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Relative dental eruption and mechanically challenging diets in colobines and cercopithecines
(The Ohio State University, 2024-05) Peters, Grace; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; McGraw, Scott
The present study examines the potential relationship between relative dental eruption and diet in Colobus angolensis, Colobus polykomos, Colobus satanas, Piliocolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Cercocebus torquatus, Cercocebus atys, Cercocebus lunulatus, Lophocebus aterrimus, and Lophocebus albigena. These species were selected to examine predictions of the Food Processing Hypothesis (FPH), which suggests that species whose weanlings must process hard or tough foods will have accelerated rates of dental growth and development, as their permanent teeth—particularly their molars—are required to process these mechanically challenging foods (Godfrey, 2001). FPH predicts that folivorous weanlings that are reliant on tough foods require more advanced dental eruption than frugivorous weanlings that are adapted to processing softer foods (Godfrey, 2001). Based on FPH, it was hypothesized that there would be relatively earlier second and third molar, as well as fourth premolar eruption in species that are hard object feeders in comparison to what is used as the baseline dental eruption sequence of the Cercopithecoidea. Hypothesis 1 addresses whether it is possible to replicate Harvati’s (2000) results of eruption sequence differences between Colobus and Piliocolobus. It is hypothesized that with the addition of Colobus satanas, these genus level differences would persist. Given its softer diet and close phylogenetic relationship to P. badius (Oates, 1988), Procolobus verus was expected to be similar to Piliocolobus badius and follow a relative eruption sequence more similar to the baseline than Colobus (Harvati, 2000). Hypothesis 2 explores whether there are differences in relative dental eruption within the Colobus genus related to seed-eating. It is hypothesized that the hard-object feeding Colobus species show early relative molar eruption when compared to their counterparts. Hypothesis 3 addresses whether hard-object feeding cercopithecoid species outside of the colobine clade exhibit evidence of advanced relative eruption of molars. Under FPH, relatively advanced dental eruption would be expected. In this study dental eruption sequences were scored in a manner similar to that of Harvati (2000). Sample sizes were limited because only the dental remains of juveniles with mixed dentitions could be scored, precluding statistical analysis. Results are displayed in bar charts showing the frequencies of differences from the baseline eruption sequence. Hypothesis 1 and Hypothesis 2 were supported. Hypothesis 3 was not supported, with low frequencies of early molar eruption in Cercocebus and Lophocebus. With respect to FPH, it seems that hard-object feeding is associated with advanced relative molar eruption in colobines but not in cercopithecines. Reasons for this difference, especially concerning the effect of brain size on growth and development in primates, will be discussed.
Congressional Speech Networks: Their Formation and Importance
(2024-03) Costanzo, Charles; Box-Steffensmeier, Janet
Congressional speeches drive policymaking and political debate at the national level. As a crucial method of communication, these speeches directly reflect legislators’ political agendas and serve as a vehicle by which members of Congress can convey their political priorities and advocate for important issues. Prior to technological advances that made modern natural language processing methods computationally feasible, survey data and analysis of behavior in strategic settings (i.e. legislative roll-call voting) were used to analyze congress members' policy positions and social networks. However, both of these approaches lead to methodological conflicts; new surveys cannot capture past information and represent but a small snapshot of the present, while institutional rules constrain roll-call analysis. Congressional speeches, on the other hand, are less constrained by institutional rules and capture information over a period of time, thus providing a much deeper view into the positions, ideologies, and rhetorical relationships of members of Congress. Previous work applied well known natural language processing methods to determine the level of rhetorical similarity between speeches contained in the Congressional Record from 1981 to 2017, developing relational networks between members of Congress based on these similarities. These networks illuminated the lexical similarities between legislators, the links between rhetorical relationships, partisanship, and legislative effectiveness, and how rhetorical trends developed over three and a half decades. However, more work is needed to illuminate factors that contribute to the similarities in congressional speech that form the basis for network connections. This project extends previous work through the application of exponential random graph models to congressional speech networks, allowing for statistical analysis of the impact of various endogenous structural effects and exogenous covariates on the formation of congressional speech networks over time. Analyzing factors that contribute to the formation of network ties in each Congress provides significant insights into the evolution of relationships over time as well as the underlying dynamics and trends driving legislators’ rhetorical relationships. These insights improve our understanding of social ties in Congress and could even be used to inform strategies that aim to facilitate more effective political discourse and lawmaking in Congress.
Preserving the Legacy of Black Press Cartoonists
(The Ohio State University Press, 2023) Robb, Jenny
The comics and cartoons featured in twentieth-century Black Press newspapers are particularly important as historical documents that offer insights into Black experiences in the United States and as works of art that recover the voices of artists from traditionally marginalized communities. Yet clear, high-quality versions of these cartoons and comic strips are difficult to find. Physical copies of newspapers like the Chicago Defender and the Pittsburgh Courier were discarded by libraries and replaced with microfilm, which was subsequently digitized and made available through databases like ProQuest Historical Newspapers and Newspapers.com. These versions can be inadequate for comics studies scholars due to poor image quality and other factors. The Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum has uncovered physical Chicago Defender newspaper pages and volumes from 1943–47 and 1950. They have also acquired some physical Pittsburgh Courier issues and sections that include comics and cartoons. Howard University has also launched the Black Press Archives Digitization Project, which may eventually digitize physical newspaper pages directly. It is important for libraries to preserve the remaining physical copies of these newspaper comics and cartoons and to digitize them directly, perhaps as part of a large, cross- library cooperative project.
Interview about Mattie Griffith with Joe Lockard by Dr. Elizabeth Renker
(Ohio State University. Rare Books and Manuscripts Library, 2024-02) Lockard, Joe, 1953-
Interview with Dr. Joe Lockard, associate professor of English at Arizona State University, where he has taught for 21 years. He's a specialist in nineteenth-century American Literature, particularly the literature of U.S. slavery and early African American literature. Joe talks about his groundbreaking research recovering the life and work of abolitionist Mattie Griffith, a young Kentucky poet who shared social circles with Sarah. Mattie's hatred of enslavement led her to leave Kentucky for the North, where she published a pseudo-slave narrative, Autobiography of a Female Slave. Interview conducted via Zoom by Dr. Elizabeth Renker from the Department of English at The Ohio State University.