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Selected Entries from the Lucius Clark Smith Diaries,
30 July 1862 to 31 December 1862


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Lucius C. Smith Diaries Markup Guidelines

The following guidelines were used by the editors to coordinate their work on the Smith diaries.

Overview

Markup of Physical Structure and Page Layout. The manuscript pages, encoded by the empty page break or <pb/> element, are the primary physical structures represented in the markup. Each <pb/> element includes an @facs attribute pointing to a high-resolution scan of that page. Line breaks are encoded with the empty <lb/> element. No attributes are included in the <lb> element. Because Smith wrote on lined paper, when he skips a line printed on the paper for any reason, we encode a <lb/> that, in the view arranged by manuscript pages and lines, will appear as an empty numbered line.

Markup of Top-level Textual Structure. The entry constitutes the primary textual structure represented in the markup. It is encoded by a <div> element with the attribute-value pair type="Entry" and an @xml:id attribute with the unique value "LCSYYYYMMDDa, where LCS stands for Lucius Clark Smith, YYYYMMDD identifies the date format, and "a" represents the first entry for a given day, and so on. So, for example, the first entry written on given day would have an @xml:id attribute with the value "LCSYYYYMMDDa"; a second letter written on that same day would have an @xml:id attribute with the value "LCSYYYYMMDDb"; and so on.

Diary entries typically consist of a dateline followed by a series of paragraphs. Datelines are encoded with the <dateline> element and contain a <date> element and, when an entry refers to a single day, a @when attribute with the value "YYYY-MM-DD." Entries that cover multiple days will contain a <date> element with @from and @to attributes. Multiple dates for which only "bounding dates" can be determined are encoded with @notBefore and @notAfter attributes.

Where indicated by indentation of a line from the left margin of a page, line breaks part-way across a page, or additional white space between lines, paragraphs are encoded with the <p> element and no attributes.

Level of Transcription/Encoding. Our markup scheme supports a modest range of presentations, from semi-modernized/corrected to semi-diplomatic. The basic transcription follows the manuscript verbatim; i.e., the spelling, capitalization, and punctuation in the manuscript are followed insofar as they are possible to distinguish. Various other manuscript features (e.g., cancellations, interlinear or marginal additions, tears in pages) are encoded, as are regularized versions of proper names and dates, standard versions of nonstandard spellings, and expansions of idiosyncratic abbreviations. See below for details.

Other Editorial Apparatus. Links to scans of manuscript pages and other rich media, textual variants, explanatory annotations, and bibliographic information about works cited in annotations are all encoded in the XML file. See below for details.

Source: These project guidelines are based on The Text Encoding Initiative's Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange (P5).

Detailed Guidelines

Feature Group Feature
Abbreviation Abbreviation
Annotation Explanatory Annotations
Bibliography Parenthetical Citation
Bibliography Works Cited Entry
Corrections and Emendations Cancellation-Unrecoverable
Corrections and Emendations Cancellation-Recoverable
Corrections and Emendations Uncertain Reading
Corrections and Emendations Additions-interlinear
Corrections and Emendations Additions-marginal
Corrections and Emendations Substitution
Highlighting Underlining, large text, and so on
Corrections and Emendations Apparent Errors
Corrections and Emendations Archaic Orthography
Corrections and Emendations Supplied text
Discourse Quotation (reported speech or thought)
Discourse Quotations from external sources
Discourse Linguistically distinct words and phrases
Discourse Lines of verse
Handwriting Shift in hand or medium
Language Foreign Terms
Names & Places Personal Names
Names & Places Place Names
Names & Places Geographical Names
Names & Places Referring Strings
Page Layout Page Break
Page Layout Line Break
Paper Damage that does not render the text unreadable
Punctuation Word broken across two lines (with or without a mark such as a hyphen)
Punctuation Em Dash
Punctuation Hyphen
Rich Media Images
Structure Dateline (and date)
Structure Paragraph
Titles Title

 

Group: Abbreviation

Common Name: Abbreviation

Contextual Notes: Where abbreviations and acronyms occur in the text. For purposes of markup, we treat the entire abbreviation (e.g., “Ret.”) as the abbreviation, not just the mark, if any, indicating missing letters; and we treat the entire word as the expansion (e.g., “Retired”), not just the missing letters.

Element Name: <abbr>

Encoding Rule: We tag only nonstandard abbreviations; for example, we transcribe without comment contractions such as “don’t” or “won’t” and titles such as "Mr." or "Mrs." When abbreviations are encoded, we employ the <choice> element and note the abbreviation and its expansion.

Sample Source Text: yesterday altho the wind is fair

Sample Encoding:

<choice> <abbr>altho</abbr> <expan>although</expan> </choice>

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Group: Annotation

Common Name: Explanatory Annotations

Contextual Notes: We annotate the text in order to provide contextual information about specific references in the manuscript (general contextual information is encoded in local "authority" lists such as a list of people mentioned in the text); to draw attention to physical features of the manuscript; to provide links to supplemental material; or to explain editorial judgments.

Element Name: <ptr>, <note>

Encoding Rule: We place a note anchor and the text of an annotation immediately following the text to which the annotation refers.

The note anchor is encoded with a <ptr> element and contains two attributes: a @type attribute with the value "noteAnchor" and a "target" attribute with a unique ID value matching the @xml:id value of the associated note text (see below).

The note text immediately follows the <ptr> element and is enclosed within a <note> element containing a @resp attribute with a value of "ed" and an @xml:id attribute whose value corresponds to the value of the @target attribute in the associated note anchor (<ptr> element).

Notes provide standard parenthetical citations (e.g., author, page) that allow readers to find the source of the information in the list of works cited (see below for encoding information regarding parenthetical citations and bibliography entries).

Sample Source Text: on quarantine ground[note anchor will go here] It has commenced

Sample Encoding:

<lb/>on quarantine ground<ptr type="noteAnchor" target="QG"/>
<note resp="ed" xml:id="QG">Probably the "Old Quarantine" off Tompkinsville, Staten Island,
which was the site of New York Harbor's quaratine station prior to 1855,
when the residents of Tompkinsville burned the quarantine hospitals to the ground
in protest <bibl><ref target="#Quarantine">"Barring Out Epidemics"</ref></bibl></note> It has commenced


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Group: Bibliography

Common Name: Parenthetical citation

Contextual Notes: Anytime the we or the author paraphrases, quotes, or otherwise presents information gleaned from another source (e.g., in annotations), we provide a parenthetical citation to that source in text.

Element Name: <bibl>

Encoding Rule: At the point where a parenthetical citation would normally appear, provide a <bibl> element containing a <ref> element with a @target attribute whose value corresponds to the @xml:id attribute of the corresponding <bibl> element in the List of Works Cited (see below). The text content of the <ref> element should follow normal MLA standards for parenthetical references.

Sample Source Texts:

Maury, M. F. The Physical Geography of the Sea. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Harper, 1855.

Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey. "Wilson's storm-petrel Oceanites oceanicus." Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, [http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/id/framlst/i1090id.html]. n.d. Date of visit: 10 Feb. 2007.

Sample Encoding:

Parenthetical citation at the end of a note: <ptr type="noteAnchor" target="#Consigne"/> <note resp="ed" xml:id="Consigne">Murray provides this information: <q>"near the harbour mouth, is the <foreign xml:lang="Fre">Consigne</foreign>, or health office, where every thing relating to quarantine is transacted, and whence the permissionfor vessels to enter the harbour is issued. To this office the captains of vessels come to give an account of themselves(<foreign xml:lang="Fre">raisoner</foreign>), and to show their bill of health. The council room contains a few paintings, chiefly having reference to the plague [. . .] The subjects are all horrible, and the execution not good enough to compensate</q> <bibl><ref target="#Murray">477</ref></bibl>.</note>, in a short time he

The same entry with the author identified in the parenthetical citation rather than the text:
. . .
compensate</q> <bibl><ref target="#Murray">Murray 477</ref></bibl>.</note>, in a short time he Corresponding entry in List of Works Cited <bibl xml:id="Murray" n="Murray">Murray, John. <title level="m">A Handbook for Travellers in France</title>.
London: John Murray, 1867. <title level="m">Google Books</title>. Web. 28 Feb. 2010.</bibl>



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Group: Bibliography

Common Name: Works Cited Entry

Contextual Notes: Anytime we or the author paraphrases, quotes, or otherwise presents information gleaned from another source (e.g., in annotations), we provide a full citation to that source in a List of Works Cited.

Element Name: <bibl>

Encoding Rule: A <listBibl> element whose <head> element contains the value "Works Cited" appears in the <sourceDesc> element in the <teiHeader>. The <listBibl> element contains a series of bibliography entries enclosed in <bibl> elements. Within each entry, only text that may need to be rendered in a particular typeface (e.g., title of books) are further encoded.

Note: Each <bibl> element contains an @xml:id attribute with a unique identifier as well as an @n attribute containing a string used to alphabetize the entry in a List of Works Cited.

Sample Source Texts:

Maury, M. F. The Physical Geography of the Sea. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Harper, 1855. Print.

Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey. "Wilson's storm-petrel Oceanites oceanicus." Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, n.d. Date of visit: 10 Feb. 2007. Web.

Sample Encoding:

<listBibl> <head>Works Cited</head> <bibl xml:id="MFM n="Maury">
Maury, M. F. <title level="m">The Physical Geography of the Sea</title>. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Harper, 1857. Print.
</bibl>
<bibl xml:id="PWRC" n="Patuxent">
Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey. "Wilson's storm-petrel Oceanites oceanicus." <title level="m">Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter</title>. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, n.d. Date of visit: 10 Feb. 2007. Web.
</bibl>


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Group: Unreadable text in source document

Common Name: Unrecoverable cancellation; damage.

Contextual Notes: When the author, some later hand, or some sort of damage has cancelled or obscured a letter, word, or phrase in such a manner that it cannot be read, we encode it <gap> in the transcription. In the special case of unrecoverable cancellations resulting from overwriting, erasure, or overstriking, the contents of the <del> element would be a <gap> element. Note that the <gap> element is empty (i.e., it does not contain any text from the source).

Element Name: <gap>

Encoding Rule: The <gap> element typically contains three attributes: @reason=”cancelled”, unit=”(chars | words)”; extent=”#” [i.e., whatever number is appropriate].

Sample Source Text: [an unreadable and/or cancelled word]

Sample Encodings:

<gap reason=”ink blot” unit=”letters” extent="2"/> <del><gap reason"overwritten" unit="words" extent="1"/><del>Buoy

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Group: Corrections and Emendations

Common Name: Recoverable cancellation

Contextual Notes: When the author or some later hand has cancelled a letter, word, or phrase in such a manner that we can read the cancelled material, we encode a deletion.

Element Name: <del>

Encoding Rule: The tag surrounds the recovered words or letters and, assuming the deletion is in Smith's hand, contains one attribute: rend=”(overstrike | overwritten | erased)". Note: extensive deletions should be encoded with a combination of the <delSpan> and <anchor> elements as shown in the example below (the values of the @spanTo and @xml:id attributes is discretionary).

Sample Source Text: passed the

Sample Encoding:

passed <del rend="overstrike">the</del> <delSpan rend="strikethrough" spanTo="#pa01" hand="#Unknown"/>
<address>
<addrLine>26 Emerson street</addrLine>
<addrLine>Newton</addrLine>
<addrLine>Massachusetts</addrLine>
</address>
<anchor xml:id="pa01"/>


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Group: Corrections and Emendations

Common Name: Uncertain Reading

Contextual Notes: If, after assessing all the available evidence, we cannot read a word with certainty, we tag the text as an uncertain reading.

Element Name: <unclear>

Encoding Rule: Surround the text in question with the <unclear> element and, optionally, provide attributes indicating degree of certainty (e.g., cert=”hi | medium | lo | unkown") and the reason for the lack of clarity (e.g., reason="coined_phrase").

Sample Source Text: It is an ex elegant Hotel

Sample Encoding:

<lb/>It is an <unclear cert="medium" reason="coined_phrase">ex elegant</unclear>hotel.

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Group: Corrections and Emendations

Common Name: Additions-interlinear

Contextual Notes: Interlinear additions may appear above or below a line of text.

Element Name: <add>

Encoding Rule: Assuming the addition is in Smith's hand, include a @place attribute indicating whether the addition is above the line (”above”), below the line (”below”), or inline (inl|i|ne). If the writer includes a caret or other mark to indicate the addition, indicate the mark as the value of a “rend” attribute.

Sample Source Text:

dock crowded our friends were there—
   The crowd cheered as we left—
Six times our guns fired as we

Sample Encoding:

<lb/>dock crowded our friends were there—
<add place="below">The crowd cheered as we left—</add>
<lb/>Six times our guns fired as we


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Group: Corrections and Emendations

Common Name: Additions-marginal

Contextual Notes: Additions may be placed in the top, left, right, or bottom margins.

Element Name: <add>

Encoding Rule: Again assuming that the addition is in Smith's hand, we surround the addition with the <add> element and include a @place attribute indicating the placement of the addition (e.g., "margin"). Other standard values include bottom, top, overleaf, end, and inline. If the writer includes a caret or other mark to indicate the addition, indicate the mark as the value of a “rend” attribute.

Sample Source Text: Additions *can sometimes be placed in the margins.

Sample Encoding:

Additions <add place=”margin” rend=”*”>can sometimes be placed in the margins</add>

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Group: Corrections and Emendations

Common Name: Substitution

Contextual Notes: The letter writer or another hand has deleted some text and added text intended to substitute for the deleted text.

Element Name: <subst>

Encoding Rule: Surround related <del> and <add> elements within a <subst> element.

Sample Source Text:

Sample Encoding:

<subst><del rend="overstrike">one</del><add place="above">two</add></subst>

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Group: Highlighting

Common Name: Text visually highlighted for emphasis (as distinct from semantic conventions such as identifying the title of a book or the name of a ship).

Contextual Notes: Underlining or other highlighting of a word for emphasis.

Element Name: <hi>

Encoding Rule: Surround the highlighted text with the <hi> element and provide a @type attribute that indicates the type of highlighting (underlined | largeText | multiplyUnderlined).

Sample Source Text: Some underlined text

Sample Encoding:

<lb/>Some <hi rend="underlined">underlined text</hi>

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Group: Corrections and Emendations

Common Name: Apparent Errors

Contextual Notes: If the writer has apparently written something in error (e.g., a misspelling, an incorrect date), we report it along with whatever we believe the correct text to be.

Element Names: <choice>, <sic>, <corr>

Encoding Rule: We report, inside a <choice> element, both the error, with a <sic> element, and a standard version inside a <corr> element. Compare this encoding rule to the treatment of archaic orthography.

Sample Source Text: book and lead pincel and

Sample Encoding:

<lb/>book and lead <choice><sic>pincel</sic><corr>pencil</corr></choice> and

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Group: Corrections and Emendations

Common Name: Archaic orthography

Contextual Notes: Variant spellings documented in the OED but listed as no longer conventional in the 19th century.

Element Names: <choice>, <orig>, <reg>, <distinct>

Encoding Rule: We encode such spellings differently from apparent spelling errors (i.e., spellings not attested to for any period in the OED), enclosing within a <choice> element both her original spelling (within an <orig> element) and a regularized version (within a <reg> element). Further, within the <orig> element, a <distinct> element contains Smith's text (the <distinct> element identifies "any word or phrase which is regarded as linguistically distinct").

The distinct element contains two attributes: @type with a value of "archaic_orthography" and @time with a value of "CC-CC," where "CC" is the range of centuries for which the OED attests to a given spelling (e.g., "18-18" would designate a spelling identified as conventional only in the 18th century). The <reg> element should contain a single @source attribute with a value of "OED" (the authority used in this edition to identify archaic and regularized spellings).

Note: Variant spellings that the OED identifies as common in the 19th Century are transcribed without comment.

Sample Source Text: a great deal of ruff weather

Sample Encoding:

a great deal of <choice><orig><distinct type="archaic_orthography" time="16-18">ruff</distinct></orig> <reg source="OED">rough</reg></choice> weather.

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Group: Corrections and Emendations

Common Name: Supplied text

Contextual Notes: We add text to the document only if we believe, based on contextual or documentary evidence, that the text was intended or necessary to make sense but inadvertently omitted by the writer.

Element Name: <supplied>

Encoding Rule: Enclose the supplied text within the <supplied> element and provide a @reason attribute (a common value would be “omitted”) and a @resp attribute with the value "ed" for "editor." Include a “source” attribute if another source suggests the reading.

Sample Source Text: Moved two miles out of tow

Sample Encoding:

<lb/>Moved two miles out of tow<supplied reason="omitted" resp="ed">n</supplied>

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Group: Discourse

Common Name: Reported speech or thought

Contextual Notes: This element "indicates passages thought or spoken aloud, whether explicitly indicated in the source or not, whether directly or indirectly reported, whether by real people or fictional characters” (TEI P5).

Element Name: <said>

Encoding Rule: Enclose the reported speech or thought within the <said> element. Use the @aloud attribute (true | false) to "indicate whether the quoted matter is regarded as having been vocalized or signed." Use the @direct attribute to "indicate whether the quoted matter is regarded as direct or indirect speech" (true | false). If the reported speech or thought is enclosed in quotation marks, enclosed the text in a <q> element.

Sample Source Text:

. . . write my journal the first mate came along
and says here is a gold pencil and pen
which I will give you it will be much
handyer for you

Sample Encoding:

<lb/>write my journal the first mate came along
<lb/>and says <said aloud="true" direct="true">here is a gold pencil and pen
<lb/>which I will give you it will be much
<lb/><choice><sic>handyer</sic><corr>handier</corr></choice> for you</said>


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Group: Discourse

Common Name: Quotation

Contextual Notes: This element "contains a phrase or passage attributed by the narrator or author to some agency external to the text” (TEI P5).

Element Name: <quote>

Encoding Rule: Enclose the quoted passage in a <quote> element, including any quotation marks that the writer inscribes. If possible, identify the source of the quotation in an explanatory annotation and provide a bibliographic reference linked to the list of works cited.

Sample Source Text:

" 'Tell her, tell I see
Those eyes, I do not live--that Rome to me
Is hatefull--tell her--oh!--I know not what--
That ever thought and feeling, space and spot,
Is like an ugly dream where she is not;
All persons plagues; all living wearysome;
All talking empty . . .

Sample Encoding:

<quote type="block">
<lb/> " 'Tell her, tell I see
<lb/>Those eyes, I do not live--that Rome to me
<lb/>Is hatefull--tell her--oh!--I know not what--
<lb/>That ever thought and feeling, space and spot,
<lb/>Is like an ugly dream where she is not;
<lb/>All persons plagues; all living wearysome;
<lb/>All talking empty . . .<ptr type="noteAnchor" target="thatRome"/><note
xml:id="thatRome" resp="ed">Identify and contextualize reference here<bibl><ref target="#threeWeeks">(Glyn 178)</ref></bibl></note>
</quote>


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Group: Discourse

Common Name: Linguistically distinct words and phrases

Contextual Notes: This element identifies "any word or phrase which is regarded as linguistically distinct" (TEI P5). For example, in his letters to Gladys Stephens, J. J. McIntyre occasionally imitates what the OED, in its definition of "baby talk," calls "the imperfect speech of a young child."

Element Name: <distinct>

Encoding Rule: We encode such apparently deliberate usages differently from apparent spelling errors, enclosing them within a <distinct> element further specified with an @type attribute with a value indicating the nature of the distinct usage (e.g., in the case of McIntyre's baby talk, the value of the @type attribute will be "babyTalk."

Sample Source Text:

"I said somefing ossle naughty"

Sample Encoding:

I said <distinct type="babyTalk">somefing ossle</distinct> naughty.

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Group: Discourse

Common Name: Lines of verse

Contextual Notes: Where a correspondent includes lines of verse in a letter, we encode those lines to distinguish them textually from lines of prose (encoded in this transcription with <lb/> elements) and to indicate how they are rendered

Element Names: <lg>, <l>

Encoding Rule: Enclose a group of lines of verse in the line group <lg> element. If the verse is presented as complete and identifiable stanza forms, line groups can be nested and a @type attribute for each <lg> element can be used to identify stanzaic forms. Enclose each line of verse in a line <l> element. If the lines of verse are quoted from an external source, follow the encoding guideline for quotations (see above), enclosing the entire line group in a <quote> element.

Sample Source Text:

" 'Tell her, tell I see
Those eyes, I do not live--that Rome to me
Is hatefull--tell her--oh!--I know not what--
That ever thought and feeling, space and spot,
Is like an ugly dream where she is not;
All persons plagues; all living wearysome;
All talking empty . . .

Sample Encoding:

<quote type="block"> <lg>
<lb/> " 'Tell her, tell I see
<lb/>Those eyes, I do not live--that Rome to me
<lb/>Is hatefull--tell her--oh!--I know not what--
<lb/>That ever thought and feeling, space and spot,
<lb/>Is like an ugly dream where she is not;
<lb/>All persons plagues; all living wearysome;
<lb/>All talking empty . . . </lg><ptr type="noteAnchor" target="thatRome"/><note
xml:id="thatRome" resp="ed">Identify and contextualize reference here<bibl><ref target="#threeWeeks">(Glyn 178)</ref></bibl></note>
</quote>


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Group: Handwriting

Common Name: Shift in hand or medium

Contextual Notes: Changes in handwriting from one writer to another or one medium to another are noted in the encoded transcript.

Element Names: <handNotes>, <handShift/>

Encoding Rule: See the sample encoding below for establishing a list of hands in the TEI header. In the text, include the empty <handShift/> element at the point where the handwriting shifts. Include a @new attribute to indicate the writer by the ID established in the <handNotes> list. When transcription returns to the original hand, be sure to indicate that shift as well with another <handShift/> element.

Sample Source Text:

Sample Encoding:

In the TEI Header within the <profileDesc>:
<handNotes>
<handNote xml:id="LADHand" medium="brown-ink">Carefully written; presumably Louisa Doane's hand.</handNote>
<handNote xml:id="H2" medium="pencil">Pencilled notes on endpapers and flyleaves in an unknown hand.</handNote>
</handNotes>
In the body of the journl:
<p><handShift new="#H2"/><add place="top">5/-</add><handShift new="#LADHand"/> text.</p>


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Group: Language

Common Name: Foreign Terms

Contextual Notes: If the writer shifts to a foreign language or uses a foreign term not otherwise distinguished from the text by some other element, we note the shift (by contrast, if the entire contents of an element is in a language different from the surrounding text, the @xml:lang attribute should be used in that element).

Element Name: <foreign>

Encoding Rule: In the TEI header, declare a list of languages used in the document (see example below). In the text, enclose any foreign terms or phrases in a <foreign> element and provide an @xml:lang attribute.

Sample Source Texts: São Vicente, Cabo de; a reliable textual edition is a sine qua non

Sample Encoding:

In the <profileDesc> of the TEI header:
<langUsage>
<language ident="eng">English</language>
<language ident="spa">Spanish</language>
<language ident="por">Portuguese</language>
</langUsage>
In the text of the journal, where the contents of an element are in another language:
<placeName xml:lang="por">São Vicente, Cabo de</placeName>

In the text of the journal, when the foreign term is not the exclusive content of another element:
a reliable textual edition is a <foreign xml:lang="lat">sine qua non</foreign>


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Group: Names

Common Name: Personal names

Contextual Notes: We distinguish between personal names (e.g., "Alex") and referring strings (e.g., “his lady,” “the eternal city"). Further, given the various forms of address that characterized personal documents, we further distinguish between proper names, nicknames, and endearments.

Element Names: <persName>, <addName>, <rs>,

Encoding Rule: For proper names, enclose the name as written with the <persName> element. An "authorized" name for the individual should be included in the TEI Header, and an @ref attribute included in the <perName element> should refer to a <person> element in the <listPerson> element of the TEI Header. Where possible, the <person> element should be populated with information from a standard biographical resources such as the Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) or American National Biography (ANB). The value of the <persName> element in the list of persons in the TEI Header should reflect, if available, the form of the name provided in a standard authority such as the Library of Congress Name Authority. In any case, the source(s) of the information should be noted using a <bibl> element at the end of the listing pointing to a work in the list of works cited with a <note ="biographical"> element to contextualize references to people for whom little or no biographical information is available, or to note variant spellings.

For nicknames and endearments, follow the procedure above, adding an <addName> element within the <persName> element, specifying the <addName> element with a @type attribute whose value is either "nickname" or "endearment" (see examples below).

For words or phrases that refer to a person or group of people without naming him or her, enclose the referring string in an <rs> element containing a @ref attribute referring to the corresponding<person> element in the <listPerson> element of the TEI Header (as above for proper names, nicknames, and endearments). Note: we do not encode personal pronouns as referring strings, primarily to avoid redundant encoding (i.e., we assume that a pronoun will be associated with an antecedent that will be encoded somewhere nearby in the same text).

For more information on the <person> element, see the TEI P5 Guidelines, section 13.3.2, "The Person Element."

Sample Source Text: to hear Uncle A's opinion of me

Sample Encoding:

In the <listPerson> element: <person xml:id="ACS">
<persName>Stephens, Alex C.</persName>
<note type="biographical">In the letter dated August 8, 1909, Gladys
mentions her "Uncle Alex" a number of times. It is apparent that he is facilitating
social connections for her in Texas, prior to her arrival, so we can assume he lives in El Paso.</note>
</person>

In the text:

to hear <persName ref="#ACS"><addName type="nickname">Uncle A's</addName></persName> opinion of me



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Group: Names

Common Name: Place name

Contextual Notes: "A place name (represented using the <placeName> element) may consist of one or more names for hierarchically-organized geo-political or administrative units" (TEI P5). We also distinguish between proper names for places and referring strings (e.g., “the park,” “the eternal city”), encoding the latter with the <rs> element.

Element Name: <placeName>

Encoding Rule: Enclose the name as written with the <placeName> element. If the place can be identified, an "authorized" name for the place should be included in a <place> element within the <listPlace> element in the <sourceDesc> element, and an @ref attribute included in the <placeName> element should point to the <place> element in the <listPlace> element. Where possible, the <place> element should be populated with information from the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN) — see example <desc> element should describe the role of the place in the source text.

For more information about the <place> element, see the TEI P5 Guidelines, section 13.3.4, "Places."

Sample Source Text: she had been to Canton

Sample Encoding:

In the <listPlace> element in the <sourceDesc>:

<place type="city" xml:id="Canton" source="#TGN">
<placeName xml:lang="chi">Guangzhou</placeName>
<placeName xml:lang="eng">Canton</placeName>
<desc>In an entry dated August 1, 1852, Doane notes that Captain Fisher's wife had visited Canton.</desc>
<country>China</country>
<region>Canton (province)</region>
<location>
<geo>23.1333 113.3333</geo>
</location>
</place>

In the text of the journal:

she had been to <placeName ref="#Canton">Canton</placeName>


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Group: Names

Common Name: Geographical names

Contextual Notes: "Places may also be named in terms of geographic features such as mountains, lakes, or rivers, independently of geo-political units. The <geogName> element is provided to mark up such names, as an alternative to the <placeName> element discussed above" (TEI P5). We also distinguish between proper names and referring strings (e.g., “the hill”), the latter being encoded with the <rs> element (see below).

Element Name: <geogName>

Encoding Rule: Enclose the name as written with the <geogName> element. If the place can be identified, an "authorized" name for the place should be included in a <place> element within the <listPlace> element in the <sourceDesc>, and an @ref attribute included in the <geogName element> should point to the <place> element in the <listPlace> element. Where possible, the <place> element should be populated with information Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN) — see example below).

See below for guidance on encoding latitude and longitude coordinates.

Sample Source Text: We are off Cape Horn. Latitude 58=43 Longitude 68=30 South

Sample Encoding:

In the text of the journal:
<lb/> . . . We are off <geogName ref="#CHorn">Cape Horn</geogName>. <geogName ref="#OCHorn">Latitude 58=43 <lb/>Longitude 68=30 South</geogName> . . .

In the <listPlace> element:
<listPlace> . . . . <place type="landmark" xml:id="CHorn" source="#TGN">
<geogName xml:lang="spa">Hornos, Cabo de</geogName>
<geogName xml:lang="eng">Cape Horn</geogName>
<country>Chile</country>
<region>Magallanes-Antártica</region>
<location><geo>-55.9833 -67.2667</geo></location>
</place>


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Group: Names

Common Name: Referring String

Contextual Notes: "A referring string is a phrase which refers to some person, place, object, etc." (TEI P5)

Element Name: <rs>

Encoding Rule: The <rs> element should be used only when the antecedant of a referring string can be further identied. For example, we would not encode references to "the steward" with an <rs> element if we cannot further identify the steward. <rs> elements should contain an @ref attribute that points to an element in the TEI Header that identifies the person, place, or object named.

Sample Source Text:

father is feeding them with fresh

Sample Encoding:

In the header: <particDesc>
<listPerson type="mentioned"> <person xml:id="END">
<persName>Doane, Edmund N.</persName>
<occupation>master mariner</occupation>
<birth when="1809-08-28">
<placeName>Chatham, MA</placeName>
</birth>
<death notBefore="1865-08-11" notAfter="1865-08-13">
<placeName>Chatham, MA</placeName>
</death>
<event type="marriage" when="1831-12-31">
<desc>Edmund N. Doane married Almira Thacher</desc>
</event>
<bibl><ref target="#NYGBR">NYGBR</ref>374</bibl>
</person>
. . .
In the text: <rs ref="#END">father</rs> is feeding them with fresh

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Group: Page Layout

Common Name: Page Break

Contextual Notes: Marks page breaks in the manuscript.

Element Name: <pb/>

Encoding Rule: The page break appears at the beginning of each page of the transcript, including the first. It includes an @facs attribute whose value is the filename of the page scan.

Sample Encoding:

<pb facs="LCSmith-620803"/>

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Group: Page Layout

Common Name: Line Break

Contextual Notes: Lines may be difficult to determine. For instance, if Smith adds a word or phrase between two lines of a journal entry, the added text would not constitute a line. If in doubt, consult with the principal editor.

Element Name: <lb/>

Encoding Rule: Encode the beginning of each line of the text with a <lb> tag. The tag should not be followed by a space. If a softhyphen connects two lines, the hyphen and following <lb/> element should be enclosed in a <seg> tag with an @type attribute with the value "softhyphen."

Sample Source Text: waves. All our baggage being a-
board

Sample Encoding:

Line break including a word broken across lines and indicated with a hyphen
<lb/>waves. All our baggage being a<seg type=”softhyphen”>- <lb/></seg>board Line break including a word broken across lines without a hyphen
<lb/>waves. All our baggage being a<seg type=”softhyphen”> <lb/></seg>board


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Group: Physical damage

Common Name: Tears, stains, or other damage.

Contextual Notes: Used when physical damage is present but does not render the source unreadable (e.g., a stain or torn page.

Element Name: <damage>

Encoding Rule: The <damage> element optionally includes @extent, @unit, and @agent attributes. For an inkblot partially covering a word or words, describe the extent as the number of words affected. For a tear, provide approximate dimensions in centimeters.

Sample Source Text: But to [torn page]

Sample Encoding:

But to<damage agent="wax seal apparently tore page when letter opened" extent="2" unit="cm"/>

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Group: Punctuation

Common Name: Soft-hyphen

Contextual Notes: Manuscripts often break words across lines with a hyphen at the end of the first line, a colon or equal sign at the beginning of the second line, with some other mark, or with no mark. We encode such marks in order to suppress them in presentations whose line breaks don’t match those of the manuscript.

Element Name: <seg>

Encoding Rule: If the author breaks a word across two lines, encode the end-of-line or beginning-of-line hyphen (or mark) with the <seg> tag and a “type” attribute with the value “softhyphen.” <seg> element includes the <lb/> element.

Sample Source Text:
we are not able to get out till tom
=orrow we will not

Sample Encoding:

Mark at the end of a line: <lb/>we are not able to get out till tom<seg type="softhyphen">- <lb/></seg>orrow we will not
Mark at the beginning of line: <lb/>we are not able to get out till tom<seg type="softhyphen"> <lb/>=</seg>orrow we will not No mark: <lb/>we are not able to get out till tom<seg type="softhyphen"> <lb/></seg>orrow we will not


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Group: Punctuation

Common Name: Em Dash

Contextual Notes: Encode any single long dash (not hyphens) as an em dash or as a hexadecimal Unicode character. Note, if you type the em dash from your keyboard, make sure that the character is identified as U+2014 when the insertion point is placed to the left of the character.

Entity Name: &#x2014;

Encoding Rule: Do not add white space around the character entity.

Sample Source Text: Some text—some following text

Sample Encoding:

Some text&#x2014;some following text

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Group: Punctuation

Common Name: Hyphen

Contextual Notes: “True” hyphens—hyphens considered part of the conventional spelling of a word—can simply be entered as hyphens. If, by chance, they appear at the end of a line, they are typed as “true” hyphens rather than soft-hyphens in order to retain them even in reformatted lines. In that special case, the following <lb/> element would need to be entered on the same line in the editor to avoid invoking a default space.

Element Name: NA

Encoding Rule: Enter hyphens as hyphens.

Sample Source Text: top-heavy load

Sample Encoding: top-heavy load



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Group: Rich Media

Common Name: Graphics and other non-textual components (TEI P5 §3.9)

Contextual Notes: To embed or link to images, video, or Web pages, we will employ the <figure> element.

Element Name: <figure>

Encoding Rule: The <figure> element should contain an @rend attribute with one of two values, "link" or "embed," depending on whether the text should link to the graphic element or the graphic element should be embedded inline in the text. The <figure> element contains a short <head> element which is used as the anchor of a link or the caption of an embedded image. It also contains a <graphic> element with a @url attribute whose value points to the source of the image, and a <figDesc> element whose content serves as a alternative textual description of the image (to facilitate accessibility and searching). An embedded image can also contain an @n attribute designating the desired width of the image in the online edition.

Sample Source Text: [an image of the front cover of the journal]

Sample Encoding:

<figure rend="embed" n="250">
<head>Front Cover</head>
<graphic url="./image-lcs-diary_fcover.jpg"/>
<figDesc>
Front Cover
</figDesc>
</figure>

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Group: Structure

Common Name: Dateline (and date)

Contextual Notes: Typically appears either on a separate line or run-in with the first paragraph in the <dateline> of each diary entry. Dates may appear anywhere in the text.

Element Name: <dateline>

Encoding Rule: The <dateline> element includes a <date> element, which should have a @when attribute with a value listing the date in "YYYY-MM-DD" format. Only the date should be included in the <date> element; other information, such as the time of day or location, should be encoded within the <dateline> element according to other rules in these guidelines. Note that the<lb/> element before the dateline in the following example lies outside the first paragraph, indicating that the dateline and paragraph begin on the same line but are distinct textual structures. If the <dateline> appeared on its own line before the first paragraph of the entry, then the <dateline> element would be preceded by a <lb/> element, and the first line of the <p> element would be preceded by a <lb/> element.

If you encounter an entry that spans multiple, clearly identifiable dates, you should use @from and @to attributes with the <date> element:

<date from="1862-08-04" to="1862-08-05">Monday 4th <lb/> and Tues 5th Aug 1862</date>

If you encounter an entry that spans multiple dates that you can't identify with certainty, but you can determine "bounding" dates from internal or external evidence, you can use the @notBefore and @notAfter attributes:

<date notBefore="1862-08-04" notAfter="1862-08-05">Morning</date>

Sample Source Text: Feb. friday 6. At eleven p m we

Sample Encoding:

Dateline and first line of first paragraph on the same line:
<lb/><dateline><date when="1851-05-07">Feb. friday 6</date>.</dateline><p>At eleven p m we. . . . <lb/>. . .

Dateline and first line of first paragraph on different lines:
<lb/><dateline><date when="1851-05-07">Feb. friday 6</date>.</dateline> <p> <lb/>At eleven p m we. . . . <lb/>. . .



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Group: Structure

Common Name: Paragraph

Contextual Notes: Paragraphs may be indicated in the Smith manuscript by indenting first lines, by starting a new line without filling a line on the page, and/or by leaving white space between paragraphs.

Element Name: <p>

Encoding Rule: Surround paragraphs and all elements contained in the paragraph with the <p> tag. Note that, in the body of a diary entry, paragraphs must appear within <div> element.

Sample Source Text:

Wrote a letter to Sam Smith and done my diary Writing went over to Millers Eavning

Sample Encoding:

<p>
<lb/>Wrote a
<lb/>letter to Sam Smith and done my diary
<lb/>Writing went over to <persName>Millers</persName> <time><choice><sic>Eavning</sic><corr>Evening</corr></choice></time>
</p>



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Group: Titles

Common Name: Title

Contextual Notes: Refers to titles of works, not honorific titles such as “Captain.”

Element Name: <title>

Encoding Rule: The title element takes a @level attribute, which indicates whether the title refers to an article, monograph, journal, series, or unpublished material, indicated as a, m, j, s, or u, respectively, thus making it possible to distinguish among such titles when processing and rendering them. The <title> element may also contain an @ref attribute pointing to an entry within a <listBibl> element elsewhere in the TEI document.

Sample Source Text: Lord of the Rings

Sample Encoding:

<title ref="#LOR" level=”m”>Lord of the Rings</title>

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