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Selected Entries from the Lucius Clark Smith Diaries,
30 July 1862 to 31 December 1862

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0004      Wednsday[sic] Wednesday July 30th 1862

0005      to day John
0006      and me Hawled Hay all day ½ day in
0007      the Barn ½ on a stack dad and Newton
0008      are mowing. verry[sic]very warm and we need
0009      rain the Ground is rapidly Drying up
0010      after so mutch[sic]much Hard [lonng?] [sic]long rains.

0011      Thursday 31st July 1862
0012      forenoon

0013      Hawled up my Lumber from
0014      the mill afternoon Helped in the
0015      Hay. still very Hot.

0016      Friday August 1st 1862

0017      Helped in the
0018      Hay and oats all day the oats are
0019      of But litle[sic]little account they are rusted
0020      Bad and withe[sic]with the Help of the bugs
0021      Have nearly Destroyed It we left part
0022      of It in the field
0023      as not being worth cutting.

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0024      Saturday August 2nd 1862

0025      Helped at
0026      Hay & oats untill noon Hawled in the
0027      oats in the Barn. afternoon Went up to
0028      Robertses withewith John as He is going to
0029      sta[ . . . ] y and Help Him we had all calcu
0030      lated on going up and Helping Him a
0031      Day also but could not get our own
0032      Done in time ours will take Monday next
0033      Yet. and my Cane works are beginning
0034      to press me I must get at them or I
0035      will not be ready in time I fear.
0036      Got Home in the eavning[sic]evening. [there?] was
0037      a war meeting at Albany this afternoon
0038      two Recruits were obtained Gill Collins
0039      was out to Speak I was told. I went to
0040      see Mr. Bennit who has a horse power
0041      witch[sic]which He sayes[sic]says I can [Halve?] [sic]have.
0042      very Hot and
0043      Dry we need rain so bad Corn is
0044      Drying up Bad It seems to Dry up so
0045      quick I Hope we will Have rain Soon.

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0046      Sunday August 3d 1862

0047      Wrote a
0048      letter to Sam Smith and done my diary
0049      Writing went over to Millers Eavning[sic]Evening
0050      Went to se[sic]see [Hiram?] Smith as He
0051      is to start south tomorow [sic]tomorrow Having got
0052      His pass. still verry[sic]very warm.

0053      Monday 4th
0054      and Tues 5th Aug 1862

0055      Worked at my
0056      Building Newton & Father finished
0057      the Hay and thrashed out some wheat
0058      night Tues John come sick Having a
0059      Had a slight touch of bowel complaint.
0060      Todayes[sic]Today's papers Tuesday Brings and
0061      order from the Secretary of War
0062      calling for an unconditional Draft of
0063      three hundred thousand more men
0064      in addition to the same amount of
0065      volunteers previously called for
0066      some time ago. the order was issud[sic]issued yester
0067      day morning. that amount of men will Tell
0068      Hard on the people

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0070      Wednsday 6th Aug 1862

0071      last night
0072      Had a good rain to day Newton
0073      John & me quarried and Hawled stone from
0074      Cambells Hawled five loads. They are for
0075      my well night went over all of us to a
0076      party at Roll Eavens there was a great
0077      cr lcrowd there. But a poor party as
0078      old Anna would not let them play. They
0079      paraded around in the lane untill
0080      late and dispersed the Girls Having a
0081      lot of spoiled dresses

0082      Thursday 7th

0083      Newton & me worked at my Building
0084      finished cleeting[sic]cleating all of it and arranged
0085      things about the building dad went
0086      to mill Mother and girls went along
0087      Black baring[sic]berrying

0088      Frid 8th
to day I went
0089      to see a coupel[sic]couple of Horse powers and engaged
0090      one of Daniel Bennit got my Horse shod
0091      Newton Hawled stone for me

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0092      Saturday 9th Aug 1862
0093      went to Columbus got Gilbert Collins
0094      to put my property over in the old Mans[sic]Man's
0095      Hands so that if I am drafted I He
0096      can take care of it for me and them
0097      Patent Right men can also stand
0098      off. Went out to Garret Grovenberies
0099      and staid all night. GJoseph Hand
0100      Wm Have both Enlisted for fear of
0101      the Draft this afternoon Had a good
0102      Rain.

0103      Sunday 10th Aug 1862

0104      morning came Home got Home at noon
0105      We Have Had a nice rain went over
0106      to see John Dague about Digging my
0107      well as He promised to do it But
0108      the [cite?] to get Him to do it is verry[sic]very
0109      slim verry[sic]very pleasant day
0110      But awfull[sic]awful Lonesome

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0111      Monday Aug 11th 1862.

0112      Morning John
0113      and I went up near Center and got my
0114      Horse power for my mill It has to bee[sic]be
0115      Rewooded anew. Afternoon Newton commen
0116      ced to dig the well and I finished diging[sic]digging
0117      ditches arround[sic]around the House Had a tremen
0118      duous Headache to day.

0119      Tues 12

0120      John Dug at the Well. forenoon Homer
0121      and me Hawled stone out of the crick
0122      Afternoon Hawled a load of wood to
0123      Albany for Dad and Hawled up a
0124      load of saw Dust and put it in my
0125      new cane Hous[sic]House for the party tomorow[sic]tomorrow
0126      night fixed up seats and arranged things
0127      Newton & Dad made a sinck[sic]sink and spout
0128      for the well to carry the water under the
0129      ground down the Hill

0131      Wednsday[sic]Wednesday 13th Aug [/?] 62

0132      To day all went to the Celebration
0133      Sunday school except Dad and Augustine
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0134      forenoon Mr Taft gave the Sunday school a
0135      Lecture after Dinner we Mr Cancey Olds
0136      Sam Cox Sam Galaway made War
0137      speaches[sic]speeches there was a large turnout of
0138      people several thousand Eavning[sic]Evening riged[sic]rigged
0139      up the cane House with lights I put up
0140      three Coal oil Lamp on the Beams and
0141      It made it verry[sic]very light and nice there was a
0142      Large turnout over a Hundred and we
0143      Had a right good party as to the place
0144      It was a perfect love of a place for a
0145      party. It lasted untill midnight. I was
0146      tired near out by standing arround[sic]around
0147      all day at the Celebration and then at
0148      the party.

0149      Thursday Frid and Saturday
0150      August 14, 15 and 16th 1862

0151      Wm Yantus John and I worked
0152      at the Well we got it some over [23?] ft
0153      deep when It began to cave quite bad
0154      and we Had to either curb it up or
0155      wall up and as there was quite a good
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0156      stream of Water came in about ten
0157      feet from the top we concluded we
0158      Had as well wall up we dug nearly
0159      14 ft in Blue Clay and then did not
0160      get through I think we would have
0161      got water in four or five feet more
0162      By saturday night we got it walled
0163      up to within 8 ft of the top Father Has
0164      Been at work rewoo ↑ d ↓ ing my Horse power
0165      Newton Hawled some manure and helped
0166      Father some. quite cool nearly frost
0167      for several mornings

0168      Sunday 17th Aug 1862

0169      to day all
0170      Went to Basket meeting
0171      Except John and Augustine. Homer
0172      Rhoda and Thornton Wells were down
0173      Henry has enlisted Considerable feeling
0174      seems to manifest itself among the
0175      Democrats of the Country because Dr
0176      E.B. Olds Has been arrested and
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0177      sent to Ft Layfaett[sic]Fort Lafayette for Treason
0178      able language. But people Dare
0179      not say mutch[sic]much as people are ready to
0180      Report them and Have them arrested
0181      any time a person cannot get out of
0182      His County without a pass and a
0183      Bond of a thousand Dollars persons
0184      trying to get away can be arrested and
0185      put right into the ranks. Enlisting
0186      is quite Livly[sic]lively.

0187      This week commencing
0188      with Monday 18 and Ending with
0189      Saturday 23d August 1862

0190      John and I walled
0191      up my well made a platform
0192      got out a pump stick Helped Bill
0193      More make the pump and put it in
0194      It works verry[sic]very well and looks verry[sic]very well
0195      It cost me $6.7 [8?] as follows 28 ft at 20 cts
0196      per foot = 5.60 Irons 60 John to Help
0197      bore 361 ¼ work I done and it back Leather
0198      for it 25 Besides my work and
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0199      Johns Moles Bill amounted to five
0200      Dollars. Paid Him in cash two
0201      Dollars last three dollars He is to
0202      take in molasses or molassess making
0203      John and me Hawled of the
0204      Well dirt on the road done a good
0205      job of work completed my work of this
0206      year and last two. put a Box and
0207      underground spouting to my well.
0208      the pump lathe. monday night went
0209      to a party to Isaacs Smith Tues to [give
0210      mias?] and Wednsday[sic]Wednesday night to a war
0211      meeting at Albany. I subscribed $3.00 to
0212      a Bounty fund for our Township Lewis
0213      Bell and Harrison Smith and some
0214      four or five others Have enlisted
0215      John Has some notion of Enlisting in the
0216      company now raising But I guess He
0217      will Hardly go. Father finished the
0218      Wooding the horse power Mother and
0219      Him went up to aunt Elizas Caroline
0220      is yet sick. Newton & John finished
0221      Hawling manure
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0222      GMcClellan has retreated to Yorktown
0223      and Pope since the battle of Culppeper
0224      Court House has also fell back in the
0225      west the Rebels seem to be pressing North.
0226      Weather cool and very Dry had
0227      onel litle[sic]little shower but it is very Dry the
0228      corn is not earing so as to make a
0229      half crop the ground seems to not
0230      stand a Drouth as at other times

0232      Sunday Aug 24th1862

0234      staid Home forenoon afternoon
0235      Went to see George Wilson Him and
0236      4 others Have Just got Home from
0237      the army Having been Discharged
0238      Esau Rice came Hear[sic]here He is one of
0239      the Discharged ones Him and I
0240      went to Albany to meeting at night

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0244      Monday 25 August 1862
0245      moforenoon
0246      Went to see Mr Souders to get Him
0247      to come and Help me make my
0248      Doores[sic]doors and to Jersey to [Monroes?] to
0249      get a pair of Boots made. afternoon
0250      worked at my Building Newton hawled
0251      Wood half day finished Hawling I now
0252      Have over 40 fortyfourty[sic] cords of good
0253      Wood Enough I think to do me.
0254      Father is putting up the Cellar Door
0255      He has had one made a loung[sic]long time.
0256      as loung[sic]long as the House has been built we
0257      Have had no dor doore[sic]door to the Cellar.

0258      Tues 26
0259      to day went to West
0260      erville to see about getting some casting
0261      done got me a good set of truck wheals[sic]wheels
0262      for a carraige[sic]carriage to Hawl cane on they
0263      are cast Iron as good as new I got
0264      them the same as old Iron. Painted
0265      my pump and the Box to It and
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0266      Hawled some gravel arround[sic]around the
0267      Well It is now rigged nice. the young
0268      folks are agoing to Had another
0269      party at night the cane House
0270      large attendance as before But there
0271      Have been so many parties that they
0272      are getting an old thing the Boyes[sic]boys go
0273      for good, for camp tomorrow

0275      Wednsday[sic]Wednesday 27th Aug 1862
0276      worked at my House at my [stream?]
0277      spout put up the timbers and arranged
0278      them. Eavning[sic]Evening Samual[sic]Samuel Smith and
0279      His mother and Frank Lane and Wife
0280      came. Boyes[sic]Boys doing nothing mutch[sic]much only
0281      cutting some wood. Had a Little sprinkle
0282      of rain.

0283      Thursday 28
0284      To day spent the day
0285      with the folks went awhile to Roll Eavenes
0286      Ben Souders came on and worked at the
0287      Doores[sic]doors of my Buildings. quite cool.
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0288      In the country since the proclimation[sic]proclamation of the
0289      Draft, all manner of ailments are brought
0290      up. I Hope the Draft will not be put
0291      off But will come off on the [3rd?] of sept.
0292      If I have to go I want to know it and
0293      be off if not I want to know it so as
0294      to know what to calculate on.

0296      Sunday august 31st 1862
0297      staid Home
0298      all day Had a swad of
0299      girls Hear[sic]here all they like the side saddle
0300      a little well. night went to meeting to
0301      Albany Heard Hurlocker[sic]Horlocker preach. seen
0302      Sam and Frank L Lane they did not go
0303      Home yesterday as aunt Hariet was u sick
0304      will tomorrow. To day it seems as if
0305      evry[sic]every thing would die for want of
0306      Rain corn and cane and grass is as
0307      near dead as need be and the Dust on the
0308      Road is almost unsupportable. Augustine
0309      last week Had a tower of fits1 getting Better
0310      now

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0311      Monday September 1st 1862
0312      for the week ending sat Sept 6th

0313      Worked at my cane House all
0314      the week except Thursday to Saturday
0315      Souders Helped me one day we put
0316      up the Doorers[sic]Doors Built a [stream?] spout
0317      as far as the Lumber went put stalls in
0318      my stowing House & ect[sic]etc Father Helped
0319      me one day made a pattern for a cast box
0320      sto sit under the end of each pan across
0321      the furnace. Thursday Father & me went
0322      to Columbus after alot of things got my
0323      cast cog wheal[sic]wheel a cistern pump and various
0324      other things caluclated to get my sheet iron
0325      But could not finde[sic]find any to suit me
0326      & colu concluded to wait untill next
0327      week. Sat or latter Friday night Homer
0328      and me went over to uncle Lewises and staid
0329      all night and sat morning went to westerville
0330      to get my castings went North of town a
0331      some distance and got my counter shaft
0332      turned and Charley was prety[sic]pretty near ready to
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0333      melt I got my paterne in just in time to
0334      get it done that day. got Home sometime
0335      after night. I got a new lock cast to my
0336      mill to suit my Horse power rig five boxes
0337      to put under the pans one furnace front
0338      and grates two cast Wheals[sic]wheels making a total
0339      of 484 lbs at 4 cts per lb = $19.36 He
0340      owed me $9.46 leaving me His Debt
0341      a Sum of $10.20. adding 30 cts to turning of
0342      a wheal[sic]wheel to His credit I begin to feel in
0343      a tremdious[sic]tremendous Hurry about getting ready
0344      operations. next week I must Drive
0345      it Hard. first of the week a little
0346      rain not enough to Hardly be seen the next
0347      day though with a little frost. last of the
0348      week very warm and Dry. off south of
0349      us they Have had rain But North of us
0350      none corn is Drying up on the ground &
0351      some are cutting it up pastures are Dead
0352      all say that It Has not been Dry for a
0353      long time if ever the streams are that is
0354      Blacklick is all Dred[sic]Dried up only a very few
0355      spots or Holes
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0356      as for the War Mon & Tues brought
0357      Hard news our forces after sieries[sic]series of hard
0358      fights at Manasses[sic]Manassas and there abouts Have
0359      fallen back on the fortification at or
0360      near Washington. at Richmond K.Y. [ . . . ]
0361      we met with a perfect rout our forces
0362      being seven thousand [strong?] all being
0363      raw undrilled troops the 95 Ohio was
0364      Badly cut up taken prisners[sic]prisoners and then Paroled
0365      and sent Home The Rebels under Gen Smith
0366      are adadvancing under on to Cincinnatii
0367      the city is put under martial Law also the
0368      Neighboring twowns[sic]towns all the state is making
0369      a big effort to save the city. the Rebels have
0370      for the first time got into Ohio a[sic]at Galipoliease[sic]Gallipolis
0371      Every thing seams[sic]seems against us
0372      But I still Hope for Better times yet
0373      Drafting is put off untill the 16 inst
0374      the girls went up this week
0375      and got green pass. aunt Eliza and
0376      Thornton stopped all night on Friday
0377      on their way from Columbus.

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0378      Sunday Sept 7th 1862

0379      staid arround[sic]around
0380      Home all day rather Lonesome Wrote a
0381      Letter to samual Smith. Columbus Ohio.

0382      Monday 8

0383      To ↑ day ↓ Father Newton
0384      and me put down the Horse power and
0385      partly rigged it to the mill.

0386      Tues 9

0387      morning Homer & me went to Delaware
0388      after sheet Iron they manufacture pans
0389      up thare[sic]there and as I could not get
0390      suitabble[sic]suitable Iron in Columbus I con
0391      cluded to try up thare[sic]there I got quite good
0392      Iron 30 inches wide by 8 & 9 ft loung[sic]long
0393      for 8 cts perr[sic]per lbs witch[sic]which useto[sic]used to oly onley[sic]only
0394      cost 6 But the stopping of mills &
0395      the tax Law makes all Iron Higher
0396      stoped[sic]stopped at Rodney Smiths and seen a
0397      coupel[sic]couple of old school mates of Delaware
0398      Had a good time withe[sic]with them we staid
0399      all night at Mr Keelers near Center
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0400      Who is also a sorghem[sic]sorghum manufacture

0401      Wedns 10 Sept 1862

0402      morning came on Home got the Log Wagon
0403      and in the afternoon Hawled two logs and
0404      got them sawed and Hawled the lumber
0405      Home. Father is at work for me and was
0406      yesterday. very Hot and so Dry It
0407      seams[sic]seems as if evry[sic]every thing would Dry up.

0409      Thursday 11

0410      Morning Early went to albany and got George
0411      Goodrich to do me some turning Father &
0412      me worked at the works all day George
0413      Helped afternoon Uncle Lewis was
0414      Hear[sic]Here to dinner. Eavning[sic]Evening had a nice
0415      shower of rain.

0416      Frid 12.

0417      Morning Dad & me and Eliza went to Columbus
0418      I went after various things for my Cane works
0419      see cash List went past Grovenberies
0420      and got a Horse of Him to work my mill
0421      got Home Late at night. I Borrowed $10.00
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0422      of Gilbert Collins. thare[sic]there is a great
0423      stir of people going to Cincinnati to
0424      Defend the place people take thir[sic]their own
0425      Guns & Rig and as they please thousands
0426      are going. the govener[sic]governor is already refusing
0427      them

0428      Sept 18th[sic]13th 1862

0429      finished my steem[sic]steam sheet and Father
0430      and me got the Horse power and mill in
0431      as we Hope running order it seams[sic]seems at
0432      least to move quite well But not quite
0433      as well as I would like But still I
0434      Hope It will do well as It will be two[sic]too
0435      Late to Refix anything well.
0436      Eavning[sic]Evening went down
0437      In Jeferson[sic]Jefferson to Carpenters to get his work
0438      done and a sheet Iron spout or top made
0439      for my Chimney. the litle[sic]little rain is prety[sic]pretty
0440      well Dried up up already. the Boyes[sic]Boys have
0441      Been cutting corn this week as It is all Dried
0442      up especialy[sic]especially on High ground. pastures are
0443      Dead. Dried up. no seeding done yet.

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0444      Sunday Sept 14th 1862

0445      staid arround[sic]around Home
0446      all day.

0447      for the week Ending Sept 20th 1862

0448      this week put
0449      My Cane House matters
0450      through as far as I could from day light
0451      to dark Hawled 1850 brick montgomery
0452      laid my furnaces Carpenter made me a
0453      sheet Iron top of 8 ft to put on my
0454      Chimney a tin pump & some other things
0455      and riveted my sheet Iron together
0456      Father Helped me all the week George good
0457      rich three days [ . . . ] when He got sick
0458      Him & Father made boat pans nearly
0459      [car?] to Hawl cane on and laid the
0460      track made feed table riged[sic]rigged a pumice
0461      carrier to the mill and various things
0462      It Has been a week Hard work for us all
0463      Boyes[sic]Boys got the corn all cut up and went
0464      up to aunt Elizas Friday. verry[sic]very warm
0465      and no rain. we now have plenty of Peaches
0466      and drying them
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0467      Mcl|e|lan[sic]McClellan Has succeed in driving
0468      out the Rebels out of meriland[sic]Maryland2
0469      after some of the severest fiting[sic]fighting of
0470      the war Cincinnati Has
0471      been saved from the Rebels and
0472      things look better.
0473      still no rain
0474      warm and pleasant very

0476      Sunday sept 21st 1862

0477      Staid arround[sic]around
0478      Home all day untill eavning[sic]evening when a
0479      parcel of us took a Ride Horse
0480      Back

0481      for the week ending
0482      saturday
0483      sept 27th 1862
this week Father
0484      George and me worked all the week
0485      from day light untill dark at the
0486      Cane House and got It nearly ready to
0487      Run finished the pans painted them
0488      put them on finished the furnaces
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0489      made cooler and tank and painted
0490      them also the whealbarows[sic]wheelbarrows I got two
0491      new ones made made lids to the coolers
0492      made a crane to lift off my finishing
0493      pan withe[sic]with put down pipping[sic]piping put up
0494      pumps put down wash water Boyes[sic]Boys
0495      put up a ten foot steem[sic]steam p spout
0496      on the House and various things
0497      Newton Helped me one day and one
0498      day went to Grovenberies after a load
0499      of corn for me we now Have
0500      things riged[sic]rigged in good still I only
0501      they will work well and not break
0502      especialy[sic]especially the mill I tried that It seams[sic]seems
0503      to work well. I ought to Have
0504      been ready this week so as to experimen
0505      ted some But if evrything[sic]everything goes right I
0506      am in time yet thare[sic]there Has some over
0507      thirty loads of cane came in this week
0508      we Had quite a feast Wedns and Thursday
0509      witch[sic]which made Them bring in cane [Mr Lainy?] will
0510      not be ready untill near a week yet
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0511      I expected from the fact that we have
0512      to Hitch the Horse so close to the power
0513      in order to go inside of the Building
0514      fixed in an
0515      other arm so as to put on this Horses
0516      Evning[sic]Evening ground out some and [Hunted?] up
0517      another Horse.

0518      Wednsday[sic]Wednesday October 1 1862

0519      Early at It again put on three Horses
0520      and pushed the grinding But all we could
0521      do we cannot make Juice enough the
0522      mill grinds very fast But the cane is
0523      verry[sic]very Hard and [sone?] Dry not verry[sic]very Juicy
0524      and verry[sic]very sweet and takes verry[sic]very litle[sic]little
0525      Boiling consequently the main thing is to
0526      grind It I now wish I Had a larger
0527      mill Hired one [Longmas?] Boyes[sic]Boys of 14 years ↑ age ↓

0528      Thursday
0529      Oct 2

0530      Today about three oclock Broake[sic]Broke
0531      my counter shaft that runs on top of the
0532      timbling shaf[t] witch[sic]which is geared to the mill
[Page - 25  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0533      It did not Break But twisted all
0534      up like you would twist a switch
0535      It was but 1½ inches thick as large as
0536      we could Have It on account of the
0537      Eyes in the [Wheels.?] Made 63 gallons
0538      worked about ¾ day fixed to go to tw
0539      Columbus. I am nearly tired to death
0540      Having been going most nights and day.

0542      Friday 3 Oct 1862

0543      4 oclock Father & I started for town
0544      for the purpose of getting a new shaft at a
0545      new mill we concluded a new shaft would
0546      stand a good chance of braking[sic]breaking again and
0547      conclude to get a new mill Bought one of
0548      John L. Gill and son for 88 dollars a verticle[sic]vertical
0549      mill of 14 inch loung[sic]long Rolls Large Roll 12 in
0550      ches in Diameter It seams[sic]seems like a verry[sic]very
0551      stout stanch[sic]starch mill I Had to pay 8 Dollars more
0552      than I would Had to pay before the tax law went
0553      into Effect It is not fare to make the
0554      customer pay all the Tax by no means
[Page - 26  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0555      Eavning[sic]Evening tore up the Horse power
0556      and cleaned out the House. unloaded
0557      the mill It weighs 1100 lbs

0558      Saturday
0559      Oct 4th 1862

0560      Morning as soons[sic]soon as light all Hands to work
0561      putting up the mills George Dick Newton
0562      Father & myself we put up [boath?] mills in the
0563      Same House put sweeps on them Put down
0564      more piping so as to Run [Boath?] R mills Juice
0565      into the cistern the old mill we saved all
0566      the tackling of last year so that it took but
0567      a short time to put It up got nearly
0568      Ready to Run again forenoon Had quite
0569      a nice shower of Rain Cane Has come in
0570      verry fast this week I now Have on Hand
0571      about or over a Hundred Wagon Loads of Cane.
0572      It Has been verry warm all the
0573      Week warm as July and so Dry I never
0574      Before seen scarsley[sic]scarcely any seeding done yet
0575      I feel nearly used up Tired out,

[Page - 27  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0576      Sunday Oct 5th 1862

0577      Staid arround[sic]around Home all
0578      day only to go down to See Sagers about
0579      making me Some Barrels. Warm and pleasant
0580      still no Rain. Last week we
0581      Had a small little rain enough to lay the
0582      Dust. I dont mutch[sic]much look for rain this fall.
0583      Scarsley[sic]Scarcely any Wheat is Sowed yet.

0585      For the Week Ending Oct "/62
0586      [ Sunday?] morning

0587      Early finished fixing the mills
0588      and went to work. they work well. we drove
0589      It through as Hard as we could all the
0590      week and made 458 gallons average per
0591      day 46 ⅓ last weeke we made 203 ½
0592      average 58 1/7 this week George Goodrich &
0593      me done the Boiling. George tending the clensing
0594      pans and I the finishing pan. Homer
0595      and Thomas Longman feed the mills and
0596      Newton tends them. carries Cane and Wheals
0597      off premises. Next week I shall put
[Page - 28  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0598      Newton in my place as It is two[sic]too Hard
0599      for me to finish and oversee all the Buisness[sic]Business
0600      and put another Hand in His place the Cane
0601      Has just Rolled in all the week untill all
0602      my places to put it are filled up.

0603      Sunday 12 Oct 1862

0604      Staid arround[sic]around
0605      Home all day plenty of visitors all day at the
0606      Cane House.

0607      For the Week ending Oct 18th ↓ 1862 ↑

0608      This week we first Drove Buisness[sic]Business right
0609      through all the week we made 550 ¼ gallons
0610      of molasses and of the Best Kind. averag[sic]average 91 17/24
0611      we made one day 119 ¼ gallsgallons we done some
0612      finishing in the eavning[sic]evening and But little this
0613      week Has been somewhat cooler so that we
0614      can grind juice and leave it in the cistern
0615      overnight last week we could not as it
0616      would in a short time sour three Hands in
0617      Boiling and three grinding my well Has given
0618      out and we Have to get all our water out of
0619      the Spring down the Hill. I now wish
[Page - 29  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0620      that I Had went Deeper with my well.
0621      still Dry and some frost
0622      the Cane Has still continued to come right
0623      [along?] although I have tried to Discourage It.
0624      I now Have near a months work and Hand the
0625      Yard is nearly filled. I Have been Having the
0626      Diptheria all the week and quite Bad so
0627      as to be very unable at times to Keep up still I
0628      made out to Keep Buisness[sic]Business agoing. Had Dr Rainy
0629      to Docter me. Father mashed His Had[sic]Hand verry[sic]very bad
0630      last week in putting down a cider Barrell in the
0631      Cellar. got some of my cane cut up in shock
0632      this week. george Wilson and george Daily Helped
0633      george Wilson tending the mill Boyes Daily in
0634      the cane patch. first frost of any account
0635      was friday morning.

0636      Sunday 19.

0637      Staid all arrnd[sic]around
0638      Cane House all Eavning[sic]Evening quite cold
0639      Expect a freeze.

[Page - 30  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0640      For the week Ending Oct 25 1862

0641      This week Drove
0642      the Business as fast as we could made
0643      579 gallons. we Had some considerable bad
0644      Luck most every day. Burt[sic]Burst one of the pipes
0645      out that went under one of the furnaces my
0646      Tin pump gave out and I sent to Columbus
0647      and got me a new one and Thurs day we
0648      Broake[sic]Broke the old mill one th of the sides
0649      and as it cannot well be fixed it is in a bad
0650      fix when the mill was made at Lancester
0651      the company Have moved away and I will
0652      Have to get it fixed some time by the old piece
0653      or get a pattern made. put a sweep to the new
0654      mill so as to put on two Horses3
0655      But they would not work well so we run
0656      one Horse awhile and then changed and run the
0657      mill all night never stoped[sic]stopped it for anything
0658      and by so doing made up for two mills but still
0659      not quite so well as two mills more unhandy
0660      after all mishaps we made out to get out our
0661      average dayes work but Had to work Hard for it
[Page - 31  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0662      got my cane cut up on Monday sunday
0663      night It froze quite Hard and I am
0664      fear my cane may spoil before I get to work it
0665      Yet I will risk It cane still comes I am
0666      not though taking any new jobs. george
0667      Wilson Has been Helping me this week to grind
0668      Him and Tomy Homer do the grinding george
0669      Goodrich & Newton & me the Boiling my time
0670      However is Dividid[sic]Divided arround[sic]around at all works
0671      this week Mr Long called arround[sic]around with
0672      Mr Day patentee as now and of the right of
0673      [Cooks?] pans and wanted me to pay Him
0674      $37 Dollars the price of one His pans of the same
0675      size as mine. i told him I would give $10.00
0676      and no more. He would not take It and
0677      went off. saying Hee would sue me shure[sic]sure.
0678      Warm and Dry up to Sat morning
0679      When it Drizzled rain most all day and
0680      turned to snow at night and snowed like
0681      fury all night.

[Page - 32  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0684      Morn Sunday Oct 26th 1862

0685      morning real winter snow
0686      from five to eight inches Deep and cold
0687      cleaned up the House carried in cane worked
0688      most all Day night got a coupel[sic]couple of Hands
0689      and ground all night I Have to Have night
0690      Hands to grind as the day Hands could not
0691      Stand it.

0692      For the Week ending
0693      November 1st 1862 Saturday

0694      This Week Had good luck made 636 ½
0695      gallons of Exty[sic]Extra good molasses. Mon I went to
0696      Hunt a mill but could not find any wednesday
0697      I got F Tuesday I got Father to go down
0698      to shafers as He has throwen[sic]thrown out His mill
0699      like mine and Borrowed the piece to match
0700      my Broken one and wednesday we put it up
0701      and went it along the old way Better
0702      Believe I was glad. Thornton Wells helped
0703      me this week. He cut and Hawled wood as
0704      I will not Have enough. george Wilson & the
0705      little boyes done the grinding

[Page - 33  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0706      Sunday 2nd November 1862

0707      Staid arround[sic]around cane House an[sic]and cleaned
0708      up and put things to Rights John & me
0709      afternoon Had quite a
0710      Rain a nice shower but still Dry
0711      midnight commenced grinding.

0712      For the week
0713      Ending November 8th 1862
made this week
0714      785 gallans molosses. we Boil untill Bed
0715      time each night and some of the time untill
0716      10 oclock. Hire extry[sic]extra Hands to grind
0717      Half of the night comence[sic]commence Boiling by day
0718      light. Thornton Wells Helped me this
0719      week. some lots of cane that was froze
0720      a before cutting soured this week
0721      Had some very cold Blustry[sic]blustery wether[sic]weather.
0722      . Made one day from morning untill
0723      15 minutes to ten oclock 152 gallons
0724      and we was on no Race worked
0725      as usual.

[Page - 34  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0728      For the Week Ending Nov 15th 1862

0729      This week made some over 700 gallons
0730      Had to get up some more wood I got
0731      up a lot last week But Is not going
0732      to be enough. Thornton Had to quit
0733      George Wilson Helped me this week.
0734      Had considerable trouble in getting
0735      Barrells cant get them made.

0736      Sunday Nov 16 1862

0737      Today did not clean up as useal[sic]usual
0738      Laied arround[sic]around Butifull Day
0739      clear warm and pleasant this
0740      week our spring prety much give out
0741      as we Have to water all our Horses
0742      out of It Besides what we use, most
0743      all the wells in the county are out
0744      or low. Old aunt Peggy Smith
0745      Wednesday night. Died

[Page - 35  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0750      For the Week Ending Novem 22 ↑ 1862 ↓ Saturday

0751      Got done Boiling
0752      Thursday night at
0753      12 oclock worked up 16 shocks of my cane
0754      that I got cut Before the frost made
0755      some 80 gallons of It the rest is spoiled
0756      Enough to make some two Hundred
0757      Gallons to me quite a loss as I worked so
0758      Hard for It Frid and sat we cleaned
0759      up. clensed up some skinnings but they did
0760      not make verry good molasses. In all we have
0761      Made 4402 ¾ Gallons. Monday Morning It
0762      comenced to Rain and rained untill Thursday
0763      Morning almost Day and night part of the
0764      time only mist and part of the time real hard
0765      rain It started the crick a Litle. the rain
0766      Came Bad on us as we were out of Dry
0767      wood and Had to cut and Burn Green
0768      wood. But we all done and I am Glad
0769      only one thing vexes me. Garrets old mare the
0770      last day we worked run loose in the yard
0771      and Went in my [stowing?] House and
[Page - 36  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0772      Went to pass from one stall to the other
0773      the dividing stick or scantling Being about
0774      four feet High or Higher perhaps a litle[sic]little
0775      she got part way and tried to Raise up
0776      and I suppose Has sprained Her Back
0777      as she cannot get up by all the Help
0778      we can raise Hind parts Halpless[sic],
0779      John saw her go under and took Her out
0780      By loos[e] ning the stick. sat night sone[sic]some
0781      15 or 20 of us met at the Cane House and
0782      chose up for a Squirel[sic]squirrel Hunt myself and
0783      Reese Eavens Chose up the side failing
0784      to produce as many scalps as the othe[r] are to
0785      treat to cigars aples[sic] apple & cider Next
0786      Wednsday[sic] Wednesday is the day set.

0787      Sunday 23 Nov 1862

0788      Morning went up and seen Savage a
0789      Horse Doctor about the old mare He
0790      said I might Just well Kill Her first
0791      as last so I came Home and
0792      shot Her. Hiram Smith came
0793      Home last night pleasant Day
[Page - 37  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0794      Monday 24 November 1862
0795      Morning Hawled[sic] hauled
0796      the old mare away and cut Her open on
0797      the Back and found Her Back Broken the
0798      small Ridge Bone Just under the skin,
0799      It was Brok[sic] broken about two inches from
0800      the End at the Hips toward the Head.
0801      I am very sorry for the old mare as I have
0802      taken extry[sic]extra care of Her Because Garret
0803      thought a great deal of Her. she was in
0804      first rate order in fact fat. But
0805      so it is. fixed arround[sic]around at my cane
0806      House went and spoke for me a Gun
0807      very nice Weather.
0808      Aunt Eliza and Thorton came down with
0809      a Misses Montgomery a sister of uncle Dave
0810      Beaches Wife. and a young man on their
0811      way to Robertses. Hawled down our Bead[sic]bed from the cane House

0812      Tues 25 Nov 1862
0813      To day got my gun a double Barreled
0814      shot gun and fixed for the Hunt
0815      nice prety[sic]pretty day only cool
[Page - 38  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0816      Wednsday 26th November 1862
0817      Snowed most all day and cold the
0818      Meanest Kind of a Day. Our Hunt went
0819      off But It was an awfull[sic]awful time for It
0820      My Side However came out Best Having
0821      23 wild Scalps and the other side 18. as
0822      game was Scarse[sic]scarce several Wild ↑ Tame ↓ Turkeys
0823      were Killed. one Wild one was Killed by
0824      Wm Strait. night we Had our Treat
0825      aples[sic]apples Cider and cigars the Beaten Side
0826      pa[y] ing for It we won some 14 on a side
0827      shot at candles and ect[sic]etc. until Late.
0828      for the Rest of the Week to Sat 29th
0829      Done but Litle[sic]little setled[sic]settled some accounts went
0830      to Jersey after a pair of Boots and Ect[sic]etc.
0831      cold & Blustry[sic]blustery all week most.
0832      Made my Returns the U.S. asessor[sic]assessor on my
0833      molasses Buisness[sic]business sum total of all
0834      Manufactured was Wagon
0835      Loads 358 ½ No of Gallons 4402 ¾
0836      four thousand four Hundred and two
0837      and ¾ gallons molasses
[Page - 39  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0838      Total valuation $987.00
0839      counting that made at 20 cts value 20 cts
0840      and that made on the Half. my Half at 50 cts
0841      pur[sic]per gallon about Half I made was on
0842      the Halves I Have sold to the Best of
0843      my accounts 281 gallons.
0844      I Have now on
0845      Hand some over 57.00 seven ↑ seven ↓ Hundred gallons
0846      to sell. I find some a very Large Loss by
0847      shrinkage and other wayes[sic]ways. we Have at
0848      several times lost considerable by forgetting
0849      Barrells, Lending out and making customers
0850      good, It is a new Buissness[sic]business to most people
0851      and we Have to cheat ourselves to Keep on
0852      the right side of customs. I Have sold
0853      perhaps over the abovve[sic]above amount
0854      considerable But that is all I could
0855      finde on when making up my riturns[sic]returns
0856      an this year we will be more [caucious?] [sic]cautious
0857      and perhaps with the tax Law.
0858      and Be better prepaired[sic]prepared to meet It.
[Page - 40  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0860      Sunday 30 November 1862
0861      Yesterday Misses
0862      Montgomery came to stay over Sunday
0863      with us on Her Road Home
0864      John Coons and Wife are Hear[sic]here.
0865      nice prety[sic]pretty day staid Home all
0866      Day.

0867      For the Week Ending
0868      Sat Novem [sic] Decem
0869      6th 1862
Monday morning went to
0870      Columbus with Dennis Strait and
0871      Back the same Day. Done nothing
0872      mutch[sic]much all the week setled[sic]settled up with
0873      all that I could Farther[sic] Father & Mother and
0874      Newton went to Columbus I sent in the
0875      pay for my new mill $8800 I Have
0876      Squared up with most all my Debts
0877      and Have some $80.00 left yet.
0878      got me some new things monday also.
0879      got my Horse shod got me a pair
0880      of coarse Boots of Monroe cleaned up
[Page - 41  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0881      A Lot of Cane seed I Have a nice
0882      Lot of It and good. Boyes[sic]Boys Husked
0883      some corn most to[sic]too cold and dry.
0884      nice Weathe[r] all week first part
0885      clear and quite warm Last part cold
0886      and Blustry[sic]blustery snow. Saturday real cold
0887      murcury[sic]mercury nearly to zero.

0889      Sunday Decem 7th 1862

0890      staid Home all day real Winter

0892      For the Week Ending Saturday
0893      Decem 13th 1862.
Monday George
0894      Goodrich and me went and to uncle
0895      Lew ↑ i ↓ ses and staid all night walked over
0896      nice walking. Tuesday morning went over
0897      to Worthington and then by the cars4 to
0898      Delaware George to ↑ a ↓ Mr Watterman abo
0899      ut working for Him at the f[l] our mill Buis
0900      ness[sic]
0901      ness
I went to get a Job of collecting of Him
0902      to Do But He Had got a Hand. Evening
0903      went to see some old Friends of when I use[d]
0904      to go to school there
[Page - 42  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0905      Wedns forenoon went to see a large
0906      cane mill at the foundry Made some two
0907      years ago for the South But witch[sic]which never
0908      got Down. It was a very large mill wighing[sic]weighing
0909      some 88 Hundred lbs the Large roll being
0910      3 ft in Lenth and 2 ft in Diameter with
0911      five Small rolls under. But there was
0912      several Deficiencies about It witch[sic]which would
0913      Have to [be] altered before I would want It
0914      came down in the afternoon to Columbus.
0915      cars full of Soldiers Yesterday we Road up
0916      with Parson Brauenlow of Tenn.
0917      Heard Him talk & ect.
0918      Thurs went and seen Gills the ones I
0919      Bought my mill of they are getting a new
0920      large mill they wanted Bad to [sell?] me
0921      one Had an offer of 48 cts [per?] gallon
0922      for my molasses all of it. But I must
0923      Have 50 cts seen a pair of Twin
0924      Children from a Black Woman and a
0925      White man one white White and the other
0926      Black. Got Home just after night
[Page - 43  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0927      Friday staid [arround[sic]around?] the House all Day
0928      nearly sick. Father & Mother went up to Robertses
0929      Boyes Husked corn. Eaving went to see Mr
0930      Wilson about getting Him to go with me tomor
0931      ow to [ . . . ] that Dead Horse of Grovenberies
0932      as He was Hear[sic]here on Monday Before I went away
0933      and we could not agree and we agreed to each
0934      pick a man and Let them settle It for
0935      us. Saturday Morning Mr. Wilson & I
0936      went down to Squire Martins in Jeferson
0937      TP. to meet Garret. He was there but
0938      failed to Bring His man as He said He
0939      was sick. But I guess He did not want to
0940      a settle it as some one Has put a new
0941      Idea into His Head that He could come
0942      under the Head of a Borrowed Horse and
0943      get all Damages. while under a Hired Horse
0944      He must loose all. He now sayes He
0945      Lent me the mare But ↑ He ↓ Lies shure. He came
0946      Down from 75$ to 50$ I offered His $30 [.00?]
0947      But He refused It so we came Home.
0948      It Has Been Excellent Mill wether[sic]weather all
[Page - 44  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0949      The Week untill to Day It rained most
0950      all Day. loads Dry and Dusty nice as
0951      Summer first of the week real cold
0952      and warm Gradualy[sic]gradually untill it rained. Sat

0953      For the Week Ending Sat 20th 1862

0954      Mon & Tues rain & Snow uncle Lewis Beach
0955      Staid all night us Boyes caught a coon with our
0956      Dog. Made our Hunting arrangements Reese
0957      Eavens & I we are the captains we Have 39
0958      on each Side Wednesday went up to aunt Elizas
0959      staid two nights came Home Friday and
0960      went to Columbus seen Gill He found out by
0961      writing to the Clerk of the U.S. court at Cleav
0962      land that I am Sued by those Patent
0963      right men. Sat went to [Grovenberris?] He
0964      was not at Home Left word for Him to
0965      come & see me. most all the Week real
0966      Cold Weather. George Goodrich moved to
0967      Delaware.
Sunday Decem 21st 1862
0968      Went to Mr. Wilsons part of the Day and
0969      to Meeting to Albany at night
0970      pleasent Day warmer

[Page - 45  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0971      For the Week Ending Sat Decem 27th ↑ 1862

0972      Monday Garret Grovenbery came up and
0973      I traded my two year old colt off to Him
0974      for His old Dead Horse for three Dollars
0975      toboot. I got the three Dollars whereas I
0976      ought to Have Had 25$ at least But I
0977      Dont want a Difaculty[sic]difficulty with Him if I Beat
0978      Him at Law I would cost me nearly as mutch[sic]much
0979      as to setle[sic]settle It. to Day snow is going off warmer
0980      Tues Homer & I Hunted all Day got ten
0981      Squirrels they are more plenty than I Have
0982      Known them for years there is plenty of Beach[sic]Beech
0983      mast
0984      Wednesday all us Boys Went out
0985      I Have Mr Longmans shot gun I like it very
0986      mutch I can take them running so nice seen
0987      several of my men about going Hunting tomorow[sic]
0988      We want to Beat if Posible[sic]possible. went to
0989      albany after the paper We are now taking the
0990      Daily again our Fredricksburg[sic]Fredericksburg Defeat Does
0991      not turn out so Disasterous[sic]disastrous for us as was
0992      at first thought. There Has been trouble
0993      in the cabinet Tendering of Resignations
0994      and Ecet[sic]etc.
[Page - 46  (click to open page image in a new window)]

0995      Thursday Christmas morning as
0996      soon as light all Hands out Hun
0997      ting the woods is full of Hunters
0998      we got 8 or 10 Squirrel apiece and one
0999      Turkey John Shot that. Eavning I went
1000      to Albany and tended to the game as
1001      It came In Kept an account of each
1002      mans Game Brought in my Side footed up
1003      to 312 Scalps we had three wild turkeys
1004      Bodies and two scalps Brought in on our
1005      Side while the Reeses party only got one
1006      turkey counted 10 scalps squirrel one Quail
1007      one [Rabaet?] [sic]Rabbit 2 and ect according to value
1008      of the thing, we Beat them over one Hundred
1009      Scalps. They treated all Hands to the
1010      oysters witch[sic]which was the agreement Eavning[sic]Evening
1011      Set in and rained Been warm for several
1012      Dayes. Monroes Boyes staid all night with us
1013      they were on my Side I am glad the Hunt is over
1014      as I Have spent considerable time so as not to
1015      get Beat seeing my men and making arrangements
[Page - 47  (click to open page image in a new window)]

1016      for It what we Hunted fbefore Hand we did not
1017      save only a [fiew?] [sic]few the Day before. a worse fared
1018      fellow than Reese Eavens I never seen.
1019      Frid rained most all Day took my gun Home
1020      Sat went Hunting with Charley & Hiram Smith
1021      night all Hands went Coon Hunting got one
1022      and now I think I Have Hunted enough
1023      for me and I must quit. Boyes sawed wood
1024      some withe a sawing machean[sic]machine they Have riged[sic]rigged
1025      to the Horse power I Had to my cane mill

1026      Sunday 28 Sept ↑ December ↓ 1862
Staid Home all day
1027      wrote a Letter George Goodrich Delaware Ohio
1028      Went to meeting to Albany at night.

1029      Monday 29
prepared some things towards digging
1030      my well Deeper went to mill Boyes & Dad
1031      are sawing Wood with the sawing machean[sic]machine

1032      Tueasday[sic]Tuesday 30 Decem 1862
Rained and snowed all
1033      Day and snowed all night a perfect storm from
1034      the North Eavning[sic]evening went up to Mr. Wilsons and Hite
1035      smiths

1036      Wednsday[sic]Wednesday 31st 1862 morning
snow some
1037      8 to 10 inches Deep But not cold Helped Boyes
1038      saw wood part of the Day Eavning turned quite
1039      cold Went to albany and Bought a Sack of flour
1040      as we are out and did not Raise Wheat enough
1041      for our own use poor arraingment[sic]arrangement. Dance
1042      to Wilkinses to night.

Explanatory Annotations

1. In the mid to late nineteenth century, fits could refer to any number of mental, physical, or moral problems. Essays on morality frequently referred to “fits of passion,” where the fits represented inappropriate, even sinful, behavior. It is more likely, however, that Lucius was alluding to a physical or mental condition of “falling fits” or “nervous diseases” such as epilepsy. A medical understanding of epilepsy existed by this time, though its causes and treatment remained open to much speculation. ("The Boy who had 'Fits'""Westminster Hospital") [Back]

2. Smith is here referring to the Maryland Campaign, wherein contemporary sources describe Confederates crossing the Potomac River, invading Maryland, and taking over the city of Frederick on September 7, 1862 ("Invasion"). This led to the Battle of Antietam on September 17th, considered today to be one of the major turning points in the Civil War, wherein Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan led the Army of the Potomac to a decisive victory, forcing Gen. Robert E. Lee to order a withdrawl across the Potomac on September 18th. A September 20, 1862, dispatch from the Headquarters of the Army of the Potomac states, "The name given to this battle is the Antietam. After our forces occupied the whole field, the rebel loss was found to be far greater, particularly in killed, than was at first supposed. Fully two thousand five hundred were found lying on the field, while a larger number had been buried the day before by their friends. Their loss in killed and wounded men will not come far from eighteen thousand to twenty thousand" (qtd. in "Retreat"). [Back]

3. Lucius Smith's use of the word "Horse," in the context of his mill, usually refers to "horsepower." Horsepower, as it is understood today, is a unit for measuring power. The engines that drove sugar mills in the 1860s could have various range of horsepower: "an engine of 20 horse-power will drive a sugar mill having rollers 5 feet long and 28 inches diameter...An engine of 18 horse-power will work a mill 4 ½ feet long and 26 inches diameter..." (Brande and Cox 643). Smith's truncation of horsepower to "horse," which was a familiar usage in the nineteenth century (see Bourne 501), draws attention to the analogy of the output of steam engines with the power of horses that informed the unit of measurement. [Back]

4.  In context, this could only refer to a trip by rail; Worthington and Delaware were consecutive stops on the branch of the New York Central Railroad that connected Columbus with Cleveland. What is less clear however, is whether this refers to buying a ticket on the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Roalroad that provided passenger service between the two cities, or simply getting a ride on a freight train passing through. However, if we accept historical averages of price per mile for the region at this time, the trip would likely cost 45 to 50 cents per man, and this at a time when average daily income was near 80 cents. Given Smith's usual cost-consciousness, it is unlikely he or Goodrich would have paid so much to ride the 15 miles from Worthington to Delaware when they were willing to walk the same distance from New Albany to Worthington earlier in the same day. [Back]

List of Works Cited

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About this View of the Journal

This diplomatic transcription of the Stephens letters is organized by manuscript pages. Line breaks and page breaks reflect those in the letters; paragraph breaks are not reported. Spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and abbreviations are reported as they appear in the original letters. Text highlighted by correspondents with an underscore is underscored in this view. Recoverable cancellations are reported in red, strikethrough text. Interlinear additions are reported between arrows (↑ ↓) indicating the position of the addition; text added in the margins is reported between pipes (|). All material added by the editors is surrounded by square brackets: uncertain readings are followed by a question mark, apparent errors in the manuscript are indicated by "sic," and text supplied by the editors for clarity is set in italics. Gaps in the manuscript (e.g., tears, unrecoverable cancellations) are noted by ellipses within square brackets. Links to explanatory notes are indicated by superscript colored numbers.

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Created: 2015-12-01