Working Papers in Linguistics: Volume 60 (Spring 2013)

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Edited by Mary E. Beckman, Marivic Lesho, Judith Tonhauser, and Tsz-Him Tsui


Front Matter
pp. i-iv
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Multiple Antecedent Agreement as Semantic or Syntactic Agreement
Johnson, Cynthia A. pp. 1-9
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On Phonically Based Analogy
Joseph, Brian D. pp. 11-20
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Coordination in Hybrid Type-Logical Categorial Grammar
Kubota, Yusuke; Levine, Robert pp. 21-50
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Perceived Foreign Accent in Three Varieties of Non-Native English
McCullough, Elizabeth A. pp. 51-66
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An Introduction to Random Processes for the Spectral Analysis of Speech Data
Reidy, Patrick F. pp. 67-116
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An Acoustic Analysis of Voicing in American English Dental Fricatives
Smith, Bridget pp. 117-128
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Prosody of Focus and Contrastive Topic in K'iche'
Yasavul, Murat pp. 129-160
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    Front Matter (Number 60, Spring 2013)
    (Ohio State University. Department of Linguistics, 2013)
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    Multiple Antecedent Agreement as Semantic or Syntactic Agreement
    (Ohio State University. Department of Linguistics, 2013) Johnson, Cynthia A.
    In this paper, I challenge the argument put forth by Corbett (1991) that, within multiple antecedent agreement, the two possible agreement strategies, Resolution and Partial Agreement, can be viewed as semantic and syntactic agreement, respectively. Resolution, while semantically motivated and involving input from all of the agreement controllers, is not the same as semantic agreement in singleantecedent contexts. Partial Agreement, which relies on the morphological features of only one of the antecedents, still requires reference to the semantic features of both antecedents, as this strategy is more likely when the controllers are inanimate. Instead, I propose that the distribution of the two strategies – which nonetheless reflects the Agreement Hierarchy (Corbett 1979) and the Predicate Hierarchy (Comrie 1975) – is a product of the cognitive difficulty multiple antecedent agreement contexts pose for the speaker, such that the rules for this context are really part of broader principles within and across languages.
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    On Phonically Based Analogy
    (Ohio State University. Department of Linguistics, 2013) Joseph, Brian D.
    In this paper I examine the role sound alone can play as the basis for analogical connections among forms, as opposed to more conventionally discussed factors such as paradigmatic structure, grammatical category, or meaning. Examples are presented here, mainly from English, that show sound effects in analogy at various levels of linguistic analysis, including phonetics, morphology, syntax, semantics, and the lexicon.
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    Coordination in Hybrid Type-Logical Categorial Grammar
    (Ohio State University. Department of Linguistics, 2013) Kubota, Yusuke; Levine, Robert
    We formulate explicit analyses of certain non-standard coordination examples discussed in Levine (2011) in a variant of categorial grammar called Hybrid Type-Logical Categorial Grammar (Kubota 2010; Kubota & Levine 2012; Kubota to appear). These examples are of theoretical importance since they pose significant challenges to the currently most explicit and most comprehensive analysis of coordination, formulated in a variant of HPSG called Linearization-based HPSG (Reape 1996; Kathol 1995) and advocated by various authors in the recent literature (Yatabe 2001; Crysmann 2003; Beavers & Sag 2004; Chaves 2007; Sag & Chaves 2008). This approach, which we call the Linearization-Based Ellipsis (LBE) approach to coordination, builds on the key idea that apparent non-standard coordination all reduce to constituent coordination under surface ellipsis. The seemingly heterogeneous set of data catalogued in Levine (2011), involving different types of non-standard coordination, uniformly point to an analysis in which the apparently incomplete constituents that are coordinated in the overt string are in fact complete (i.e. nonelliptical) constituents with full-fledged semantic interpretation, thus directly counterexemplifying the predictions of ellipsis-based approaches including the LBE variant. The sophisticated syntax-semantics interface of the framework we propose in this paper straightforwardly captures the interactions between such non-standard coordination and various scopal expressions, demonstrating the real empirical payoff of the direct coordination analysis of non-standard coordination (of the kind widely adopted in categorial grammar) that has not been fully recognized in the previous literature.
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    Perceived Foreign Accent in Three Varieties of Non-Native English
    (Ohio State University. Department of Linguistics, 2013) McCullough, Elizabeth A.
    What aspects of the speech signal cause listeners to perceive a foreign accent? While many studies have explored this question for a single variety of non-native speech, few have simultaneously considered non-native speech from multiple native language backgrounds. In this perception study, American Englishspeaking listeners rated stop-vowel sequences extracted from English words produced by L1 American English, L1 Hindi, L1 Korean, and L1 Mandarin talkers on a continuous scale of degree of foreign accent. Stepwise linear regression models revealed that VOT, vowel quality, f0, and vowel duration contributed significantly to the ratings. Additionally, listeners rated productions by all varieties of non-native talkers as sounding foreign-accented to some degree, with those by L1 Hindi talkers as most foreign-accented, and those by L1 Mandarin talkers as more foreign-accented than those by L1 Korean talkers. The results suggest that several acoustic properties contribute substantially to the perception of foreign accent, at least for stop-vowel sequences, and that some varieties of non-native English sound more accented than others.
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    An Introduction to Random Processes for the Spectral Analysis of Speech Data
    (Ohio State University. Department of Linguistics, 2013) Reidy, Patrick F.
    Spectral analysis of acoustic data is a common analytical technique with which phoneticians have ample practical experience. The primary goal of this paper is to introduce to the phonetician, whose primary interest is the analysis of linguistic data, a portion of the theory of random processes and the estimation of their spectra, knowledge of which bears directly on the choices made in the process of analyzing time series data, such as an acoustic waveform. The paper begins by motivating the use of random processes as a model for acoustic speech data, and then introduce the spectral representation (or, spectrum) of a random process, taking care to relate this notion of spectrum to one that is more familiar to phoneticians and speech scientists. A final section presents two methods for estimating the values of the spectrum of a random process. Specifically, it compares the commonly-used (windowed) periodogram to the multitaper spectrum, and it is shown that the latter has many beneficial theoretical properties over the former.
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    An Acoustic Analysis of Voicing in American English Dental Fricatives
    (Ohio State University. Department of Linguistics, 2013) Smith, Bridget
    In this study, an acoustic analysis of the dental fricatives as produced by American English speakers from the Buckeye Corpus (Pitt et al. 2006) reveals that the dental fricatives are subject to variation in voicing based on phonetic environment, much more than is usual for a pair of phonemes whose phonological distinction is based on voicing, confirmed by a comparison with the voicing of /f/ and /v/. The results of the study show that voicing (presence or absence of glottal pulses) for /θ/ and /ð/ is not predictable by phoneme in conversational speech, but it is more predictable based on voicing of surrounding sounds.
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    Prosody of Focus and Contrastive Topic in K'iche'
    (Ohio State University. Department of Linguistics, 2013) Yasavul, Murat
    This paper discusses the findings of an experimental study about the prosodic encoding of focus and contrastive topic in K'iche'. The central question being addressed is whether prosody plays a role in distinguishing string-identical sentences where the pre-predicate expression can be interpreted as being focused or contrastively topicalized depending on context. I present a production experiment designed to identify whether such sentences differ in their prosodic properties as has been impressionistically suggested in the literature (Larsen 1988; Aissen 1992; Can Pixabaj & England 2011). The overall strategy of the experiment was to obtain naturally occurring data from native speakers of K'iche' by having them repeat target sentences they heard in conversations. The phonological analysis showed that content words in K'iche' have a rising pitch movement, a finding which is in line with Nielsen (2005). The acoustic analyses of several variables yielded a significant effect of condition only in the range of the F0 rise associated with focused and contrastively topicalized expressions. However, the difference across conditions is only ~6 Hz which may not be perceivable by listeners.