-- Earl Lockhart, 1 January 1941
Ernest Earl Lockhart
On New Year's Day 1941, a 28-year-old poised between a great adventure and his return home, Lockhart composed an especially reflective journal entry in which he assesses the lessons learned during his stay in Antarctica and his future prospects: he writes, "Home again! What visions in the future that small phrase conjures up!"
Lockhart's New Year's reverie captures much of the content and character of the journal represented in this edition. For instance, Lockhart and other members of the USASE were never as isolated from home as explorers in earlier eras. Thanks in part to a network of amateur radio operators, expedition members could regularly exchange radiograms—like the ones included in this edition—with family and friends back home. The scientific work to which Lockhart regularly refers no doubt constituted the raison d'être of the expedition for Lockhart and the members of the expedition's various science teams, but their work required support from surveyors, medics, photographers, pilots, mechanics, carpenters, cooks, navigators, radio operators, quartermasters, tank and tractor drivers, and dog drivers. Lockhart regularly helps with such support work, in the process learning "the meaning of work and what a working man thinks about the type of work not requiring a strong back and plenty of perspiration." He takes particular interest in the dog teams and, to a lesser degree, in the performance of various support vehicles—two aircraft, a tank, and a tractor. No doubt, the looming prospect of war—already underway in Europe—lent particular importance for the expedition's leaders to testing logistics and equipment for moving personnel and materiel in extreme conditions, though Lockhart never specifically mentions the war or the activities of other nations in Antarctica in these early years of World War II. Finally, we should note that expedition members' time wasn't completely filled with work. Weather, logistics, and concern for morale all provided opportunities for rest and relaxation, and Lockhart at times reflects on his reading and on movies shown at the base. In one journal entry concerning his reading of Gone with the Wind, this young New Englander takes the opportunity to ask "some of the Southern boys here" about the South, which he admits "has been a mystery to me and no doubt to countless other Americans." In what follows, drawing whenever possible on contemporary sources, we provide further historical context that we hope will enrich readers' understanding of the lifeworld to which Lockhart's journal entries refer.
Scientific Work of the USASE
The USASE engaged in many types of scientific work. The expedition team included twenty-one scientists representing seventeen different areas of expertise, including auroral phenomenon, bacteriology, botany, cosmic rays, glaciology, magnetism, medicine, meteorology, micropaleontology, ornithology, petrography, petrology, physiography, physiology, seismology, structural geology and zoology. Many different types of experiments were planned for the expedition, but in the face of harsh Antarctic conditions some were barely started, revised, dropped altogether, or replaced with new experiments better suited to taking advantage of unforeseen opportunities (Wade, Alton).
Lockhart served as a physiologist stationed at the USASE West Base, where much research focused on Antarctic weather. Lockhart often mentions the use of radiosonde balloons, 190 of which were deployed by the USASE. The radiosonde experiments revealed that the stratosphere disappeared during the Antarctic winter and had unexpected warmth during the summer (Court, Arnold). One of the most noteable outcomes of the USASE is the development of the Wind Chill Factor, discovered by Paul A. Siple and Charles Passel in 1941. They measured "the time it took 250 grams of water in a plastic container to freeze under a variety of wind and temperature conditions" (Gerew, Gary). USASE researchers also studied Antarctic biology.
Jack E. Perkins, the only biologist at West Base, relied heavily on others' help with finding and studying various plants and animals. Often, when teams returned from the trail, they would bring back a plant or animal specimen to add to the biologist’s collection (Perkins 270). In a paper published in the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society in 1945, Perkins discusses the botanical findings of West Base leader Paul A. Siple and notes that there is still much work to be done to properly document these discoveries. Perkins reports on eighteen different types of birds and four types of seals, and very briefly mentions two whale species. In talking about the seals and birds, Perkins consistently notes where, when, and under what conditions each specimen was found. Knowing that he had less than a year in Antarctica to find, examine, and document each animal, Perkins was intent on recording these basic facts to make further biological study easier for whoever came along next, much as his predecessors had done for him.
On a previous Antarctic expedition, three "Weddell’s Seals" had been branded so that subsequent scientists could find them and potentially learn about seal migration patterns and living habits (279). Seals were especially important to the 1939-1941 expedition and played a significant part in determining the location of West Base; the base needed to be located close to a large colony of seals because the seals were the sole source of food for the sled dogs, and in the event of the ships not being able to come back to the base on schedule, the men would need an alternate food source to survive (277). Perkins notes that the Washington National Zoo requested that the expedition bring live animals from the West Base area to the US to be put in the zoo (281-281). Unfortunately, no seals and only a few penguins made it back to the States. However, many seal skins and even seal embryos were taken back to the US to be displayed in the United States National Museum, the original name for the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History (279). In the early 1900s, the US National Museum was known for the quality of its taxidermy ("United States National Museum (1881-1911)"). Presumably, the skins and pelts supplied by the USASE were stuffed and put on display.
The USASE piqued the interest of the world and set the ground work for future scientific expeditions to Antarctica.
Sled dog teams, whose roots lie far beyond their late 19th-century popularization, share a relationship with their masters marked not only by deep affection but also a certain measure of calculated cruelty. Indigenous peoples of Arctic North America, Siberia and Greenland used sled dogs widely, and it "was in Siberia that dog-driving was first adapted to geographic exploration" (Florio 13). This use spread to the rest of Russia by the 17th-18th centuries, the cartographical records left from Russian explorers inspiring the 1890s development of planned sled team use by Norwegian and American explorers. Fridhtjof Nansen's Arctic expedition, although a failure, revealed the usefulness of sled dogs, as "the use of dogs and sleds brought him closer to [the Arctic] than any previous explorer" (Florio 36). The perhaps most famous explorer to use sled dogs was the American explorer Robert Peary, who succeeded in reaching the North Pole through his innovation that when "dogs gave out, unable to keep pace, they were fed to the others" (as cited in American Geographical Society, 685). There had been forced cannibalism among the Nansen expedition's dogs, but that was primarily based on starvation and the needs of the surviving dogs and men, not as means of furthering the expedition's goals. A strange mixture of love and cruel efficiency seems to be present in subsequent polar expeditons, such as Amundsen overseeing on his expedition to the South Pole circumstances that he described as "Twenty-four of our faithul comrades had to die. The place where this happened was named the 'Slaughter House'" (Amundsen 833). The bizarre mixture of deep affection and slaughter makes the killing of the dogs seem almost like fratricide. Lockhart's deep admiration and love of the dogs on his own expedition may or may not have been tempered with the knowledge that so many of their fellow animals were butchered by men who loved them as much as he did.
Though the USASE had planes and tractors at their disposal, dog sled teams continued to be an immensely important mode of travel. At least 150 dogs were purchased for the trip from Chinook Kennels, including Alaskan Malamutes, Eskimos, and Siberian Huskies. Additionally, the Department of the Interior purchased 18 puppies ("Records Regarding Sled Dogs on USASE 1939-41"). There were 74 named dogs between the ages of 5 months and 7 years included on the official reports made for the expedition. Gaines dog food won the contract to supply feed and the expedition purchased 35 tons of food from them before setting off (Innes-Taylor). The food was low in fat and was meant to be a supplement for the fresh seal meat they would kill for the dogs in the Antarctic. They purchased food high in fat as well, just in case there wasn’t enough seal to provide for all the dogs for the entirety of the expedition (O'Connel). Prior to leaving for Antarctica, Hollis Richardson was responsible for making sure the dogs were trained properly and were ready for the expedition. Richardson, who would be in charge of the dogs on the expedition support ship Bear and one of the head dog drivers during the expedition, was an award-winning dog racer throughout the 1930s ("Hollis Richardson"). Richardson's credentials show the thoughtful planning of the administrators and the skill of the men who took care of the dogs. Including Richardson, 11 dog drivers went on the expedition. Of those 11, five exclusively handled the dogs. The others also held a variety of positions, including Geologist, in the case of Raymond A. Butler, and Biologist, in the case of Carl Beklund (Personnel, 1939-1940).
While Lockhart is not listed as a dog driver, he had experience with the dogs for extended periods of time. Just before he began this journal, Lockhart was out on the trail with the Biological Party from October through December 1940. His account of his excursion included nearly daily mentions of the dogs. Because of the additional transportation provided by the planes, the men and dogs on the trail were able to receive supplies from the base. The planes brought food for both the human and canine members of Lockhart’s trail party, eliminating the need to kill the dogs for feed. Additionally, Lockhart mentions how one dog was injured and rode in the sled for a day to recover (Lockhart, "Trail Journal"). These entries suggest that the attitude towards the dogs on this expedition was more lenient and, to modern readers, more humane. After the expedition, a number of the men took sled dogs home with them. Special care was taken to place the remaining ones in appropriate homes and farms (Seeley). Lockhart’s and the other expedition members' relationships with the dogs during their time in the Antarctic reflect both the importance of the dogs to Antarctic exploration and the changing attitudes and practices in dog travel as technology advanced.
Other Nations' Activities in Antarctica ca. 1939-1941
Although never directly mentioned by Dr. Lockhart, the presence of other countries in the Antarctic was a significant issue during the time leading up to and during the 1939-1941 polar expedition. Prior to 1939, the “United States never [had] registered an official claim” to any territory in the Antarctic, neither did it recognize the claims of other countries ("Byrd’s Ship Making Ready For New Trip"; Day 350). However, with the looming threat of World War II in 1939, as claims and activities in the Antarctic by other countries – particularly Japan and Nazi Germany – increased, so did the perceived need to establish a permanent United States base (Day 331). For example, March 1939 opened with the report that “Japan has the right to certain snow-covered territory in the Antarctic” due to the discovery of the territory by Lieutenant Nobe Shirase “who in 1912 touched the area in a 200-ton vessel”; the chairman of the Nobeoka Agriculture Association, Kojiro Hiyoshi, speaking before a farmers’ convention, convinced audience members to send a telegram to the government drawing its attention to the matter, during which time he cried out “Let the Rising Sun be unfurled over the South Pole!” ("Japan Urged To Claim Territory"). Nazi Germany was also making its presence known around this time when the country “staked out her first colony outside Europe” by “proposing to take possession of about 230,000 square miles of Antarctic territory . . . over which Norway proclaimed sovereignty last January” ("Reich To Defend Antarctic Colony"). According to official statements made by the government, this claimed land was serving the German people “in every respect, scientifically, economically and politically,” dismissing Norway’s claim to the area by right of discovery as “purely theoretical” ("Reich To Defend Antarctic Colony"). Both instances of land being claimed by other nations suggested trouble for the United States government, which viewed the nation's lack of activity on the continent as a potential weakness.
Hence, as a result of such stories concerning Antarctica and its territory, President Roosevelt proposed another American expedition to the Antarctic “organised jointly by the Departments of State, War, and the Navy and the Interior,” which would act as a much grander gesture on the part of the US government, as opposed to a small, privately funded expedition as previous ones had been (Day 331). By July 1939, in order to “to prevent possible extension of Germany’s claims to Antarctic areas in the Western Hemisphere,” Roosevelt had placed Admiral Byrd in charge of what would be the Admiral’s third expedition to the Antarctic, directing Byrd to “leave early in October on another South Polar Expedition intended to substantiate American claims to territory” ("President Directs Speed on Byrd Trip"). Despite delays in obtaining Congressional funding, approval of the expedition worked in Byrd and Roosevelt’s favor as its proposal coincided with Germany and other countries' territorial claims (Day 336-337). The expedition additionally had public favor with one reporter noting that, despite the fact that America may not initially see any real material gains from an expedition, it remained that “in a century, or even a shorter period, the Antarctic may have its uses for the civilized world” thereby prompting precautionary land claims and leading the writer of the article to conclude that “the fact that Great Britain, Germany, Norway and other countries have shown a desire to secure claims on Antarctic territory impels the United States to take a leading part in exploring and mapping that area” ("For Posterity"). Thus, while Dr. Lockhart was not directly involved in such territorial issues, his (and the other members of the expedition) presence in the Antarctic was in and of itself a reflection of the geopolitics of the continent.
Reading and Recreation
When this journal begins on December 25, 1940, Lockhart's Biological Party had just hurried back from their sledging journey to make it in time for Christmas Dinner ("Byrd's Men Rush" 2). The men enjoyed their special dinner that evening, just as they had enjoyed a special Thanksgiving Dinner as seen in a photograph in the December 6 New York Times ("Thanksgiving Day Feast" 20). On Christmas Day, Lockhart wrote that he had "nursed a pint for two and a half months." Lockhart does not discuss drinking or smoking other than this instance, but the men apparently enjoyed smoking; several newspaper ads for Camel cigarettes claimed that they were the brand of choice smoked by the Antarctic explorers. The February 14, 1939 Cleveland Plain Dealer proclaimed: "Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, commanding, explained, 'Slow-burning Camels are a great favorite with us. You can be sure we have plenty'" ("Off To Voluntary Exile"9).
Back on base after their journey, Lockhart says that the men traded their hectic schedule for the "not so rigorous one of the base." When the men weren't doing chores or busy with their expedition duties, they were free to rest and relax. Lockhart mentions how the group got into the habit of "sleeping days and staying up nights." The men seemed to enjoy telling stories or "chewing the fat" as Lockhart puts it, skiing and walking with the dogs, and target practicing with the skua gulls. Photographs from the Charles Passel collection capture the men hanging around in their "off time" and talking during some down time and chasing penguins. Other activities not mentioned by Lockhart but referenced in articles included various games. According to an article in the November 22, 1939 The Washington Times, "Visitors to the North Star here found the crew well-equipped for a long stay in the polar region, with provisions for entertainment as well as work. Aboard are more than 100 games, including two billiard tables, softballs, cards, darts, checkers, chess and backgammon" ("Byrd's North Star Sails 9"). There were also are portable radios and phonographs, and Charles Passel had a clarinet while Pete Petras played the ukelele.
Watching Dodge City
for the 45th Time
Lockhart spent much of his free time reading. The expedition's library was apparently well stocked: "Well in excess of 100 firms and individuals contributed money, supplies, and equipment to the expedition, including . . . books" ( "Richard E. Byrd: Byrd Antarctic Expedition"). Lockhart dedicated a good portion of his journal to reflections on his reading material, and he drew connections between his Antarctic experience and books he had previously read. Sometimes he became so involved in his reading that he spent the majority of a day with a book and negelected his duties. The first book that Lockhart discusses in the journal is Death Sails with Magellan which he mentions on December 26 and December 28. Lockhart comments, "Charles Ford the author certainly had done a marvellous job in this book. I shall have to get it for my own library when I get home." A review in the December 12, 1937 Washington Post said it was a "dignified and honest book . . . It is the answer to those in doubt about about a book for a boy who has graduated from Robinson Crusoe, but is not ready for Conrad or Maugham" ("New Fiction Guide"). Other books that Lockhart mentions are South Moon Under, Homo Versus Mr. Darwin, and The Descent of Man. He mentioned purchasing Homo Versus Mr. Darwin in New Zealand to read along with The Descent of Man, which he had at home.
Lockhart dedicated long passages of his journal to Margaret Mitchell's bestselling Gone with the Wind. While he initially hoped that the book wouldn’t "take too much of my time" on December 29, he got so caught up in reading it that he skipped an entire day's journal entry and stayed up most of the night reading on December 30. Reviewers from 1936 and 1937 described Gone With the Wind as a "monumental novel of the civil war era. From its 1,037 pages . . . emerge several vivid characters representative of plantation culture . . . it is likely to become the season's most talked about novel. Critical praise is running high" ( "Gone With the Wind," Cleveland Plain Dealer 51 ). Lockhart's December 31 journal entry is filled with his thoughts about the book, the American South, and the lingering effects of the Civil War on 1940s America. Lockhart wrote, "I do begin to get the idea underlying all of the hatred that has been instilled in the present generation by parents, grand parents or even great grand parents the latter of whom were the younger generations of those never-to-be-forgotten days . . . no one can say 'that's all ancient History' because in the South, as far as I can gather from some of the Southern boys here, the Civil War is still being fought with almost the same intensity as in the days of the actual war itself." The July 12, 1936 Washington Post echoed Lockhart's sentiment: "Miss Mitchell . . . knows the South and its history . . . the defeated South was made to suffer such bitter humiliation and punishment that the Northern armies would have been far more merciful if they had killed every man, woman, and child outright than to have left them to endure what they had to face after that last battle was fought. Their devout faith in Southern superiority had resulted in not only a wreckage of lives but in hurts too deep ever to heal" ("Old South" B8).
Lockhart also reflected on Hunters of the Great North. Like Death Sails with Magellan, this book seemed to be geared toward younger boys; it appeared in the May 19, 1923 Chicago Daily Tribune in a list titled "Here is a List of Books of Interest to Boys" (9). From this book Lockhart said he was "learning a great deal . . . and was especially please (sic) to come across a passage on dog driving which was my theory of dog driving in black and white." Lockhart reflected that his treatment of the sled dogs was similar to the way the Eskimos treated their dogs in the book: "I do whip a lead dog when he won't keep his line tight but only to convince the dog that he is doing something wrong. These dogs are so intelligent that they know when they aren't working as they should. I never beat a dog and never hit one hard enough to lame it or make it sore." He continued to reflect on his interaction with the dog Sheila and his work with dog training and obedience.
This "off time" (as Passel's photograph labeled it) back at the camp allowed for relaxation and reflection. The men interacted with one another and with their environment, and Lockhart's reflections about his reading reveal his own as well as contemporary attitudes about culture and the lasting effects of the journey to Antarctica.
Testing Equipment in Antarctic Conditions
Adapting scientific and transport equipment for the extreme cold, strong winds, and rugged terrain of Antarctica posed many challenges, and Lockhart records a litany of problems. In his entry for December 29, 1940, Lockhart mentions Theodore "Pete" Petras having trouble centrifuging skua blood; he does not mention if this had anything to do with the cold but suggests adding oxalate to the blood to keep it from coagulating. A few days earlier, Lockhart complains about the difficulty of clearing the stopcocks on the Haldane apparatus—a device used for gas testing in the lower atmosphere. On another occasion, Lockhart notes that the tractor had fallen into a cravasse and, upon being bulled out, fell into a smaller one. On December 31, 1940, Lockhart mentions that the tractor party wanted to abandon the tractor because it sank up to its belly even when unloaded. Similarly, the Snow Cruiser ran into many problems. A ramp had to be constructed to get the Snow Cruiser off the boat upon arrival at the West Base, but one of the Cruiser's giant wheels broke through the ramp. To make matters worse, the Cruiser's wheels were smooth and did not provide traction in snow and ice. The crew put spare tires on the front wheels and chains on the rear tires, but traction could only be gained by driving the vehicle backward. It's longest journey was 92 miles, completely in reverse! And the Condor biplane had to be abandoned after its number four cylinder failed, and the piston broke through the cowling.
During the expedition, much of the testing and exploration was photographed—for example, photomapping, origninally pioneered by Richard E. Byrd for an expedition in the 1930s, was used for the USASE ("Richard E. Byrd"), but photographic equipment was greatly affected by the severe cold of the Antarctic. Camera lenses could easily freeze or become fogged from condensation.(Photography in Extreme Cold).
Edward J. Day (WLMC)
Courtesy November 1941 QST
Communication with the world outside of the expedition was vital to the USASE's mission and morale. In later writings, for instance, Lockhart mentions being able to relay some of his research data to people back in the US and incorporating current scientific data into his work. Similarly, Lockhart mentions several times how fortunate he feels to be able to have contact with his family back home. Even at the bottom of the Earth, the radiograms and "mail bags" helped expedition members feel connected to their loved ones and colleagues.
About the Source Documents
Author: Ernest Earl Lockhart (1912-2006)
Title: "Journal covering period Dec 25 1940 until return home about May 1st 1941 "
Extent: 118 pp.
Collection: Ernest Earl Lockhart Collection, Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, The Ohio State University
ID and Location: RG 56.206 — Box 1 / Folder 11 / Location 054-846-7
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Collation: The journal contains 118 pages arranged as follows: 1 (blank paste-down endpaper); 2 (blank except for "1/9" written in the upper right-hand corner); 3 (blank except for "1" written in the upper left-hand corner; 4-40 (journal entries on pages numbered 1 through 37 consecutively, odd numbers in the upper right-hand corners, even numbers in the upper left-hand corners of pages); 41-117 (blank pages); 118 (list of outgoing mail on a paste-down endpaper). The text block consists of a gathering of four quires of 6, 20, 16, and 18 leaves—including the paste-down endpapers in the first and last quires—sewn through the fold and glued to the binding.
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Binding: The binding consists of dark brown leather over buckram-wrapped boards. The leather is worn and chipped, exposing buckram, and the front cover is embossed with "THE ACADEMY" (centered) and "REORDER NO. 411" (lower righthand corner). The spine is unmarked. The top, bottom, and fore-edge of the text block are stippled.
Loose Radiograms: Twenty-five loose radiograms are tucked inside the back cover of the bound journal. The radiograms fall into two groups: typed copies of radiograms Lockhart received via the Army Amateur Radio System from friends and family, and typed drafts of outgoing messages. The incoming radiograms are all on cream-colored onionskin measuring 20.2 cm wide by 13.5 cm tall with two spiral binding holes along one edge (in all but one case at the top of the message). The outgoing messages are on heavier cream-colored paper, most measuring 21.6 cm wide by 14 cm tall except for three from April 1941 measuring 21.5 cm wide by 17.6 cm tall.
Publication: Unpublished manuscripts.
Availability: The Ernest E. Lockhart journal represented in this edition is the property of the Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program (BPRCAP) of The Ohio State University, which has granted the editors permission to publish this edition of the manuscripts. The original journal is held in Box 1, Folder 11 of the Ernest Earl Lockhart Collection, BPRCAP. For a complete inventory to the Lockhart Collection, please see http://rave.ohiolink.edu/archives/ead/OhCoUBP0006. This edition is published under a Creative Commons license (see below). Any use of the edition should acknowledge the BPRCAP and the editors of the journal.
Columbus, OH, 2014-04-23.
About the Electronic Edition
Title: Ernest Earl Lockhart's Antarctic Journal, 25 December 1940 to 16 January 1941
Editors: Erin Kathleen Cahill, Moriah Cheatham, Meg Edison, Alan Keep, Caitlin Hurdley, Rachel S. Layfield, Louis M. Maraj, Kathy Mielecki, Francis Pellicciaro, Tamika Smith, H. Lewis Ulman, Adam J. Waisanen.
Creation of digital scans of manuscript pages: ArcaSearch.
Creation of initial machine-readable transcript: Erin Kathleen Cahill, Moriah Cheatham, Meg Edison, Alan Keep, Caitlin Hurdley, Rachel S. Layfield, Louis M. Maraj, Kathy Ann Mielecki, Francis Pellicciaro, Tamika Smith, H. Lewis Ulman, Adam J. Waisanen.
Conversion to TEI.2-conformant markup: Erin Kathleen Cahill, Moriah Cheatham, Meg Edison, Alan Keep, Caitlin Hurdley, Rachel S. Layfield, Louis M. Maraj, Kathy Mielecki, Francis Pellicciaro, Tamika Smith, H. Lewis Ulman, Adam J. Waisanen.
This edition is the latest in a series of collaboratively produced electronic editions of previously unpublished nineteenth- and twentieth-century American manuscripts held in the Special Collections of The Ohio State University Libraries. Previous editions include "My Dear Elizabeth," five letters written by Sophia Peabody Hawthorne to her sister Elizabeth Palmer Peabody between ca. 1837 and 1868; "Dear Wife," twenty-one letters written by riverboat captain William B. Anderson to his wife Louisa while he plied the Ohio river during the height of the American Civil War, 1862–1864; "Journal of a Tour to Europe," by Samuel Sullivan Cox; and "Louisa A. Doane's Journal of Two Ocean Voyages (1852-1853). These documentary editions are intended to provide wide exposure and access to manuscripts that might otherwise be difficult for scholars to discover and consult, and to provide users with a variety of tools for studying those texts.
Each text was edited in connection with an undergraduate or graduate course offered by H. Lewis Ulman, Associate Professor of English at The Ohio State University. The courses provided students with an opportunity to explore issues of textuality and mediation that arise when our cultural archives spread from page to screen and from library shelves to networked databases. Electronic textual editing serves as our vehicle for examining what happens—and envisioning what might happen—when artifacts in one medium are represented in another medium, especially with regard to the interpretive work of reading. Electronic textual editions also provide a contact zone that can help us reflect on what manuscript, print, and "born digital" artifacts can tell us about their unique properties and their relationships to one another.
While providing a reliable textual edition is a sine qua non, the Lockhart edition also explores ways of telling four stories inextricably woven into our work: the lives and historical milieu evoked by the texts, the history of the physical journal, the editorial process that gave rise to this particular interpretation of the text, and the mediation of our electronic delivery system.
The editors would like to thank The Ohio State University Libraries for permission to publish this edition of Earl Lockhart's Antarctic journal and to incorporate images of the manuscript held in the Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program. Laura Kissel, Polar Curator, introduced the principal editor to the Lockhart journal and suggested that he and his students edit the volume. Throughout our work on the edition, she has provided invaluable research assistance.
The Ernest Earl Lockhart Papers were donated to the Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program by Paul Koulouris, nephew and executor of the Helen S. Lockhart Estate (Helen was Earl Lockhart's wife). Earl Lockhart's nephews Paul Koulouris and George Lockhart, and George's mother Mary Guernsey Lockhart, provided the editors with information about Earl Lockhart's family and early life.
We would also like to thank Steve Ewald and Maty Weinberg of the American Radio Relay League (ARRL) for their assistance with research into radiograms associated with this project. Their research enabled us to identify articles in QST magazine that shed light on the impact of radiograms on the mission and accomplishments of the United States Antarctic Service Expedition.
This edition also depends on technical support from a number of organizations and individuals at The Ohio State University. The College of Arts and Sciences provided Web hosting during the development of the project. High-resolution images of the manuscipt pages were housed on the Colleges of the Arts and Sciences Media Manager application, which provided the editors with zoomable views and numerous detail views of the manuscript pages on the fly, all from archived master images. George Abraham, Web Applications Developer, and Allen Coleman, Digital Library Developer, offered frequent advice and encouragement for our custom applications of the Media Manager image server.
Finally, we would like to thank the Digital Media Project (DMP) in the Department of English at The Ohio State University, which provided classroom support for the editorial team. The former director of the DMP, Professor Scott Lloyd Dewitt, generously allocated funds from the DMP to purchase a classroom license for the specialized XML-editing software used by the editorial team, and DMP Manager Amy Spears provided invaluable support.
Scanning. The manuscript pages were scanned at 300 dots per inch (dpi) in an RGB color space by the vendor, ArcaSearch, and saved in three file formats: PDF, JPEG, and JPEG2000.
Production Location of Digital Assets. The TEI P5-encoded transcription of the Lockhart journal, along with XSL style sheets used to provide variant "views" of the edition, TEI ODD documents used to produce custom schemas based on the TEI markup language, and the resulting schemas are stored in the Knowledge Bank—The Ohio State University's Institutional Repository—along with the HTML pages and other files constituting this edition. Readers may download copies of those source files via links in the drop-down navigation menu. Digital scans of the manuscript pages, scans of plates from contemporary sources, and photographs of the journal are also stored in the Knowledge Bank.
Proofreading. Each member of the editorial team was responsible for proofreading and fact-checking his or her own section of the edition. Prior to depositing the edition in The Ohio State University's Knowledge Bank, the principal editor proofed the entire edition, correcting obvious typographical and coding errors, and standardizing format and spelling in the Introduction, appendices, and apparatus. However, transcriptions were not rechecked word-for-word against the page images.
Markup of Physical Structure and Page Layout. The manuscript pages, encoded by the empty page break (<pb/>) element, are the primary physical structures represented in the markup. Each <pb> element includes a "facs" attribute identifying the filename of a high-resolution scan of that image. Line breaks (i.e., lineation determined or influenced by the physical constraints of the page rather than compositional choices by the author) are encoded with the empty <lb/> element. No attributes are included in the <lb> element. Because Smith wrote on lined paper, when he skips a line printed on the paper for any reason, we encode a <lb/> that, in the view arranged by manuscript pages and lines, will appear as an empty numbered line.
Markup of Textual Structure. The diary entry, encoded by a <div> element with the attribute-value pair "type='Entry'", constitutes the primary textual structure represented in the markup. Each entry contains a <dateline> element and one or more paragraphs. Each dateline may include a <name> element with (optionally) a @type attribute containing one of the following values: city, region; and a <date> element with a @when attribute whose value is in the form YYYY-MM-DD. The value of the @when attribute represents the editors' judgment about the actual date when the entry was composed; the contents of the <date> element represent what Smith actually wrote, even if he entered the date incorrectly.
Entries consist of a series of paragraphs. Where indicated by context, indentation of a line from the left margin of a page, line breaks part-way across a page, or additional white space between lines, paragraphs are encoded with the <p> element and no attributes.
If present, any prefatory text preceding the dateline may be encoded as a <head> element at the beginning of an entry (i.e., within the <div>element and before the <dateline>).
Level of Transcription/Encoding. This markup scheme supports a modest range of presentations, from semi-modernized/corrected to semi-diplomatic. The basic transcription follows the manuscript verbatim. Various manuscript features (e.g., cancellations, interlinear or marginal additions, tears in pages) are encoded, as are regularized versions of proper names and dates and standard versions of nonstandard spellings and expansions of abbreviations.
Customization of the TEI P5 Schema. Customization consisted primarily of restricting encoding to certain modules and elements as well as enforcing some attribute values. See the ODD file for complete details.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License. The license does not transfer any rights regarding material used in the edition by permission of a third party.
List of Works Cited
"Asman Ridge." Geographical Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey. n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2014. <http://geonames.usgs.gov/apex/f?p=136:3:0::NO::P3_ANTAR_ID,P3_TITLE:653,Asman%20Ridge>.
"Boyd Glacier." Geographical Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey. n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2014 <http://geonames.usgs.gov/apex/f?p=136:3:0::NO::P3_ANTAR_ID,P3_TITLE:1786,Boyd%20Glacier>.
Card, Eva Louise Garnsey and Guernsey, Howard Abram The Garnsey-Guernsey Genealogy: An Account of Thirteen Generations of Descendants from Henry Garnsey (---- -1692)of Dorchester, Mass., and Joseph Guernsie-Garnsey (---- -1688) of Stamford, Conn Hathi Trust Urbana, Ill. : E. and L. Card, 1963. Web. 25th Feb 2014
Court, Arnold "Weather Observations during 1940-1941 at Little America III, Antarctica" Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 89, No. 1, Reports on Scientific Results of the United States Antarctic Service Expedition, 1939-1941 (Apr. 30, 1945), pp. 324-343
"Flood Range." Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey. n.d. Web 24 Feb. 2014 <http://geonames.usgs.gov/apex/f?p=136:3:0::NO::P3_ANTAR_ID,P3_TITLE:5051,Flood%20Range>
"Greetings Received at Museum from Byrd Expedition." Field Museum News Feb. 1940: 8. Print. Available through the Biodiversity Heritage Library at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/25715#page/16/mode/1up.
Innes-Taylor, Alan. "Letter to Adimiral Richard E. Byrd" TS. Papers of Admiral Richard E. Byrd. Series II: Expeditionary Records. Sub-Series 6: United States Antarctic Service. Box 202, Folder 7188. Location: 054-774.20-3
Koulouris, Paul. "Lockhart Info.doc." Message to the editors. 10 March 2013. E-mail attachment. Earl Lockhart's nephews, Paul Koulouris and George Lockhart, as well as George Lockhart's mother, Mary Guernsey Lockhart, provided the editors with biographical details about the Lockhart family.
Lockhart, Ernest E. "The Official Journal of the Biological Party 1940 Trail Season Oct 15- Dec 25" Ernest Earl Lockhart Collection, Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, The Ohio State University. Box 1, Folder 5.
Lyon, William Penman "Homo versus Darwin : a judicial examination of statements recently published by Mr. Darwin regarding "The descent of man."" Archive.org Philadelphia: Claxton, Remsen and Haffelfinger, 1872. Web. 24 March 2014. https://archive.org/details/homoversusdarwin00lyonrich
"Mount Berlin." Geographical Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey. n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2014 <http://geonames.usgs.gov/apex/f?p=136:3:0::NO::P3_ANTAR_ID,P3_TITLE:1274,Mount%20Berlin>.
"Mount Colombo." Geographical Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey. n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2014. <http://geonames.usgs.gov/apex/f?p=136:3:0::NO::P3_ANTAR_ID,P3_TITLE:2978,Mount%20Colombo>.
"Mount Ferranto." Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2014. <http://geonames.usgs.gov/apex/f?p=136:3:0::NO::P3_ANTAR_ID,P3_TITLE:4843,Mount%20Ferranto>.
"Mount Frazier." Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2014. <http://geonames.usgs.gov/apex/f?p=136:3:0::NO::P3_ANTAR_ID,P3_TITLE:5262,Mount%20Frazier>.
O'Connel, Joseph A. "Keep 'Em Outside" The Dog World, Hollis Richardson Collection, Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, The Ohio State University Location: RG 56.81 Acc. #20011 054-360-4c 2011/2
Perkins, Jack E. "Biology at Little America III, the West Base of the United States Antarctic Service Expedition 1939-1941." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 89. 1 (1945): 272-273. Print. JSTOR. Web. 18 Mar. 2014.
Personnel, 1939-1940. 1939-40. TS. Papers of Admiral Richard E. Byrd. Series II: Expeditionary Records. Sub-Series 6: United States Antarctic Services. Box 203, Folder 7234, Location: 054-774.20-4. The Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, The Ohio State University Libraries, Columbus, OH.
"Records Regarding Sled Dogs on USASE 1939-41" TS. Papers of Admiral Richard E. Byrd. Series II: Expeditionary Records. Sub-Series 6: United States Antarctic Services. Box 202, Folder 7187. Location: 054-774-.20-3
Wade, Alton"An Introduction to the Symposium on Scientific Results of the United States Antarctic Service Expedition, 1939-1941" Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 89, No. 1, Reports on Scientific Results of the United States Antarctic Service Expedition, 1939-1941 (Apr. 30, 1945), pp. 1-3
Wagner, C.D.US Antarctic Expedition Mail Bag 1939-51. TS. Ernest Earl Lockhart Collection. Box 1, Folder 58, Location: 054-846-7. Byrd Polar Research Center Archive Program, The Ohio State University Libraries, Columbus, OH.
"WAR with the ICY UNKNOWN: From Bases Below Cape Horn and New Zealand Americans are Moving in to Explore Antarctica."The New York Times. 7 April 1940. ProQuest: Historical Newspapers. Web. 13 April 2014.
List of People Mentioned in Ernest Lockhart's Journal
Asman, Adam ("Sgt., Nib, Nibble") (b. unknown - d. unknown). In Charles Passel's personal account of his experiences during the 1939-41 expedition, he refers to Asman as "Sgt."; presumably Asman was a member of the US army (Ice: The Antarctic Diary of Charles F. Passel) . As a member of the US Antarctic Service Expedition (USASE) West Base party, he served as the army tank driver ("Personnel, 1939-1940") . He is mentioned in a newspaper article written in 1944, as having a special assignment in the Arctic with Byrd testing army tanks under extreme conditions ("Byrd Expeditions Paying Off Today On Our Frozen Fronts") . Asman Ridge, a ridge on the south side of Arthur glacier, was named for Asman ("Asman Ridge") .
Bailey, Clay W. (b. unknown - d. unknown). Clay W. Bailey was a commander in the United States Navy and member of the Byrd Antarctic Expedition. From 1939 until 1941, Bailey served as a radio chief for Rare Radio for the West Base Party of the United States Antarctic Service Expedition ("Personnel, 1939-1940"; The United States Antarctic Service Expedition) .
Berlin, Leonard M. ("Klondicke, Len") (b. unknown - d. unknown). Leonard "Klondicke" Berlin, a member of the 1939-41 US Antarctic Service Expedition (USASE) West Base, was a cadastral engineer on the expedition, according to Charles Passel's personal account (Passel xv; "Personnel, 1939-1940") . Mount Berlin, formerly Mount Hal Flood, was named for Berlin ("Mount Berlin") .
Boyd, Vernon D. ("Buck") (b. unknown - d. unknown). Vernon "Buck" Boyd, a member of the 1939-41 US Antarctic Service Expedition (USASE) West Base, is listed as being the "master mechanic" of the expedition (Passel xv; "Personnel, 1939-1940") . A glacier flowing between Bailey Ridge and Mount Douglass in the Ford Ranges was later named Boyd Glacier for him ("Boyd Glacier") .
Bursey, Jack ("Jack B.") (b. 1903-09-20 - d. 1980-03-01). A dog driver who had worked with Byrd on previous expeditions, Bursey published two books about his expeditions, Antarctic Night and St. Lunaire, Antarctic Lead Dog. During this expedition, he made one of the longest dog trips ever recorded, and one of the Hal Flood mountains was named "Mt. Bursey" after him. Bursey from Grand Rapids, Michigan, and would have been survived by his wife Ada Bursey ("Jack Bursey") .
Colombo, Louis P. ("Tony") (b. unknown - d. unknown). Louis "Tony" Colombo, a member of the biological party of the West Base, is listed as being the "supply man" as well as the assistant mechanic in varying sources (Ice: The Antarctic Diary of Charles F. Passel; "Personnel, 1939-1940") . Mount Colombo, a mountain in the Ford Ranges, was later named for him ("Mount Colombo") .
Court, Arnold (b. 1914-06-20 - d. 1999). Court was the Chief Meteorologist for the 1939-1941 expedition. Court and Lockhart took samples of the air and worked together to determine whether the air in Antarctica is oxygen deficient ("Arnold Court," Malone, Thomas F., ed.>) .
Ferranto, Felix Louis (b. 1911-12-05 - d. 2002-10-20). Felix Ferranto was the radio operator for the Snow Cruiser. He eventually achieved the rank of Lieutenant Colonel in the USMC. The Antarctic summit Mount Ferranto was named after him in 1947 ("Mount Ferranto," "Felix Louis Ferranto") .
Fitzsimmons, Roy ("Fitz") (b. 1916 - d. 1945). Roy Fitzsimmons was a physicist from Newark, New Jersey. He ran the Rockefeller Mountains seismic station during the expedition. Lockhart talks about running metabolism tests on him and them going out on excursions together. Mount Fitzsimmons in Antarctica is named after him. ("Personnel, 1939-1940"; "Roy Fitzsimmons") .
Frazier, Dr. Russell G. ("Doc") (b. 1893-07-05 - d. 1968-01-14). Doc Frazier served as the physician for the 1939-1941 expedition. In addition to caring for those at West Base, he conducted research on how exposure to extreme cold for long periods of time affects the human body. The Antarctic peak Mount Frazier was named after him in 1947 ("Mount Frazier," "Russell G. Frazier") .
Gable, Wiliam Clark (b. 1901-02-01 - d. 1960-11-16). Gable appeared in 97 films from 1924 to 1961, his last film being released after his death. Gable was nominated for the best leading actor academy award in 1934, 1935, and 1939. He won it in 1934 for his role in It Happened One Night. Gabel was leading actor in over 60 films and is best known for his role in Gone With the Wind in 1939. Lockhart mentions Gabel when comparing the film adaptation of Gone with the Wind to the novel. Lockhart finds Gabel fitting in his role as Rhett Butler.
Giles, Walter R. Giles, W. R. ("Giles") (b. 1912-01-03 - d. 1996-04-11). Giles, whose name is often listed as W.R. Giles, was an assistant pilot and radio operator for West Base. He was part of the dog team that was transported back to West Base by Pete the day of the Condor incident on January 3, 1941. At the time of the expedition, he was a Staff Sergeant (NAP) in the USMC. He later achieved the rank of Colonel in the USMC (Bertrand, Passel, "Walter R. Giles," "Byrd Flier is Divorced") .
Gray, Orville ("Pappy") . Orville "Pappy" Gray was an airplane mechanic from West Base (not to be confused with J.A. "Pappy" Reece, a radio operator). Where "Pappy" is mentioned and specified as neither, as in the journal entry for Friday, January 3, 1940, the person is question is dealing with engine trouble on the Condor and is thus presumably Gray. Lockhart mentions him harnessing puppies to the airplane sled and driving them around. Gray was the one who flew the Beechcraft back to get engine parts for the Condor when the Condor's engine broke down. Gray is mentioned being spotted by coincidence and then joined when Lockhart, Tony, and Court were out going toward the Barrier Cache.
Guernsey, George Rockwell (b. 1884-02-15). Lockhart exchanges radiograms with a George Guernsey of Wellesley Massachusetts, about Christmas and his potential trips to Panama and Seattle. There's a Guernsey by that name living there according to a family genealogy ("Garnsey-Guernsey Genealogy") .
Gutenko, Sigmund (b. unknown - d. unknown). Gutenko was the cook and steward for the West Base. He was from Baltimore, Maryland. The Gutenko Mountains in Antarctica are named after him. ("Personnel, 1939-1940"; "Mount Gutenko") .
Hawthorne, Roger (b. unknown - d. not before 1945). Roger Hawthorne was the Recorder of the Expedition and later published an essay on the expedition for the American Philosophical Society entitled "Exploratory Flights of Admiral Byrd (1940)." Lockhart distrusted him because he believed Hawthorne was in league with Byrd in exaggerating the dangers of their expedition for publicity purposes.
Leckie, William ("Bill") (b. uknown - d. unknown). In 1941, the Dept. of the Interior authorized a radiogram sent to Dr. Lockhart from William Leckie, in which Leckie asked for Lockhart's opinion of Harris Food Mixture, a form of nourishment that was presumably used in Antarctic expeditions.
Leigh, Vivien (b. 1913-11-05 - d. 1967-07-08). Leigh appeared in 37 plays and 20 films from 1935 to 1966. Leigh won the best actress academy award in 1939 and 1951 for her roles in Gone with the Wind and A Streetcar Named Desire, respectively. Leigh is best known for the aforementioned roles and was married to British actor Laurence Olivier from 1940 to 1960. Lockhart mentions Leigh when comparing the film adaptation of Gone with the Wind to the novel. Lockhart expresses doubt that Leigh was the right actress to play Scarlett Lockhart mentions Leigh when comparing the film adaptation of Gone with the Wind to the novel. Lockhart expresses doubt that Leigh was the right actress to play Scarlett.
Lockhart, Beatrice R. ("Beatie") (b. 1905-05 - d. 1990-07). Beatrice had two younger brothers: Clinton Carl and Ernest Earl. While Ernest was in Antarctica, he and Beatie often corresponded via radiogram.
Lockhart, Clinton Daniel ("Papa") (b. 1880-12-23 - d. 1964-05). Clinton Daniel Lockhart was Lockhart's father. He and his wife were both born and raised in Nova Scotia, on opposite sides of the Bay of Fundy. In their 20s, both Clinton and Delest emigrated to Boston, USA. Whether they knew each other before is unclear. While his son, Ernest Lockhart, was in Antarctica, his wife often corresponded with him via radiogram. Ernest Lockhart states that he received a picture of him in a letter received on January 10th, 1941.
From the "Guide to the Ernest Earl Lockhart Papers" in the OhioLINK Finding Aid Repository:
"Ernest Earl Lockhart was born in Boston, Massachusetts (USA) on September 10, 1912. He grew up in the Hyde Park section of Boston. Lockhart was the youngest of three children of Clinton Daniel Lockhart and Celeste Althea Westhaver, who both emigrated from Nova Scotia, Canada. E.E. Lockhart was educated in the Boston public schools, at the Chauncey Hall School, and then at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he earned three degrees, culminating with a PhD biochemistry in 1938.
Following a year of study on fellowship at the Biochemical Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, E.E. Lockhart served as the physiologist on Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd's United States Antarctic Expedition of 1939-1941 to the South Pole. For this service he received a special medal authorized by the Congress of the United States. A memorable experience on the expedition was a four-month, 400-mile field trip by dog team. He was the radio operator for his four-man party. Mount Lockhart, a mountain in the Fosdick range, is named after him.
Upon his return home, E.E. Lockhart began a career of research and teaching at M.I.T. in the field of food technology and nutrition. In 1955 he left M.I.T. to become research director at the Coffee Brewing Institute, a trade organization located in New York City. In 1965, he became assistant research director of the Coca Cola Company in Atlanta, GA, where he lived until his retirement in 1978. Lockhart was a co-founder of the International Life Sciences Institute, a worldwide foundation that seeks to improve the well-being of the general public through the advancement of science.
Ernest Earl Lockhart retired to his Cape Cod home in West Dennis, Massachusetts, where he and his wife Helen lived for his remaining twenty-seven years. He died at his home on July 26, 2006, at the age of 93. A family ceremony in his honor was held on the nearby Bass River on September 10, 2006, the ninety-fourth anniversary of his birth."
McCoy, James C. ("Mac") McCoy, Charles JamesMcCoy, James Charles (b. 1905-05-09 - d. 1981-03-03). Mac was a pilot and part of the West Base crew. His rank during the expedition was ACMM (Aviation Chief Machinist Mate) (NAP) in the USN. He was a member of the dog team that was transported back to West Base by Pete the day of the Condor incident on January 3, 1941. Mac achieved the rank of Commander. He discovered and named a mountain after his wife, Alma McCoy; the mountain's name was later changed to Mount McCoy (Bertrand, Passel, James McCoy US Social Security, "James McCoy Ancestry," "James McCoy US Department," "Commander James Charles McCoy") .
Mitchell, Margaret (b. 1900-11-08 - d. 1949-08-16). Margaret Mitchell was an author and a journalist for The Atlanta Journal. Gone with the Wind, the only work of hers published during her lifetime, won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1937 Over 30 million copies of the novel Gone with the Wind have been printed worldwide. Lockhart mentions Mitchell in his comparison of the film adaptation of Gone with the Wind to the novel. He is unsure which ending was more appropriate.
Mr. Mahan (b. unknown - d. 1940). The father of Lockhart's friend Jack. Mr. Mahan passed away during Lockhart's trip. He had suffered from heart trouble. Lockhart is saddened by his death and reminisces about their relationship, remarking that Mr. Mahan would've liked to hear about Antarctica.
Passel, Charles F. (b. 1911 - d. 2001). Passel was a geologist from Indianapolis, Indiana. Lockhart ran metabolism tests on him. In 1995, his Antarctic diaries detailing the USASE expedition, called Ice, were published. ("Personnel, 1939-1940"; Ice) .
Perkins, Jack E. ("Perk") . Jack Perkins led a biological party into the Fosdick Mountains in December 1940. Mount Perkins, a peak at the east end of the Fosdick Mountains, was named after Perkins in 1947 ("Mount Perkins") .
Petras, Theodore A. ("Pete") (b. 1911-05-16 - d. 2004-05-09). Pete, not to be confused with Lockhart's dog or a baby named Peter who was mentioned in the journals, was an expedition man and a pilot. Pete's rank during the expedition was Tech Sergeant (NAP) in the USMC. He was assigned to the Snow Cruiser and piloted the Condor on its last flight before it caught fire and was abandoned on January 3, 1941. Pete successfully rescued men using the Beechcraft and made it back to West Base. He wanted to break altitude records and enjoyed "making hops" in planes and taking tanks out for fun. Pete also played ukelele, shot skua gulls, and tried to get blood samples from them. He achieved the rank of Colonel in the USMC and was inducted into the Alabama Aviation Hall of Fame on December 17, 1993. (Bertrand, Passel, "Theodore A. Petras," "Theodore A. Petras Ancestry.com") .
Richardson H. H. ("Jack") . A dog driver on the expedition who features in both Lockhart's and Charles Passel's accounts of the USASE. He also took video footage of some of the expedition. He was from Franklin, New Hampshire and would have been survived by his brother Harold C. Richardson. In Lockhart's diary, Richardson is typically referred to by the nickname "Jack" ("Personnel 1939-1940") ("Ice") .
Schlossbach, Isaac ("Lt., Cmdr., Ike, ") (b. 1891-08-20 - d. 1984). Issac Schlossbach was an American Polar Explorer, submariner and aviation pioneer and Navigator. Ike Schlossbach is referred to as "Schlossback" in Lockhart's journal ("Issac Schlossbach") .
Siple, Dr. Paul A (b. 1908 - d. 1968). Dr. Siple was base leader at the West Base. He is often referred to as Siple, but is also the same person called Paul in the Lockhart journal. Siple was a very famous explorer in his day, and was a member of six expeditions. He even has landmarks in the Antarctic named in his honor. Siple has recieved numerous awards over the years, including the Silver Buffalo Award, the Order of the Arrow, and the Hubbard Medal. Siple is the author of four books about his various expeditions. During his work with Charles Passel, they discovered the wind chill factor, but it was Siple that named their discovery (Paul Siple) .
Westhaver, Celeste Althea Mrs. Clinton Daniel Lockhart (b. 1880-10-23 - d. 1957-10). Celeste Althea Westhaver was Lockhart's mother. She and her husband were both born and raised in Nova Scotia, on opposite sides of the Bay of Fundy. In their 20s, both Celeste and Clinton emigrated to Boston. Whether they knew each other beforehand is unclear. While her son, Ernest Lockhart, was in Antarctica, Celeste Althea often corresponded with him via radiogram.
Wiener, Murray (b. 1909 - d. unknown). Wiener was a member of the West Base. He is often mentioned in the journal, and is believed to be the person behind the nickname "Fort Wiener" used in Lockhart's journal. Wiener served on five expeditions to the Antarctic, and eventually became the United States' leading expert on polar survival (Murray A. Wiener) .
List of Sled Dogs Mentioned in Ernest Lockhart's Journal
Pete (?-year-old* Male ): Pete is one of two dogs that lived at his parents' house in Mattapan during the Expedition. Both dogs are mentioned several times as they were being bulked up in preparation to be able to play with the sled dog Spot. Pete was later donated to the military to assist with the war effort. Lockhart states that he received pictures of the dog in a letter received on January 10th, 1941
Peter (?-year-old* Male ): Peter is one of two dogs that lived at his parents' house in Mattapan during the Expedition. Both dogs are mentioned several times as they were being bulked up in preparation to be able to play with the sled dog Spot. Lockhart states that he received pictures of the dog in a letter received on January 10th, 1941.
Sheila (3-year-old* Female Siberian Huskie): In his entry for January 5, 1941, Lockhart recounts an occasion on which Sheila tried to bite him, misbehavior that causes Lockhart to violate his general rule of not hitting the dogs.
Spot (1-year-old* Male Eskimo): In a radiogram to his sister dated January 4, 1941 and in his journal entry for January 5, 1941, Lockhart notes that he hopes to take Spot, his "lead dog," home with him.
* Age at date of purchase (26 Sept. 1939).
List of Places Mentioned in Ernest Lockhart's Journal
105-Mile Depot. Antarctica (Lat/Long: -78.279767 -155.535556). Cache and depot established 105 miles east of West Base and 10 miles south of Breckenridge Peak Rockefeller Mountains. It was named because of its distance from West Base. The depot was established prior to the sledge journeys so the parties could restock supplies and dog food. Other caches of dog food were also established between West Base and Depot 105. Lockhart refers to it as 105; Passel calls it 105 Mile Cache, and Bertrand refers to it as 105-Mile Depot (Bertrand 434, Passel 350).
7 Upland Road. United States; Wellesley Massachusetts. The address of The Guernsey Family.
92. Antarctica. Lockhart refers to this cache or depot as 92. The June 1941 The Polar Times referred to it as "92-mile depot" ("Preliminary Account" 6). This was the place where the Condor met the dog teams on January 3, 1941.
Arlington Street. United States; Hyde Park Massachusetts (Lat/Long: 42.2595897 -71.11632). The home of the Mahan family. Mr. Mahan, the father of Lockhart's friend Jack, passed away while Lockhart was in Antarctica. Lockhart sends a radiogram expressing his condolences to Mrs. Mahan at Arlington Street.
Atlanta. United States; Georgia Fulton (Lat/Long: 33.7333 -84.3833). Lockhart discusses Sherman's burning of Atlanta when talking about his reactions to Gone with the Wind.
Balboa. Roublic of Panama; Central America (Lat/Long: 8.9500 -79.5667). Balboa is mentioned along with Valparaiso as a stopover city for mail going to the Antarctic expedition, as well as the place where journalists wanted to interview Lockhart.
Bay of Whales. (Lat/Long: 78.3000° S, 164.2000° W). The Bay of Whales is an inlet off the Ross Ice Shelf. This Bay is where the Star and the Bear loaded and unloaded and were also stored for the duration of the expedition.
Boston. United States; Massachusetts (Lat/Long: 40.0667 -82.8000). Lockhart's birthplace.
Canada. (Lat/Long: 60.0000 -096.0000). Lockhart expresses a desire to go camping, and considers Canada to be a prime location for camp sites.
Cleveland, Ohio. United States; Ohio Cuyahoga (Lat/Long: 41.482222, -81.669722). There are four radiograms here involving Cleveland, one that Lockhart sent and three that he received. These radiograms are all between Lockhart and Margaret Mann/Mrs. W.H. Mann (likely the same person). Mrs. Mann and Lockhart mostly talk about holiday wishes and when Lockhart will return home.
Dunedin. New Zealand (Lat/Long: -45.8667 170.5000). The North Star and the Bear of Oakland sailed to and from Antarctica via Dunedin. The December 28, 1939 The New York Times reported that the the North Star was heading to Dunedin to meet the Bear of Oakland before continuing on to Antarctica; the voyage began on November 21 in Philadelphia ("Byrd Ship New Zealand 3"). The North Star also spent several days in Dunedin on its way to West Base to pick up the crew. According to Lockhart it took about 10 days to travel from Dunedin to West Base. An article in the December 29, 1940 The New York Times describes "an immediate sailing from Dunedin" and states that "The ship's schedule allows her twelve days to reach Little America" ("Bear to Sail" 17).
East Base. Antarctica (Lat/Long: -68.193247 -67.014542). East Base is a US station located near Margeurite Bay on Stonington Island. It was established in March 1940 and has been used as a base only once since then (by the Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition in January 1948). During the 1939-1941 expedition, Richard Black of the US Navy was the East Base commander.
Equator. (Lat/Long: 0° latitude). The equator was to be a set location to compare air samples against, though it is unclear if these samples were taken.
Florida. United States (Lat/Long: 28.1000, -81.6000). Lockhart mentions Florida in talking about the books he has been reading, which have taken place in the south. He mentions reading South Moon Under which takes place in Florida, after he finished reading Gone with the Wind.
Fort Wiener. Antarctica. More than likely a barracks or a tent occupied by Murray Wiener.
Hal Flood. Antarctic (Lat/Long: -76.0300 -134.3000). Range of snow-covered mountains. Reconnaissance flights by the United Antarctic Service Expedition (1939-41), of which Lockhart was a member, explored the range. The principle mountain was named "Mount Hal Flood" (later changed to Mount Berlin) by Admiral Byrd for his uncle, the Hon. Henry D. Flood, US Senator from Virginia. The name was later applied to the entire range.
Helsinki. Finland (Lat/Long: 60.1333 25.0000). In a radiogram to Dr. Lockhart, his mother writes of enlarging 'snaps' he had taken in "[H]elsiki." According to Paul Koulouris, Dr. Lockhart worked in Sweden from September 1938 to July 1939, and took time off to travel in the summer of 1939. It is likely that during this time Dr. Lockhart went to Finland, and that the enlargements thus mentioned by Dr. Lockhart's mother were of photos taken during this trip. Koulouris mentions that Lockhart had a good camera; in one letter Dr. Lockhart mentions taking over 500 photos.
Hyde Park. United States; Massachusetts (Lat/Long: 42.2556° N, 71.1244° W). Home of Lockhart's friends, the Mahan family. Mr. Mahan passed away around Christmastime, as noted in a radiogram in which Lockhart expresses condolences. The Mahan family lived on Arlington Street.
Kansas City. United States; Missouri (Lat/Long: 39.0997° N, 94.5786° W). The Kansas City Star, sent a radio salute to the members of the expedition via WEAF-NBC at 11:30 pm Central Time on the evening of 3 January 1941.
Little America. ; Antarctica (Lat/Long: -77.0000 -162.0000). Little America was used as an Antarctic base.
Mattapan. United States; Suffolk Massachusetts (Lat/Long: 42.27715 -71.091539). A suburb of Boston, MA where Lockhart's mother and sister, Beatie, lived. Dr. Lockhart is also listed as living here, and this is where the three Lockhart children grew up.
New Zealand. (Lat/Long: -42.0000 174.0000). Island nation of the Southwest Pacific. The Bear is mentioned having just left New Zealand on its way to Antarctica early in the journal.
Panama. (Lat/Long: 8.537981 -80.782127). In several radiograms, Lockhart mentions traveling back through Panama on his return trip.
Richmond, Indiana. United States; Indiana (Lat/Long: 39.830189, -84.890668). Lockhart receives a radiogram sent from Richmond from a man named George on December 18th asking Lockhart to speak with him via Mail Bag on Friday Dec. 20th.
Seattle. United States; Washington (Lat/Long: 47.6097° N, 122.333°1 W). This was to be the final destination for the Star before it was redirected to join The Bear in Boston.
South Pole. Antarctica (Lat/Long: 90.0000 0.0000). Though in fact a very specific location, the term "south pole" was used colloquially in radiograms to refer to the entire continent of Antarctica and the USASE bases. The 1939-1941 expedition did not reach the South Pole, nor was it intended to do so.
Valparaiso Valpo. Chile (Lat/Long: -33.0478 -71.6011). Supplies, including the Condor plane, were loaded at Valparaiso, and mail was available for the crew from people who had not been able to send mail on the Star before it departed. Lockhart's ship passed through Valpo, Panama, and Seattle on his way home (Bertrand). An article in the March 24, 1940 The Sunday Oregonianchronicles the ships' return from Antarctica as Byrd traveled back after establishing the bases: "The Bear and North Star are headed for Punta Arenas, Chile. From there they are scheduled to go to Valparaiso, arriving about April 1" ("Byrd Heads Toward Home 3").
Wellesley. United States; Massachusetts (Lat/Long: 42.2833 -71.2833). Home of the Guernsey family.
West Dennis. United States; Massachusetts (Lat/Long: 39.1500 -84.4500). Lockhart's home on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to which he retired and where he died in 2006.
Wilmington, Delaware. United States; Delaware (Lat/Long: 39.7458° N, 75.5467° W). Wilmington is the home of Mary and Carl Lockhart, Earl Lockhart's brother and sister-in-law. Lockhart received radiograms from them at Christmastime wishing him well.
List of Expedition Vehicles Mentioned in Ernest Lockhart's Journal
Beechcraft: According to Bertrand, the Beechcraft was a new, light, single-motored, five-passenger plane that was mounted on skis and supposed to be transported on the Snow Cruiser for aerial exploration within a distance of 300 miles. When the Condor was disabled on January 3, 1941, Pete and Pappy flew the Beechcraft to rescue supplies left in the Condor and to fly men back to West Base (Bertrand 413-414).
Condor: Twin-motored Curtiss-Wright Condor biplane loaded at Valparaiso. Each base had a Condor. According to Bertrand, this type of plane was the same as the William Horlick which had been used on long flights during the Second Byrd Expedition. These planes had been used for 5 years by the USMC. The Condor was used to bring supplies to trail parties and dog teams. Lockhart writes about the Condor's final flight on January 3, 1941; it had engine trouble according to Lockhart, and Bertrand mentions a fire. After this engine failure or fire, the Condor was subsequently abandoned (424).
Snow Cruiser: According to Bertrand, the Snow Cruiser could store food for a year, and it carried 2500 gallons of diesel oil, which would last 5000 miles, as well as 1000 gallons of aviation gas. Its maximum speed was 30 miles per hour, and it was created to function at very low temperatures and travel in deep, soft snow. It could also serve as living space for the crew (Bertrand 413-414). The Snow Cruiser was a very popular and huge deal at the time. Several newspaper articles documented its progress across the United States. For example, the November 2, 1939 Cleveland Plain Dealer's front-page article, entitled "Snow Cruiser is Like a Fantastic Dream; No Wonder Animals Run," documents: "That such a Gargantuan vehicle as Admiral Richard E. Byrd's snow cruiser could go rolling along the countryside seems impossible. It is so tremendous . . . And as it rolled along the roads of Ohio, tens of thousands of men and women and children stared at it and smiled and shouted and shouted and waved their hats . . . the cruiser . . . is on its way from Chicago to Boston to join Admiral Byrd's Antarctic expedition . . . " ("Snow Cruiser Fantastic Dream 29"). The April 7, 1940 "New York Times" proclaimed that the snow cruiser was "designed to go where nothing else can. The West Base leader hopes that it may be able to conquer that bane of explorers - wide crevasses . . . the snow cruiser, its designers believe, will bw able to take even fifteen-foot crevasses in stride" ("War with the Icy Unkown 107"). Despite its promise, though, the Snow Cruiser caused problems from the moment it was unloaded in Antarctica as documented in the March 13, 1940 issue of the Cleveland Plain Dealer: "The huge vehicle demolished a ramp and was almost wrecked . . . " ("Snow Cruiser Unloaded 1"). After this unceremonious unloading, "The snow cruiser in which Admiral Richard E. Byrd hoped to roll across the Antarctic proved to be not so good on frigid terrain, Engineer Charles Meyer disclosed today," proclaimed the June 23, 1940 Chicago Daily Tribune. The article continues: "Meyer said the 75,000 pound monster disappointed the explorers. Principal trouble, he said, was insufficient power . . . " ("Snow Cruiser Power 12"). The crew abandoned the cruiser when they left Antarctica.
Tank: The tank appears to be a Marmon-Herrington CTLS that was used during the expedition. It was not equipped with any weapon systems, instead having an open cockpit. It was mostly used for moving personnel and equipment and also served as a test of the tank in extreme cold weather.
Tractor: West Base had a T-20 International crawler style of tractor. It was used for transport, unloading supplies from the ships, and to stash supplies by pulling trains of sleds to place food and fuel in caches and depots for the sledging parties. The tractor parties went ahead of the sledging parties and established trails (Bertrand 422).
USCGC North Star, Star: The North Star was a wooden cruising cutter built in 1932 for the US Department of the Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs, operating between Seattle, Washington, and Alaska. After two Antarctic voyages, including the USASE (1939-41), she was commissioned for the US Coast Guard on 15 May 1941 and joined the Northeast Greenland Patrol on 1 July 1941, (along with the other ship from the 1939-41 Antarctic expedition, USS Bear).
USS Bear, Bear of Oakland: One of two ships used on the 1939-41 USASE led by Admiral Byrd. Originally named the "Bear of Oakland," it was used during Admiral Byrd's second expedition (1933-35) as an ice ship, then later reconditioned and commissioned by the US navy as the "USS Bear" before being assigned to the 1939-41 expedition (Bertrand 413).
List of Organizations Mentioned in Ernest Lockhart's Journal
Army Amateur Radio System: The Army Amature Radio System was an organization of amature radio operators that would send and receive radio messages for the military. The AARS sent and received messages between members of the USASE and their families. Once a message was received in the States, it was then mailed out to family members. The family members could then respond with a written letter that would then be transmitted back to the USASE. In this journal, all messages were handled stateside by Edward J. Day, operator of station WLMC in High Point North Carolina.
Boston Traveler: A daily newspaper based in Boston, Massachusetts, the Boston Traveler ran from 1914-1967, and was published by Boston Herald, Inc. ("About the Boston traveler"). In his journal, Lockhart mentions that the newspaper is sponsoring a mail bag to be delivered to the base camps, which would have been delivered via shortwave radio.
Collier's Weekly: Lockhart was asked about being interviewed for a story in Colliers, which ran weekly serial stories as well as exposés and "muckraking" articles about working conditions in factories, trusts, etc. Lockhart would have been interviewed about his experiences with Harris Food Mixture, but it seems that no such article was ever printed.
The Polar Times: The Polar Times was produced as an in-house magazine during discovery expeditions to Antarctica. The original purpose was to maintain morale and document the lives and work of the people on the expeditions to the Antarctic (Understanding the Past and Present).
US Department of the Interior: Per President Roosevelt's suggestion, the Department of the Interior was one of the departments that helped plan and fund the 1939-1941 expedition. It was too great a task for any one department to finance independently. Sponsors included the DOI, the US Navy, the US State Department, the US Department of the Treasury, and various private citizens and organizations. In 1941, the DOI authorized a radiogram sent to Dr. Lockhart from William Leckie. In this radiogram, Leckie asked for Lockhart's opinion of Harris Food Mixture, a form of nourishment that was presumably easily transported and was therefore used in Antarctic expeditions.
WLMC: WLMC was operated by Edward J. Day as part of the Army Amature Radio System during the time of the USASE. All of the radiograms included with this journal were processed by WLMC. As part of his service, Day would transcribe incoming messages, mailing them to their intended recipient. He would also take incoming messages for the members of the USASE and relay them to the expedition. Between November 25, 1939 and May 4, 1941, this station processed around 15,000 messages to and from the USASE.
About the Editors
Cheatham, Moriah. Moriah is a junior English major, minoring in Youth Development at The Ohio State University. After obtaining her degree, Moriah plans on pursuing law school in the hopes of working at juvenile court.
Hurdley, Caitlin. Caitlin Hurdley is a senior English major, minoring in Cultural Anthropology at The Ohio State University. Following graduation, her goal is to see the world as an English as a Second Language teacher.
Pellicciaro, Francis. Francis Pellicciaro is a sophomore at The Ohio State University, majoring in English and journalism. He is a native of Seaford, New York. Following Graduation, he hopes to make a living writing.
Smith, Tamika. Tamika Smith is a third-year English major, minoring in Political Science at The Ohio State University. Following her undergraduate graduation, she plans on attending graduate school and eventually persuing a career in Print and Magazine editing.
Ulman, H. Lewis (b. 1952). H. Lewis Ulman is Associate Professor of English at The Ohio State University and Director of Digital Media Studies in the Department of English. He has edited The Minutes of the Aberdeen Philosophical Society, 1758–1773 (Aberdeen University Press, 1990) and, with Dennis Quon, “Semiotics in Eighteenth-century Aberdeen: Thomas Gordon’s Contributions to the Aberdeen Philosophical Society” (Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth-Century 317 (1994): 57–115). He is also the author of Things, Thoughts, Words and Actions: The Problem of Language in Late Eighteenth-Century British Rhetorical Theory (Southern Illinois University Press, 1994). Since 2005, he has worked with undergraduate and graduate students in textual editing courses to create a series of electronic textual editions of nineteenth- and early twentieth-century American manuscripts in the Rare Books and Manuscripts Library at Ohio State. An example of that work can be viewed online at http://people.cohums.ohio-state.edu/ulman1/SSCoxJournal/. Beginning with an NEH Digital Humanities Start-Up Grant awarded in 2008, he has collaborated with Melanie Schlosser, metadata librarian at Ohio State University Libraries, to build a model of preservation for distributed, multimodal digital humanities projects. He is delighted to be working at a time when manuscript, print, and digital media can be studied in relationship to one another, allowing him and his students to learn more about all three media than they could by studying any one in isolation.
Waisanen, Adam J. Adam Waisanen is a third-year History major at The Ohio State University. He has currently served in the US Military for over eleven years. After graduation he plans to earn a Masters in Library Science to become either an archivist or a librarian.
|2015-06-19||Ulman, H. Lewis||Completed editing to correct obvious errors and regularize format and style.|
|2013-12-16||Ulman, H. Lewis||Created first drafts of TEI customization files, Relax NG schemas, TEI transcription, and XSL stylesheets.|