The Effectiveness of Two Anthelmintics, Vermox
(mebendazole) and Povan (pyrvinium pamoate), on Thelastomatid
Nematodes (Nematoda: Oxyuroidea) of the Cockroach, Gromphadorhina
portentosa Xiong Yu; Crites, John L. pp. 152-155
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Studies from the field of artificial intelligence have given birth to a relatively new but rapidly growing technology known as expert systems. An expert system is a computer program which captures the knowledge of a human expert on a given problem, and uses this knowledge to solve problems in a fashion similar to the expert. The system can assist the expert during problem-solving, or act in the place of the expert in those situations where the expertise is lacking. Expert systems have been developed in such diverse areas as science, engineering, business, and medicine. In these areas, they have increased the quality, efficiency, and competitive leverage of the organizations employing the technology. During the 1980s, scientists and engineers have used this technology to search for oil, diagnose medical problems, and explore space. This paper provides an overview of this technology, highlights the major characteristics of expert systems, and reviews several systems developed for application in the area of science.
The study of the distribution of the Unionidae of Ohio reveals information on the biogeography of this family that may be useful in the study of other groups of animals. Thirty sites on the Chagrin River and its major tributaries, the East and Aurora branches, were sampled for freshwater mussels during this study. A total of 268 specimens representing nine species of the family Unionidae were found. Living and/or freshly dead specimens of eight species were identified. Additionally, a single subfossil fragment of Alasmidonta marginata was taken, indicating that this species once occurred in the river. Three reaches of the Chagrin River system were found to support Unionidae: the Aurora Branch contained five species, the main stem of the Chagrin River below the town of Chagrin Falls contained five species, and the Chagrin River above Chagrin Falls contained seven species. The river above the falls contained the most significant proportion of the fauna in the system, with over 80% of all specimens collected from this reach, and suggests that the falls has not always acted as a barrier to distribution.
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is spreading rapidly and exposure to this virus is no longer confined to formerly defined high risk groups. No studies have been reported to establish the incidence of the HIV antibody in a college population of a nonmetropolitan, Midwestern, conservative community. Behavior and attitudes of college students impact on the probability of an increase in sexually transmitted AIDS cases in the heterosexual community. Knowledge of HIV transmission, sexual attitudes, and behavior of entering freshmen in a Midwestern university with about 17,000 students were examined using a questionnaire to establish demographic characteristics, social and sexual attitudes and activities, and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases, especially AIDS. The questionnaire was randomly distributed to 1,450 students; 941 questionnaires were completed of which 97.8% were freshmen. Less than one third reported never having had intercourse; of the sexually active, nearly 82% had had intercourse by their eighteenth birthday. Most were aware of AIDS and its transmission, although very few reported using recommended means to avoid exposure to the virus. Data suggest that current educational programs regarding sex and AIDS are not impacting on these young people. The survey results reveal a need for educational programs at earlier age levels or a major change in the current methods.
The loss of manufacturing jobs in many areas of the nation has stimulated interest in the geographic patterns of manufacturing employment change. Changes in those patterns have been attributed to expansion and contraction of existing facilities, as well as to plant closings and new business formations. The identification of variables that are associated with spatial variations in the rates of opening of new manufacturing establishments is one research theme. The present study of the geographic pattern of formation rates of new manufacturing plants opening in Ohio between 1979 and 1988 revealed that suburban counties possessed the highest formation rates, followed by rural and central Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) counties, respectively. Spatial variations in the formation rates were primarily related to counties' population growth during the 1970s, plant sizes, occupational characteristics, and manufacturing employment growth between 1979 and 1988. Taxes and wages were not significantly related to formation rates
The anthelmintics Vermox (mebendazole) and Povan (pyrvinium pamoate) were tested for their effectiveness against thelastomatid nematode, Leidynema portentosae and Hammerschtnidtiella diesingi, infections in the cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa. Vermox was tested in doses ranging from 0.2 mg to 5 nig and Povan was tested in doses ranging from 0.1 mg to 12.5 mg. Vermox was found much more effective in curing the thelastomatid infection of cockroaches than Povan. Although Povan was able to reduce markedly the infection rate of the adult nematodes, it was significantly less effective on the thelastomatid juveniles and on the adult H. diesingi. Host sex had no noticeable impact on the sensitivity of either nematode to either anthelmintic at all dose levels tested. The results obtained with the G. portentosa system were in agreement with studies in other host-parasite systems.
(1990-12) Mundahl, Neal D.; Hockett, Christopher T.
Information on fish communities within seven streams and rivers in or near Dayton-Montgomery County Park District reserves was collected and analyzed to compile a preliminary species list for Park District waters and to estimate water quality of the streams. Fifty-two species of fishes were found in lotic habitats in or near the reserves, and more extensive sampling likely will reveal the presence of additional species. Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scoring of the fish communities indicated that water quality within the reserves ranged from fair to exceptional. It would appear that improvements of water quality and fish communities within the reserves may require changes in wastewater treatment outfalls and stream drainage land-use practices.
(1990-12) Weeks, John L.; Tori, Gildo M.; Shieldcastle, Mark C.
Past and present status of the coyote (Cants latrans) in Ohio was documented by a historical review, a survey of encounters, and a skull collection and analysis. Coyotes were first recorded in Ohio in 1919. In 1979 and 1980,336 wild canid encounters were reported in 46 of Ohio's 88 counties. From 1982 to 1988, skull collections were made in 71 counties, yielding 379 (87%) coyotes, 10 (2%) coydogs, and 25 (6%) feral dogs. The coyote is well established and distributed throughout the state.