall exhibit more remodeling of the ECM than normal fibroblasts. The larger cell area and circularity of the IPF fibroblasts shows that they are more active because of their elongated shape. The histograms demonstrate that the normal fibroblasts have a more even distribution of collagen than the IPF fibroblasts, which is further evidence that the IPF cells are bundling up or degrading the collagen at a higher rate than the normal cells. Future studies will use this system to investigate how genomic changes in fibroblasts sub-population alter their collagen remodeling capabilities. The significance of this work is a quantitative platform that can assess fibroblast remodeling that can be used in future studies to better understand how different sub-populations of fibroblasts isolated from pulmonary fibrosis patients influence the ECM remodeling that leads to disease.
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    Iron Deficiency Anemia: Efficacy and Limitations of Nutritional and Comprehensive Mitigation Strategies
    (2022-11) Arnipalli, Shanvanth; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana; Kumar, Shashi B.
    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has reached epidemic proportions in developing countries and has become a major global public health problem, affecting mainly 0–5-year-old children and young women of childbearing age, especially during pregnancy. Iron deficiency can lead to life-threatening loss of red blood cells, muscle function, and energy production. Therefore, the pathogenic features associated with IDA are weakness and impaired growth, motor, and cognitive performance. IDA affects the well-being of the young generation and the economic advancement of developing countries, such as India. The imbalance between iron intake/absorption/storage and iron utilization/loss culminates into IDA. However, numerous strategic programs aimed to increase iron intake have shown that improvement of iron intake alone has not been sufficient to mitigate IDA. Emerging critical risk factors for IDA include a composition of cultural diets, infections, genetics, inflammatory conditions, metabolic diseases, dysbiosis, and socioeconomic parameters. In this review, we discuss numerous IDA mitigation programs in India and their limitations. The new multifactorial mechanism of IDA pathogenesis opens perspectives for the improvement of mitigation programs and relief of IDA in India and worldwide.
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    Culturally Inclusive Coding Manual for Quantifying the Relationship Between Socialization Goals and Sources
    (2022-11) Arnipalli, Shanvanth; Feng, Xin
    This study focuses on parental socialization goals shaped by the environmental sociological imagination theoretical framework between Beijing and Hong Kong in China, and the United States. We have developed a culturally inclusive quantitative coding manual to analyze the qualitative interviews we completed. The current study included 30 European American and 32 in each Beijing and Hong Kong, with mothers of mean age of 35.67 years. They are primarily well-educated, with most of them holding a college degree and having a high annual household income. Socialization Goal Interview (SGI) was utilized to assess mothers' socialization goals such as desirable/undesirable child characteristics. The goals coded from the interviews were self-maximization, self-regulation, lovingness, decency, and proper demeanor. The interviews were coded based on an existing coding manual by Harwood et al. (1996) and we expanded the manual based on our cross-cultural interviews. First, categories of sources that the goals stemmed were identified. For example, if the mother mentions her family, the source would be family. To deepen our understanding of how these sources are related to the goals, numeric values were assigned to sources. For example, if a mother describes changing her view compared to how she was raised we would code (Internal-) because she disagrees with the source. If she does not have an opinion, remains neutral, or agrees with her source, we would code (Neutral) and (Internal+) respectively. As per (External+) and (External-), for instance, if she talks about seeing people that are unkind to each other in society, and thus wants her kid to be kind, we would code (-2) because her goal and source do not match with each other; vice versa for coding (2). Finally, the frequency across all three steps will be compiled together using excel to observe trends in all three sites.
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    The role of Cannabidiol in inhibiting tumorigenesis in cisplatin resistant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
    (2022-04) Appiagyei, Diana; Ganju, Ramesh; Misri, Swati
    Lung Cancer is one of the deadliest cancers known and has less than a 20% survival rate. This is due to lung cancer having the ability to have its cancerous cells multiply rapidly and metastasize. One of the notable types of lung cancer is Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). Patients with NSCLC are often treated with cisplatin as the first line of therapy due to tumor resections' structural and location complexities. However, cisplatin has been deemed not so effective due to the high drug-resistant rate due to the expansion of cancer stem cells (CSCs). This CSCs have self-renewing properties and the ability to systematically divide. Cannabidiol (CBD), which is a non-psychoactive phytochemical derived from the Cannabis plant, has been identified as a potential treatment against cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells. In this project, there were various amounts os methods used to analyze the relationship between CBD treatment and NSCLC. This project utilized H460 (large cell carcinoma) and A5499 (adenocarcinoma) cells by using H460 and A549-parental (PT) and cisplatin-resistant CR cells. Initially, cell viability assays using Presto Blue dye were utilized to determine the number of cells that will be present after the parental and cisplatin-resistant cell lines. Then we used APC-labeled Annexin-V and AAD for apoptotic analysis by staining the drug-resistant H460-CR and A549-CR NSCLC cells. Western Blots were used to establish the total concentration of the apoptotic event. Finally, animal studies compared the tumor dimensions of NSCLC cells treated with cisplatin, CBD, or control (PBS). The data exhibited that the cell viability of the CBD-treated CR NSCLC cells was lower in both cell lines (H460, A549) compared to the NSCLC parental cells (H460-PT, A549-PT). It was indicated that the reduced viability in CBD-treated CR NSCLC cells was linked to increased apoptosis by observing the expression of the apoptotic markers, cleaved caspases 3 and 9 using Western Blots. It has been noted that CBD treatment reduces tumor progression and metastasis but also suppresses cancer stem cell properties. Our results demonstrate great promise about the positive impact of CBD treatment on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Word Count: 342 
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    Comparative Biostatistical Analysis of Regional Drug Overdose Death Rates During National Drug Control Strategy Implementation
    (2022-04) Lev, Hannah; Odei, James
    Prior to 2010, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services estimated that drug abuse cost the United States more than $151 billion annually in lost productivity, healthcare, and criminal justice costs. In an effort to redefine and treat drug addiction with an emphasis on treatment as opposed to incarceration, the Obama Administration implemented a six-year science-based drug policy reform plan, beginning in 2010, that contained more than 100 specific reforms. This study examines the annual and regional changes in rates of drug overdose deaths in the U.S. during the six years of active policy implementation and the three years following. Using the R software, two-tailed 2-sample proportion tests were performed to determine statistically significant differences in death rates under various parameters, including geographic region and population demographics. Annual death rates in Ohio specifically were compared to states in other regions of the country. A series of pairwise death rate comparisons was compiled to determine trends in efficacy of the drug reforms among different subgroups of the population. During the active implementation period, 72.4% of the pairwise comparisons demonstrated a significant difference in death rate from Ohio. Collectively, the Northeastern states yielded the greatest proportion of insignificant results during the active implementation period (27.6%). During the inactive implementation period, 76.4% of the pairwise comparisons demonstrated a significant difference from Ohio, with the greatest proportion of such being seen in other Midwestern states. 67.3% of all significant results indicated the death rate was higher in Ohio than its compared state for a given year in the nine-year period. The results suggest that the drug reforms may not have been implemented as timely or effectively in Ohio as other states within the Midwest and other regions in the country. The relatively high yield of significant differences of death rates during both the active and inactive reform periods may be indicative of regional disparities that prevented the policy from being implemented everywhere to the same extent. Further research needs to be conducted to understand the state-level barriers that prevented drug abuse mitigation in Ohio during the study period.
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    Does infant temperament affect couple commitment across the transition to parenthood (TTP)?
    (2022-04) Li, Ruike; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah
    Across the transition to parenthood (TTP), couples experience changes in their relationship. Becoming a parent is typically accompanied by declines in marital satisfaction and increases in marital conflict, which may lead to lower relationship commitment. On the other hand, increases in new parents' investments in the family may strengthen parents' commitment. These inconsistent predictions suggest that it is necessary to explore different dimensions of commitment (i.e., dedication, confidence, constraint) when investigating changes in commitment across the TTP. Moreover, families are systems in which all members are interdependent, which makes it important to consider children's characteristics as factors that may influence changes in new parents' relationships. Thus, infant temperament may shape parents' investment in the family, which in turn may impact parents' commitment. In this study, we examined associations between infant temperament and changes in parents' commitment across the TTP and consider parents' satisfaction with the division of childcare and housework as a potential mediator. Data was drawn from a longitudinal study of 182 couples who were followed across their TTP. Regression analysis in IBM SPSS AMOS was used to analyze data and test mediation. Results show that higher infant negative affect predicted less strong positive couple commitment, but greater negative couple commitment, with mothers and fathers being influenced in different patterns. More infant negative affect had a negative impact on mothers' dedication to the couple relationship and made them feel more trapped in it, while only linked with father's decreased confidence about the future of the relationship. Besides, satisfaction with division of labor affected mothers' commitment, particularly their desire to maintain and improve the relationship, but not fathers'. With our hypotheses only partially supported, other mechanisms may be examined in future research, such as couple conflict, coparenting conflict, etc. This research will help us understand how to best support couples making the TTP.
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    Increased phosphorylation of Rb and protein expression of cyclin E confers resistance to CDK4/6-inhibitors in the CDK4-amplified cancer, dedifferentiated liposarcoma
    (2022-04) Hsu, Jocelyn; Chen, James
    Background: Dedifferentiated liposarcomas (DDLPS) are malignant adipocytic cancers characterized by an amplification of the cell cycle regulatory gene, CDK4. Palbociclib, a CDK4/6-inhibitor, is a standard of care treatment; however, innate and acquired resistance to the drug limits efficacy in patients with DDLPS. To this end, we developed palbociclib-resistant DDLPS cell lines derived from patient samples to better characterize their phenotypic and genomic differences. Methods: Three human CDK4 amplified DDLPS cell lines (224A, 246, 863) and one control cell line without CDK4 amplification and RB loss (LiSa2) were brought into culture and treated with palbociclib at their respective IC25 for 6 months to develop resistance. Parental lines were grown as controls in tandem with the developing resistant lines to compare molecular changes in response to palbociclib. Cell viability was measured by XTT, cell cycle analysis was measured with Flow cytometry using a PI stain, and protein expression was measured using whole cell lysates for Western blotting. Results: The four cell lines had IC50s to palbociclib ranging from 15.0 to 11.4 µM. Long-term treated strains demonstrated consistent reductions in the measured IC50s (8.99 to 7.08 µM). After treatment with 10 µM of palbociclib for 48 hours, two parental cell lines showed a greater increase in cells in the G1 fraction than long-term treated cells and two cell lines demonstrated the opposite where parental cell lines had fewer cells in G1 after treatment compared to long-term treated cell. Protein expression by Western indicated that the initial response to palbociclib in parental cell lines decreased pRb protein levels and increased Cyclin E and CDK6. After 6 months of treatment for all cell lines, a statistically significant increase in protein levels of pRb and Cyclin E were observed in the long-term treated cell lines. No changes were seen in CDK4, Cyclin D, or p16. Conclusion: Here we present the development of two novel, palbociclib resistant, DDLPS cell lines. DDLPS resistant cell lines able to bypass the G1/S-checkpoint in the presence of CDK4/6-inhibitors demonstrated increased phosphorylation of Rb and increased total Cyclin E. Confirmation via next generation sequencing of RNA expression in parental and resistant lines are underway.
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    Utilizing the Community Capitals Framework and Community Network Mapping to Analyze the Impacts of COVID-19 and the Federal Stimulus Packages on Poverty in Vinton County, Ohio
    (2022-04) Allman, Madison; Martin, Kenneth; Campbell, Joseph
    In March 2020, countries around the world entered mass lockdowns to stop the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has affected not only global health, but the economic viability of communities, and has been the influence behind many financial adjustments in areas who were already struggling with poverty before the pandemic hit. The purpose of this study is to document recent direct and indirect causes of poverty in Vinton County, Ohio, and how COVID-19 and the federal stimulus bills have affected poverty in the area from March 2020 to January 2022. Through the concepts of the Community Capitals Framework and community network mapping, this research aims to provide Vinton County community leaders and organizations with an understanding of which community assets impact poverty and what areas they can improve upon to address the issue, while taking COVID-19 and federal relief into consideration. A list of community-based organizations (CBOs) has been identified through observation and snowball sampling to create a community network map. The community network map is used as a visual tool for understanding the flow of assets between groups, and how CBOs within the Vinton County community interact. Although the economic impact of the pandemic on Vinton County is not yet entirely known, it was concluded that infrastructure is a leading cause of poverty in Vinton County, specifically water and broadband infrastructure, in which the pandemic highlighted. Conclusions raised the argument that local leadership in small, rural communities such as Vinton County is aging and overwhelmed, causing strain on asset distribution and allocation. CBOs inside and connected to Vinton County were already benefitting from bonding and bridging social capital pre-pandemic to accomplish shared missions, visions, and goals, and during the pandemic, many CBOs focused on making an impact in ways they knew how, and oftentimes found themselves "going in circles" with the same set of leading organizations. CBOs not associated with the community network can bridge social capital to additional organizations using the provided map to accomplish said visions, spreading the load of development work across the community network and not a specific set of leading organizations. Reviewed by research advisors Dr. Kenneth Martin (Martin.1540@osu.edu) and Dr. Joe Campbell (Campbell.844@osu.edu).
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    Examination of Mothers' Metaemotion Philosophy in Relation to Children's Problem Behaviors
    (2021-11) Arnipalli, Shanvanth; Feng, Xin
    Parental meta-emotion Philosophy (PMEP) is parents' set of feelings and thoughts, that are organized, towards their own emotions and their children's emotions (Gottman et al., 1996). PMEP includes parents' own expression and regulation of emotion, parents' reactions to children's expression of emotion, and parents' coaching and discussion of children's emotions (Eisenberg et al., 2009). PMEP is a key player in children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors (Cohodes et al., 2017). Thus, this study aims to elucidate how various dimensions in PMEP correlate to children's problem behaviors. The participant pool consists of 87 mothers with a mean age of 35.06 years (SD = 4.76) where 81.6% of them are white, 11.5% are Black, 6.9% are other races. Mothers have a child between the ages of 3-5 years. Forty-five of the children were girls. A semi-structured interview process is conducted to assess the mothers' own experiences about her emotions of sadness, anger, and fear and philosophies on emotional control and expressiveness. Mothers were also interviewed about their emotions, attitudes, and behaviors with regards to their children's sadness, anger, and fear. All the responses and accounts of experiences are from mothers' perspectives. Two regression analyses were run, one on each dependent variable, including children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Results indicated that parents' awareness, expressivity, and acceptance of their own negative emotions were significantly associated with children's internalizing but not externalizing problems. Specifically, mothers' awareness (β = 4.90, p =.036) and acceptance of negative emotions (β = 3.90, p =.050) were positively associated with children's internalizing problems, while mothers' expressivity was negatively associated with children's internalizing problems (β = -6.00, p =.013). These findings suggest that PMEP plays a pivotal role in these psychosocial adjustments and growth of children through varying ages (Kiff et al., 2011).