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Crowd Scene Anomaly Detection in Online Videos
(2024-03) Yang, Kaizhi; Yilmaz, Alper
The prevalence of surveillance cameras in public places has led to an extremely pressing need for effective position and crowd monitoring, as well as anomaly detection. This paper tends to exhibit an incorporated approach that combines state-of-the-art computer vision techniques for comprehensive crowd surveillance. The main features of our approach are summarized into four steps: (a) Object detection and tracking; (b) Geometric rectification for positioning; (c) Motion extraction; and (d) Anomaly detection. First, this uses YOLOv5's Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model in making efficient detection of objects, focusing on spotting individuals within crowded scenes. After detection, a strong mechanism for tracking is established with the help of the DeepSORT algorithm, which can track the person across frames. It must gain the people's position in the video frame and analyze motion data with the guarantee of capture of camera-scene geometry. Each frame thus gets converted from the 3D perspective to a 2D bird's eye view within the surveillance video, giving a guarantee of capture of the geometry of a camera scene. Motion anomaly detection is addressed through statistical methods, with Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) being employed to identify deviations from normal motion patterns. Extensive experiments conducted on different online crowd scene video datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed anomaly detection mechanism. Overall, this integrated approach proposes a promising solution to crowd surveillance, further development of object detection, tracking, and anomaly analysis for monitoring public spaces.
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The Reactivation/Resurrection of Organophosphorus-Inhibited/Aged Cholinesterases Using Novel Carbamate Quinone Methide Precursors
(The Ohio State University, 2024-05) Murtha, Megan; Hadad, Christopher
Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are a class of toxic compounds that are responsible for many toxic exposures and deaths annually. OP compounds inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). OP compounds phosphylate the Ser203 residue of AChE, disabling the hydrolysis of ACh, leading to a cholinergic crisis where death can occur in severe cases. Oximes have historically been used to return the native enzyme from the inhibited enzyme in a process known as reactivation. However, a second step after OP inhibition can occur, known as aging, where spontaneous O-dealkylation occurs. Once aging happens, there are no approved therapeutics to recover the native enzyme. Oximes are also not capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, and thus are not able to treat OP-inhibited AChE in the central nervous system (CNS) or any symptoms, like seizures, that can arise in the CNS. Previously, our lab has demonstrated effective (>20%) reactivation and resurrection using quinone methide precursors (QMPs) with varying substituents at the 4-position of a phenol framework. One library of such QMPs include dimethoxyindanone-linked QMPs; dimethoxyindanone is a cholinesterase inhibitor with a high affinity for AChE, specifically its peripheral binding site (PAS). These compounds performed significant reactivation of ethyl paraoxon (EP)-inhibited AChE. To expand further on this knowledge, indanone-linked QMP precursors were synthesized with both varying substituents at the 5- and 6-positions and with different lengths of the alkyl chains. In the future, these compounds will undergo cross-electrophile coupling (XEC) to both phenol-based and pyridyl-based QMPs. Our lab has shown that 4-amidophenol QMPs are effective reactivators and resurrectors of OP-inhibited and OP-aged cholinesterases. Due to their strong activity, carbamate QMPs were hypothesized to perform well due to the similarities between amides and carbamates. The synthesis and biochemical screenings of carbamate QMPs are detailed in this report. A total of 33 carbamate QMPs were synthesized with a variety of carbamate side chains and amine leaving groups. These compounds were tested for reactivation potential against OEt-inhibited butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and AChE as well as resurrection potential against EP-aged AChE. Four (4) compounds showed significant activity in BChE. In AChE, five (5) compounds performed significant reactivation, and of these 5 compounds, two (2) showed significant resurrection activity. Also detailed in this report are biochemical in vitro screenings for reactivation of OP-inhibited BChE using 4-amidophenols. In these studies, 44 compounds were tested against 4 different OP surrogates and results varied significantly between differing inhibited forms. In OiBu-inhibited BChE, 30 of the 44 QMPs synthesized performed significant reactivation, with native enzyme activity as high as 60%. In OEt-inhibited BChE, 10 compounds were significant reactivators, with the top compound reaching 43% native enzyme activity. Overall, this report details the synthesis and screenings of a wide variety of QMPs capable of the reactivation and resurrection of various OP-inhibited and OP-aged forms of AChE and BChE.
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Interview of Leon Calvin Murray by Kevlin Haire
(Ohio State University Archives, 2024) Murray, Leon Calvin
Leon Calvin Murray discusses his experiences as an undergraduate student at Ohio State, particularly his role as a member of the Varsity football team. Murray started playing football for OSU in 1977 when he arrived on campus as a freshman. He discusses the role of captains on the football team, how tutoring was mandatory for freshmen and sophomores, and Coach Woody Hayes' relationship with the players while he was coach and afterward. He talks about the 1978 Gator Bowl, in which Hayes hit an opposing player who had intercepted an Ohio State pass, and what was going on with the team at the time. Murray also discusses the team dynamics under Hayes' replacement, Coach Earle Bruce, and why he left Ohio State before graduating in order to go pro. In addition, Murray talks about returning to Ohio State to finish his degree, and what his favorite memories are of Ohio State’s football team and campus. Finally, he talks about how his experiences being on the Ohio State football team have influenced his career as a counselor working with kids.
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Interview of Charlotte Remenyik by Raimund Goerler
(Ohio State University Archives, 2024) Remenyik, Charlotte
Charlotte Remenyik describes her career at the University as the Varsity fencing coach. Remenyik grew up in Hungary and first learned to fence as a child, and she eventually became skilled enough to compete in junior world championship competitions. During the Hungarian uprising in 1956, Remenyik and family members were able to escape, and they settled in Chicago. Rememyik started coaching part-time at Northwestern University for the intramurals department and was so successful that Ohio State recruited her. She started at the University in 1978, coaching just the women. In 1980 the men's coach left Ohio State, so Remenyik began coaching both teams. She continued to coach in this role until she left Ohio State in 1999. Remenyik discusses, among other things, the effect of Title IX on support for Ohio State's women's athletics program, her then-novel recruiting efforts abroad, stand-out players, a race discrimination lawsuit involving the team, her involvement in the NCAA, and her style of coaching and how it changed over time.
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Extreme Mass-Ratio Inspiral Resonance Hunting
(The Ohio State University, 2024-05) Blake-Goszyk, Harrison; Hirata, Christopher
Extreme mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) are systems with a compact object orbiting a much more massive body. They show up frequently in the literature of gravitational wave (GW) astronomy due to many theorists predicting that the future Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be able to hear stellar-mass compact objects falling into the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at the centers of most large galaxies. This scenario is of interest both as a new probe of galactic nuclei and as a precision test of general relativity. This work focuses on the effects of an external perturbation on an EMRI system in the galactic center due to a third body. This perturbation will affect the orbit most significantly when the inner body crosses a resonance with the outer body, which results in a subsequent phase shift of the waveform that builds up over time. Resonances will cause measurable changes in the GW received by LISA. This thesis presents a general method for calculating the effects of a resonance on the orbits of the inner body. This is done by demonstrating that the orbital changes are related to the GWs emitted by the two bodies at the frequency corresponding to the resonance. This allows presented here allow for the reduction of a three-body system into a two-body system, with the third body being replaced by a gravitational wave perturbation, allowing us to sidestep using intense GR calculations. These methods will generate a more realistic waveform model, and provide a more accurate comparison for future detected signals. This work will be used in future investigations of third-body effects on EMRIs and their potential impact on GWs detected by LISA.